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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2129, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358565

RESUMEN

Providing sufficient driving force for charge separation and transfer (CST) is a critical issue in photoelectrochemical (PEC) energy conversion. Normally, the driving force is derived mainly from band bending at the photoelectrode/electrolyte interface but negligible in the bulk. To boost the bulky driving force, we report a rational strategy to create effective electric field via controllable lattice distortion in the bulk of a semiconductor film. This concept is verified by the lithiation of a classic TiO2 (Li-TiO2) photoelectrode, which leads to significant distortion of the TiO6 unit cells in the bulk with well-aligned dipole moment. A remarkable internal built-in electric field of ~2.1 × 102 V m-1 throughout the Li-TiO2 film is created to provide strong driving force for bulky CST. The photoelectrode demonstrates an over 750% improvement of photocurrent density and 100 mV negative shift of onset potential upon the lithiation compared to that of pristine TiO2 film.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138226, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408453

RESUMEN

Meteorological parameters are the important factors influencing the infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. This study aims to explore the association between Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths and weather parameters. In this study, we collected the daily death numbers of COVID-19, meteorological parameters and air pollutant data from 20 January 2020 to 29 February 2020 in Wuhan, China. Generalized additive model was applied to explore the effect of temperature, humidity and diurnal temperature range on the daily death counts of COVID-19. There were 2299 COVID-19 death counts in Wuhan during the study period. A positive association with COVID-19 daily death counts was observed for diurnal temperature range (r = 0.44), but negative association for relative humidity (r = -0.32). In addition, one unit increase in diurnal temperature range was only associated with a 2.92% (95% CI: 0.61%, 5.28%) increase in COVID-19 deaths in lag 3. However, both 1 unit increase of temperature and absolute humidity were related to the decreased COVID-19 death in lag 3 and lag 5, with the greatest decrease both in lag 3 [-7.50% (95% CI: -10.99%, -3.88%) and -11.41% (95% CI: -19.68%, -2.29%)]. In summary, this study suggests the temperature variation and humidity may also be important factors affecting the COVID-19 mortality.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humedad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Temperatura , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 256: 112802, 2020 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240782

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jinfukang has long been used for the clinical treatment of lung cancer. Previous studies have shown that Jinfukang can induce the apoptosis of circulating tumor cells by intervening ROS-mediated DNA damage pathway. However, whether Jinfukang can inhibit the metastasis of circulating tumor cells and its mechanism are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To further investigate the mechanism of Jinfukang in anti-metastasis of lung cancer from the perspective of intervention of tumor exosomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The invadopodia formation was determined with immunofluorescence. Invasion and migration were detected using the Transwell assay. Ultracentrifugation was used to isolate exosomes. Exosomes were characterized by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and immunoblotting, and the protein profile was evaluated by proteomic analysis. The molecular functions, biological processes and signaling pathway enrichment analysis were performed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Key differentially expressed proteins were verified by Western blot. RESULTS: Jinfukang can inhibit the expression of MMP14, cortactin, Tks5 and the formation of invadopodia of CTC-TJH-01 cells. Furthermore, Jinfukang can significantly inhibit the invasion and migration of CTC-TJH-01 cells. The diameter of exosomes extracted from the CTC-TJH-01 cells treated by Jinfukang was 30-100 nm, and the exosomal markers CD63, CD81 and TSG101 were expressed. We identified 680 deferentially expressed proteins. Gene oncology analysis indicated that exosomes were mostly derived from plasma membrane and mainly involved in protein localization and intracellular signaling. The ingenuity pathway analysis showed that the EGF pathway was significantly inhibited, whereas the GP6 signaling pathway was significantly activated. We also confirmed that Jinfukang inhibited the expression of EGF pathway-related proteins in CTC-TJH-01 cells. Besides, when EGF was used to activate EGF signaling pathway, the inhibition of Jinfukang on CTC cell metastasis was reversed. CONCLUSION: Jinfukang inhibits the metastasis of CTC-TJH-01 cells through the EGF pathway.

