Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 874
Filtrar
1.
Dentomaxillofac Radiol ; : 20210272, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644186

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the size and morphology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular disc and condyle in young asymptomatic adults by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and scientific study of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). METHODS: Overall, 93 undergraduate volunteers without TMD were enrolled from the freshmen pool at the Qingdao University. All participants underwent MRI of the oblique sagittal and oblique coronal TMJ planes. The articular disc and condyle were subsequently measured, and their morphology was evaluated. The obtained data were then grouped and analyzed statistically. Finally, intragroup correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the interobserver measurement reliability. RESULTS: We totally received 186 TMJ imaging samples. Based on our analysis, disc's anterior band in young asymptomatic adult females were thicker than males of the same age (p = 0.024). Moreover, the media-lateral dimensions of the condylar head of adult females were shorter than males of equal age (P<0.001). The bilateral articular disc morphology was the same in 72.4% of subjects while the condylar morphology was the same in 63.4% of participants. Finally, using measurement reliability assessment, we demonstrated that our conclusions are reliable (ICC ≥0.7). CONCLUSION: The thickness of the anterior band of the disc and the media-lateral dimensions of the condylar head were gender-related. Additionally, the morphology of the bilateral articular disc and condyle was different among the subset of young asymptomatic adults.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2105541, 2021 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613619

RESUMEN

Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been considered as one of the most promising next-generation rechargeable batteries owing to its high energy density and cost-effectiveness. However, the sluggish kinetics of the sulfur reduction reaction process, which is so far insufficiently explored, still impedes its practical application. Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are widely investigated as sulfur immobilizer, but the interactions and catalytic activity of lithium polysulfides (LiPs) on metal nodes are weak due to the presence of organic ligands. Herein, we present a strategy to design Quasi-MOF nanospheres, which has a transition-state structure between MOF and metal oxide, via controlled ligand exchange strategy to serve as sulfur electrocatalyst. The Quasi-MOF not only inherits the porous structure of MOF, but also exposes abundant metal nodes to act as active sites, rendering strong LiPs absorbability. The reversible deligandation/ligandation of Quasi-MOF and its impact on the durability of catalyst over the course of electrochemical process has been acknowledged, which confers a remarkable catalytic activity. Attributed to these structural advantages, Quasi-MOF delivers a decent discharge capacity and low capacity fading rate over long-term cycling. This work not only offers insight into the rational design of Quasi-MOF based composite, but also provides guidance for the application in Li-S batteries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132054, 2021 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474377

RESUMEN

Melamine foam (MF) is a widely used commercial product and exhibits wide applications in many fields ranging from building, transportation to daily chemical product. Recent researches confirm that the special three-dimensional (3D) framework structure of MF can be an ideal substrate to prepare functional materials. In this work, the water-soluble polyethylenimine (PEI) was grafted onto the framework of MF to develop the water purification material toward heavy metal ions removal. The grafting of PEI on MF was achieved with the aids of polydopamine (PDA) coating and epoxy chloropropane (ECH) cross-linking successively. The 3D framework of MF could be well reserved and PEI was homogeneously grafted onto the framework surface. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was dependent upon the molecular wight of PEI. Lower PEI molecular weight endowed the adsorbent with better adsorption ability. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 328.95 mg/g, and the adsorbent exhibited extremely high adsorption stability with increasing cycling measurement numbers. Further results showed that the adsorbent also exhibited high reduction ability and induced about 62.5% toxic Cr(VI) to be reduced. This work confirms that the PEI-modified MF sample is a promising adsorbent in the removal of heavy metal ions and it can be used in wastewater treatment.

4.
Autoimmunity ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is an autoimmune disease. The up-regulation of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (Neat1) has been found in MN but the mechanism is still unclear. Here, we explored the effect and the underlying mechanism of lncRNA Neat1 on the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in MN. METHODS: Albumin-stimulated E11 podocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells in vitro and the cationic-bovine serum albumin-induced MN mouse model in vivo were established. The expression of Neat1 in E11 podocytes, renal tubular epithelial cells, and renal tubules and the mRNA expression of BH3-only (the Bcl-2 homology 3-only) proteins were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Levels of Cleaved Caspase 3, 6, 7, and Noxa were examined by western blotting. The number of apoptotic cells was detected by flow cytometry. Cellular proliferation was determined by 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine and Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Interactions between BH3-only protein Noxa and Bcl-2 as well as Bcl-xL were evaluated with co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: The expression of lncRNA Neat1 was unchanged in albumin-stimulated E11 podocytes, but it was up-regulated in albumin-stimulated renal tubular epithelial cells and MN renal tubule tissues and there was a time-dependent increase in vivo. In the albumin-stimulated proximal tubular epithelial cells, overexpression of Neat1 could increase apoptosis and decrease proliferation. In turn, interference with Neat1 reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation accordingly. The mRNA expression levels of BH3-only proteins (Bad, Bim, Bid, Puma, Noxa) were detected with qRT-PCR, the results indicated that after overexpression of Neat1, mRNA and protein levels of Noxa were significantly increased, and the interference with BH3-only protein Noxa alleviated apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: In our study, we proved that lncRNA Neat1 promoted the development of MN by inducing apoptosis and this effect may be exerted by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic protein activity mediated by Noxa.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3814-3823, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472254