4.
Redox Biol ; : 101523, 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273259

RESUMEN

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the most common causes of heart failure, and the underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. Here we investigated whether NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis contributes to non-ischemic DCM and dissected the underlying mechanism. We found that hyper activated NLRP3 inflammasome with pyroptotic cell death of cardiomyocytes were presented in the myocardial tissues of DCM patients, which were negatively correlated with cardiac function. Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced DCM characterization disclosed that NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis occurred in Dox-treated heart tissues, but were very marginal in either NLRP3-/- or caspase-1-/- mice. Mechanistically, Dox enhanced expressions of NOX1 and NOX4 and induced mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) activation, leading to NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in cardiomyocytes via caspase-1-dependent manner. Conversely, both inhibitions of NOX1 and NOX4 and Drp1 suppressed Dox-induced NLPR3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis. The alterations of NOX1 and NOX4 expression, Drp1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial fission were validated in DCM patients and mice. Importantly, Dox-induced Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and the consequent NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis were reversed by NOX1 and NOX4 inhibition in mice. This study demonstrates for the first time that cardiomyocyte pyroptosis triggered by NLRP3 inflammasome activation via caspase-1 causally contributes to myocardial dysfunction progression and DCM pathogenesis.

5.
J Environ Manage ; 266: 110607, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314745

RESUMEN

The major targets of constructed wetlands (CWs) during wastewater treatment include achieving high-quality effluent and maintaining stable effluent quality. Plant species diversity can increase nitrogen (N) removal efficiency and improve effluent quality by decreasing the effluent N concentrations, including nitrate (NO3--N), ammonium (NH4+-N) and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) concentrations in CWs. However, the effect of plant diversity on the stability of effluent quality in response to perturbation in the form of an increased NH4+/NO3- ratio in influent has not been studied. This study conducted a microcosm experiment and assembled four plant species richness levels (1, 2, 3 and 4) and 15 species compositions by using 90 simulated CW microcosms to investigate the effect of plant diversity on the effluent N concentrations and their stability with an increase in the influent NH4+/NO3- ratio from 0:100 to 33:67 in the later stage of the experiment. The results showed that (1) plant species richness maintained a positive effect on effluent quality under an increased influent NH4+/NO3- ratio; (2) high species richness enhanced the stability of effluent water quality; (3) the presence of Phragmites australis in the community decreased the effluent TIN concentration and improved its stability under perturbation; and (4) the presence of Typha latifolia had a positive effect on N removal efficiency under perturbation. The establishment of communities with high plant species richness and proper species (such as P. australis) could simultaneously improve the effluent quality and stability in CWs for treating wastewater with increased NH4+/NO3- ratio.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Amonio , Humedales , Nitrógeno , Plantas , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304948

RESUMEN

The identification and analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides is still a scientific challenge due to their low abundance and the complicated matrix of bio-samples. Hence, the highly effective enrichment of endogenous phosphopeptides is a prerequisite for comprehensive phosphoproteome analysis. Here, a novel guanidyl-functionalized magnetic covalent organic framework (denoted as SPIO@COF-Guanidyl) nanosphere was designed for selective and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment. The SPIO@COF-Guanidyl nanospheres possessed specific recognition sites of functional guanidyl groups, large surface area, regular mesoporous structure, and superior magnetic responsiveness, resulting in excellent performances in phosphopeptide enrichment with high selectivity (ß-casein/BSA = 1:1000), extremely high sensitivity (5 × 10-11 M), an excellent size-exclusion effect (ß-casein digests/ß-casein/bovine serum albumin (BSA) = 1:500:500), and good reusability (at least 5 times). In addition, due to the synergistic effect of functional molecules and the size-selection effect of the COF structure, SPIO@COF-Guanidyl nanospheres captured 63 unique endogenous phosphopeptides from a 10 µL sample of human saliva. Therefore, SPIO@COF-Guanidyl nanospheres possess a huge potential for trace biological detection and endogenous phosphopeptide analysis.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138513, 2020 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304942

RESUMEN

The purpose of the present study is to explore the associations between novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case counts and meteorological factors in 30 provincial capital cities of China. We compiled a daily dataset including confirmed case counts, ambient temperature (AT), diurnal temperature range (DTR), absolute humidity (AH) and migration scale index (MSI) for each city during the period of January 20th to March 2nd, 2020. First, we explored the associations between COVID-19 confirmed case counts, meteorological factors, and MSI using non-linear regression. Then, we conducted a two-stage analysis for 17 cities with more than 50 confirmed cases. In the first stage, generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were fitted to estimate city-specific effects of meteorological factors on confirmed case counts. In the second stage, the meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled effects. Our results showed that among 13 cities that have less than 50 confirmed cases, 9 cities locate in the Northern China with average AT below 0 °C, 12 cities had average AH below 4 g/m3, and one city (Haikou) had the highest AH (14.05 g/m3). Those 17 cities with 50 and more cases accounted for 90.6% of all cases in our study. Each 1 °C increase in AT and DTR was related to the decline of daily confirmed case counts, and the corresponding pooled RRs were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.85) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.95), respectively. For AH, the association with COVID-19 case counts were statistically significant in lag 07 and lag 014. In addition, we found the all these associations increased with accumulated time duration up to 14 days. In conclusions, meteorological factors play an independent role in the COVID-19 transmission after controlling population migration. Local weather condition with low temperature, mild diurnal temperature range and low humidity likely favor the transmission.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137892, 2020 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199385

RESUMEN

Establishing an optimal indicator to communicate health risks of multiple air pollutants to public is much important. The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) has been developed in many countries as a communication tool of multiple air pollutants related health risks. However, the current AQHI is based on the sum of the excess health risks which are typically derived from the single-pollutant statistical models. Such a strategy may overestimate the joint effect of multiple pollutants. We proposed an improved strategy to construct the AQHI based on a Bayesian multipollutant weighted model. Using this strategy, two improved indices - Bayesian multipollutant AQHI (BMP-AQHI) and Bayesian multipollutant AQHI with seasonal specificity (SBMP-AQHI) were calculated to present the multiple pollutants related health risks to the cardiovascular system based on data collected in Chengdu, China during 2013 to 2018. The two improved indices were compared to current Air Quality Index (AQI) and AQHI to evaluate the effectiveness of the improved indices in characterizing multipollutant health risks. The AQI risk classification suggested much smaller health risks than AQHIs. Among three AQHI types, the BMP-AQHI and SBMP-AQHI suggested slightly lower health risks to the cardiovascular system than the current AQHI. In the evaluation analysis, the SBMP-AQHI had the strongest association with the mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (2.66%; 95%CI, 1.57%, 3.76%). In the subgroup analysis, an interquartile increase (IQR) of the SBMP-AQHI was associated with 3.21% (95%CI, 2.06%, 4.38%), 1.34% (95%CI, -0.13%, 2.82%), and 4.20% (95%CI, 2.59%, 5.84%) increases for CVD mortality in the elderly, male, and female subgroups, respectively. The study shows that the improved AQHIs can communicate the health information of multiple air pollutants more efficiently. The study also indicates the necessity to consider seasonal specificity in the construction of the AQHI.

9.
Opt Express ; 28(1): 226-237, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118953

RESUMEN

Phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) realizes quantitative measurement of the dynamic strain employing phase demodulation. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure the large dynamic strain with the conventional Φ-OTDR due to the restriction of the unwrapping algorithm. In this work, an approach based on two-wavelength probe is proposed and demonstrated to improve the measurable range of the dynamic strain in Φ-OTDR. By utilizing the difference between the two phases acquiring with two different lasers, the large dynamic strain can be recovered. In experiments, dynamic strains with peak values from 10.32 uɛ to 24.08 uɛ are retrieved accurately, which cannot be recovered with the conventional Φ-OTDR. Moreover, the tunable sensitivity is also demonstrated through adjusting the wavelengths of the probe. With the increment of the wavelength interval from 9.06 nm to 23.06 nm, the normalized sensitivity increases from 0.4 to 1 accordingly. That agrees well with the theoretical prediction. Foreseeably, the proposed method will extend the scope of application fields for Φ-OTDR, which requires large dynamic strain recognition.

10.
Opt Express ; 28(1): 302-313, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118959

RESUMEN

A novel and blind optical modulation format identification (MFI) scheme assisted by signal intensity fluctuation features is proposed for autonomous digital coherent receivers of next generation optical network. The proposed MFI scheme needn't to pre-know OSNR value of incoming signal, even though it is well known that the intensity dependent features of the incoming signal changes as the change of OSNR performance. Here, the proposed scheme firstly utilizes two kinds of signal intensity fluctuation features, Godard's criterion error and intensity noise variance, to construct a two-dimensional (2D) plane where three different regions which consist of QPSK region, 8QAM region, mixed 16/32/64QAM region can be found. Thus, we can firstly identify QPSK and 8QAM from the 2D plane, and then partition Godard's criterion error method is introduced to further identify 16QAM, 32QAM and 64QAM in our proposed scheme. The performance of the proposed scheme is firstly verified by a series of numerical simulations in 28GBaud PDM-QPSK/-8QAM/-16QAM/-32QAM/-64QAM coherent optical communication systems. The results show that the lowest required OSNR values to achieve 100% recognition rate for all modulation format signals are even lower than or close to their corresponding theoretical 20% FEC limits (BER = 2.4 × 10-2). Finally, the feasibility is further demonstrated via a series of proof-of-concept experiments among 28GBaud PDM-QPSK/-8QAM/-16QAM, and 21.5GBaud PDM-32QAM systems under back-to-back and long-haul fiber transmission links (from 320 km to 2000km). Experiment results show that the proposed scheme is robust to both linear and nonlinear noise.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137483, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120102

RESUMEN

The light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) makes a significant contribution to aerosol light absorption (Abs) and affects the radiative forcing. In this study, we analyzed and evaluated the light absorption and radiative forcing of BrC samples collected from December 2016 to January 2017 in Chongqing and Chengdu in the Sichuan Basin of Southwest China. Based on a two-component model, we estimated that BrC light absorption at 405 nm was 19.9 ± 17.1 Mm-1 and 19.2 ± 12.3 Mm-1 in Chongqing and Chengdu, contributing 19.0 ± 5.0% and 17.8 ± 3.7% to Abs respectively. Higher Abs405,BrC, MAE405,BrC, and AAE405-980 values were observed during the pollution period over the clean period in both cities. The major sources of BrC were biomass burning (BB) and secondary organic aerosol in Chongqing, and coal combustion (CC) and secondary organic aerosol in Chengdu. During the pollution period, aged BrC formed from anthropogenic precursors via its aqueous reactions with NH4+ and NOx had impacts on BrC absorption in both cities. BB led to higher Abs405,BrC, MAE405,BrC, and AAE405-980 values in Chongqing than Chengdu during the pollution period. The fractional contribution of radiation absorbed by BrC relative to BC in the wavelengths of 405-445 nm was 60.2 ± 17.0% and 64.2 ± 11.6% in Chongqing and Chengdu, significantly higher than that in the range of 405-980 nm (26.2 ± 6.7% and 27.7 ± 4.6% respectively) (p < 0.001). This study is useful for understanding the characterization, sources, and impacts of BrC in the Sichuan Basin.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067299

RESUMEN

Atomic co-catalysts offer high potential to improve the photocatalytic performance, of which the preparation with earth-abundant elements is challenging. Here, a new molten salt method (MSM) is designed to prepare atomic Ni co-catalyst on widely studied TiO2 nanoparticles. The liquid environment and space confinement effect of the molten salt leads to atomic dispersion of Ni ions on TiO2 , while the strong polarizing force provided by the molten salt promotes formation of strong Ni-O bonds. Interestingly, Ni atoms are found to facilitate the formation of oxygen vacancies (OV) on TiO2 during the MSM process, which benefits the charge transfer and hydrogen evolution reaction. The synergy of atomic Ni co-catalyst and OV results in 4-time increase in H2 evolution rate compared to that of the Ni co-catalyst on TiO2 prepared by an impregnation method. This work provides a new strategy of controlling atomic co-catalyst together with defects for efficient photocatalytic water splitting.

13.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(2): 142-6, 2020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100498

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the rehabilitation of knee joint function after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: A total of 140 patients with ACL reconstruction were randomly divided into an observation group (58 cases recruited, 12 cases dropped out) and a control group (65 cases recruited, 5 cases dropped out). The patients in the control group were treated with routine rehabilitation treatment. The patients in the observation group, on the basis of the treatment in the control group, were treated with EA at Fengshi (GB 31), Futu (ST 32), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37), Fenglong (ST 40), Xuanzhong (GB 39), Diji (SP 8) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) on the affected side (2 Hz/100 Hz of dilatational wave, 2-5 mA). Each EA treatment lasted 20-30 min, twice a day for 7 days. The swelling degree (d), pain visual analogue scale (VAS), knee joint range of motion (ROM), scores of International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective short form and scores of Lysholm were observed in the two groups 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after operation. RESULTS: One month and 3 months after operation, the swelling degree (d) and VAS scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05); 6 months and 1 year after operation, there was no significant difference between the two groups on the swelling degree (d) and VAS scores (P>0.05). One month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after operation, the ROM of the knee joint in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), the IKDC score and Lysholm score were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Within one year, there were no relaxations, fractures and other related complications in the two groups. The pivot shift test, anterior drawer test and the Lachman test were all negative. CONCLUSION: EA combined with routine rehabilitation training could obviously reduce the pain of knee joint, improve the swelling degree, increase the ROM of knee joint, promote the functional recovery in patients with ACL reconstruction, which are superior to rehabilitation training alone.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/rehabilitación , Reconstrucción del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Electroacupuntura , Articulación de la Rodilla , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirugía , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 89: 35-46, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892400

RESUMEN

The Sichuan Basin has experienced serious air pollution from fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the past few years with biomass burning has been identified as a major source of PM2.5 in this region. We used single particle aerosol mass spectrometer to investigate the characteristics of biomass burning particles in three interacting cities representing different types of urban environment in the Sichuan Basin. A total of 739,794, 279,610, and 380,636 biomass burning particles were detected at Ya'an, Guang'an, and Chengdu, which represented 42%, 69%, and 61%, respectively, of the total number of particles. We analyzed the chemical composition, transportation, and evolution of biomass burning particles. The contribution of K-elemental carbon and K-secondary inorganic particles was highest in Ya'an (36%) and Guang'an (47%), respectively, reflecting the important role of fresh biomass burning particles and long-distance transport in these two cities. Air masses originating from different directions corresponded to different levels of PM2.5 and the contributions of polluted clusters increased significantly on polluted days. Fresh and secondary inorganic biomass burning particles increased pollution at Ya'an and Guang'an, respectively, but dominated different stages of pollution in Chengdu. K-nitrate particles were formed by photochemical reactions, whereas K-sulfate particles were formed by both photochemical and liquid-phase reactions. Investigation of the degree of particle aging showed that there were more fresh particles at Ya'an and more aged particles at Guang'an. These results are useful in helping our understanding of the characteristics of biomass burning particles and evaluating their role in PM2.5 pollution in the Sichuan Basin.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fuego , Material Particulado/análisis , Aerosoles , Biomasa , China , Ciudades , Estaciones del Año
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136305, 2020 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982731

RESUMEN

The PM2.5 were sampled in three different urban environments: (city of) Chengdu, Leshan, and Dazhou, which are located in Sichuan Basin. 8 types of water-soluble ion and 25 types of metal element were measured in each PM2.5 sample across the seasons of 2017. The study results suggest that the joint PM2.5 pollution among the three cities mainly occurred in autumn and winter, and the air quality of Chengdu and Leshan was largely affected by Dazhou. Overall, the mass concentrations of PM2.5 of these three cities exhibited no statistically significant differences. However, Leshan had the highest level of ionic pollution, and the dominant form of inorganic compound in ambient PM2.5 was NH4NO3, and a competitive relationship between form of NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4 (NH4HSO4) was found as well. High homology between SO42- and NO3- has been observed in all the three cities, and the ratio between [SO42-] and [NO3-] indicated that the stationary source contributed the most to ambient PM2.5 in Dazhou. The mass concentrations of the total metal elements from the three cities exhibited similar levels, nevertheless, Dazhou had the highest mass fraction of total metal elements in PM2.5. The enrichment factor of each element indicated that the natural source was highly contributory to the crustal elements in PM2.5 of all the three cities, whereas Cr, Cu, Se, Mo, Cd, Tl and Bi were primarily originated from anthropogenic source. In addition, the source apportionment of PM2.5 suggest that Dazhou had the different factors and factor-contributions comparing with Chengdu and Leshan.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113914, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935611

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading global health issue. More studies have linked indoor air pollution from solid fuel usage to hypertension risk, a leading risk factor for CVD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the relationship of indoor air pollution from solid fuel with hypertension risk. Using a protocol standardized a priori, two independent reviewers searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE for available studies published before Dec.1, 2019. A random effects model was used to analyse the pooled results. Out of 3740 articles, 47 were reviewed in depth and 11 contributing to this meta-analysis. The use of household solid fuel was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.85). The smoking-controlled group (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.58 to 3.60) had greater effect size of hypertension than the uncontrolled group (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.11). These findings implicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel may be an important risk factor for hypertension.

17.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125196, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896208

RESUMEN

Lanzhou, an ex-heavily polluted city, was awarded "The Award for Today's Transformative Step" in 2015 World Climate Conference at Paris for its great efforts on air quality improvement since 2012. However, the health benefits from this improvement remain unclear. Therefore, we collected time-series data covering deaths, weather variables and air pollutants during the two periods (2004-2009, 2014-2017) and fitted single-pollutant models using the generalized additive models to evaluate the change of mortality risks associated with air pollutants in Lanzhou. Results showed that the annual average concentrations of respirable particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) dropped by 19.28% and 66.29%, while the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) increased by 16.61% in 2014-2017 compared to 2004-2009. During the period 2004-2009, we found a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 (lag 2), SO2 (lag 0-5) and NO2 (lag 0-5) were associated with mortality increments of 0.12% (95% CI: 0.01, 0.22), 0.86% (95% CI: 0.42, 1.31) and 1.29% (95% CI: 0.70, 1.90), respectively. During the period 2014-2017, the association between PM10 and daily deaths was not significant, but we observed a 10-µg/m3 increase in SO2 (lag 0-5) and NO2 (lag 4) were related to mortality increments of 4.23% (95% CI: 1.82, 6.70) and 0.85% (95% CI: 0.19, 1.52), respectively. From 2004-2009 to 2014-2017, we observed markedly decline of mortality risk due to PM10, but not SO2 or NO2. In conclusion, the mortality risk of PM10 in Lanzhou has declined obviously after the substantially improved air quality due to the enforcement of air pollution controlling policies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China/epidemiología , Clima , Contaminantes Ambientales , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis , Tiempo (Meteorología)
18.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(6): 1266-1276, 2020 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967178

RESUMEN

Selective capture of mono-, multi- or global phosphopeptides is significant for the in-depth study of protein kinase or phosphatase signal transduction pathways. However, this study is largely restricted because of the lack of versatile affinity materials with high enrichment capacity and tunable selectivity. Here, we prepared a smart nanoprobe for the selective enrichment of mono-, multi- or global phosphopeptides by introducing polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM)-grafted poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes to modified magnetic composite nanospheres (denoted as Fe3O4@PDA@PMAA@PAMAM). The practicability of the prepared nanospheres for phosphopeptide enrichment was investigated by using model proteins (α-casein and ß-casein) and complex biological samples (nonfat milk and human saliva). The extremely abundant amine groups of PAMAM-PMAA brushes and superparamagnetism of the Fe3O4 core endowed the composite nanospheres with high detection sensitivity (1 fmol µL-1), excellent selectivity (1 : 500 molar ratios of ß-casein/BSA) and high recyclability (five cycles) towards phosphopeptides. Additionally, based on the tunable bonding ability of the nanospheres towards phosphopeptides with different phosphorylation sites, selective enrichment of mono-, multi- or global phosphopeptides was realized by modulating buffer polarity and acidity, making them ideal new nanoprobes for comprehensive phosphoproteome analysis.

19.
Neuron ; 105(3): 475-490.e6, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780330

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with symptoms including social deficits, anxiety, and communication difficulties. However, ASD pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Mutations of CUL3, which encodes Cullin 3 (CUL3), a component of an E3 ligase complex, are thought of as risk factors for ASD and schizophrenia (SCZ). CUL3 is abundant in the brain, yet little is known of its function. Here, we show that CUL3 is critical for neurodevelopment. CUL3-deficient mice exhibited social deficits and anxiety-like behaviors with enhanced glutamatergic transmission and neuronal excitability. Proteomic analysis revealed eIF4G1, a protein for Cap-dependent translation, as a potential target of CUL3. ASD-associated cellular and behavioral deficits could be rescued by pharmacological inhibition of the eIF4G1 function and chemogenetic inhibition of neuronal activity. Thus, CUL3 is critical to neural development, neurotransmission, and excitation-inhibition (E-I) balance. Our study provides novel insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of ASD and SCZ.

20.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 43(1): 111-122, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538235

RESUMEN

An autohydrolysis pretreatment with different conditions was applied to sugarcane bagasse to compare the impacts of the physicochemical properties and hydrolytic inhibitors on its enzymatic hydrolysis. The results indicate that the autohydrolysis conditions significantly affected the physicochemical properties and inhibitors, which further affected the enzymatic hydrolysis. The inhibitor amount, pore size, and crystallinity degree increased with increasing autohydrolysis severity. Furthermore, the enzymatic hydrolysis was enhanced with increasing severity owing to the removal of hemicellulose and lignin. The physicochemical obstruction impeded the enzymatic hydrolysis more than the inhibitors. The multivariate correlated component regression analysis enabled an evaluation of the correlations between the physicochemical properties (and inhibitors) and enzymatic hydrolysis for the first time. According to the results, an autohydrolysis with a severity of 4.01 is an ideal pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse for sugar production.

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