RESUMEN

Volatile oil is the main effective component and an important quality indicator of Artemisia argyi leaves. In this study, 100 germplasm resources of A. argyi were collected from all the related habitats in China. The total volatile oils in A. argyi leaves were extracted by steam distillation and the content was determined by GC-MS. The result demonstrated that the content of total volatile oils was in the range of 0.53%-2.55%, with the average of 1.43%. A total of 39 chemical constituents were identified from the volatile oils, including 13 shared by the 100 germplasm resources. Clustering analysis of the 39 constituents showed that the 100 A. argyi samples were categorized into groups Ⅰ(9), Ⅱ(2), Ⅲ(66) and Ⅳ(23), and group Ⅲ had the most volatile medicinal components, with the highest content. Five principal components(PCs) were extracted from 13 shared constituents, which explained 73.454% of the total variance. PC1, PC2, and PC3 mainly reflected the pharmacological activity of volatile oils and the rest two the aroma information. The volatile oils identified in this study lay a foundation for variety breeding of and rational utilization of volatile oils in A. argyi leaves.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia , Aceites Volátiles , Destilación , Fitomejoramiento , Hojas de la Planta
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045454, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493502

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This phenomenological study aimed to examine intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' experiences of caring for patients with COVID-19, and understand better their everyday experiences of patient' management in the ICU. DESIGN: A descriptive phenomenological research design was used. Individual interviews were conducted. The data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Colaizzi's seven-step framework. SETTING: An ICU with 16 beds in a tertiary hospital in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: Nurses who had more than 1 year of experience and had provided care to patients with COVID-19 in ICU for more than 1 week were identified as participants. A total of 13 nurses were interviewed. RESULTS: An analysis of these significant statements yielded four distinct stages of feelings, thereby revealing the essence of this phenomenon. Worry about being infected and infecting family members was present across in all four stages. The themes associated with the four stages were as follows: initial contradictory feelings, quick adaption to the 'new working environment' in the first 1-2 weeks in the ICU, desperation after adaption, holding on and survive. CONCLUSIONS: The nurses reported distinct experiences of providing care to patients with COVID-19 in ICUs. Interventions, such as providing information about the disease, simulation training, emotional support and follow-up care, are needed to help nurses manage patients with COVID-19 and maintain nurses' health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Investigación Cualitativa , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Biomed Sci ; 28(1): 62, 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503531

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One of the most prominent opioid analgesics in the United States is the high potency agonist fentanyl. It is used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain and as an anesthetic adjuvant. When used inappropriately, however, ingestion of just a few milligrams of fentanyl or other synthetic opioid can cause opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD), often leading to death. Currently, the treatment of choice for OIRD is the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Recent reports, however, suggest that higher doses or repeated dosing of naloxone (due to recurrence of respiratory depression) may be required to reverse fully fentanyl-induced respiratory depression, rendering this treatment inadequate. To combat this synthetic opioid overdose crisis, this research aims at identifying a novel opioid reversal agent with enhanced efficacy towards fentanyl and other synthetic opioids. METHODS: A series of naltrexone analogues were characterized for their ability to antagonize the effects of fentanyl in vitro utilizing a modified forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation assay. Lead analogue 29 was chosen to undergo further PK studies, followed by in vivo pharmacological analysis to determine its ability to antagonize opioid-induced antinociception in the hot plate assay. RESULTS: A series of potent MOR antagonists were identified, including the highly potent analogue 29 (IC50 = 2.06 nM). Follow-up PK studies revealed 29 to possess near 100% bioavailability following IP administration. Brain concentrations of 29 surpassed plasma concentrations, with an apparent terminal half-life of ~ 80 min in mice. In the hot plate assay, 29 dose-dependently (0.01-0.1 mg/kg; IP) and fully antagonized the antinociception induced by oxycodone (5.6 mg/kg; IP). Furthermore, the dose of 29 that is fully effective in preventing oxycodone-induced antinociception (0.1 mg/kg) was ineffective against locomotor deficits caused by the KOR agonist U50,488. CONCLUSIONS: Methods have been developed that have utility to identify enhanced rescue agents for the treatment of OIRD. Analogue 29, possessing potent MOR antagonist activity in vitro and in vivo, provides a promising lead in our search for an enhanced synthetic opioid rescue agent.

9.
Mar Drugs ; 19(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564149

RESUMEN

Fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) from sea cucumber is a potent anticoagulant by inhibiting intrinsic coagulation tenase (iXase). However, high-molecular-weight FGs can activate platelets and plasma contact system, and induce hypotension in rats, which limits its application. Herein, we found that FG from T. ananas (TaFG) and FG from H. fuscopunctata (HfFG) at 4.0 mg/kg (i.v.) could cause significant cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction in rats, even lethality, while their depolymerized products had no obvious side effects. After injection, native FG increased rat plasma kallikrein activity and levels of the vasoactive peptide bradykinin (BK), consistent with their contact activation activity, which was assumed to be the cause of hypotension in rats. However, the hemodynamic effects of native FG cannot be prevented by the BK receptor antagonist. Further study showed that native FG induced in vivo procoagulation, thrombocytopenia, and pulmonary embolism. Additionally, its lethal effect could be prevented by anticoagulant combined with antiplatelet drugs. In summary, the acute toxicity of native FG is mainly ascribed to pulmonary microvessel embolism due to platelet aggregation and contact activation-mediated coagulation, while depolymerized FG is a safe anticoagulant candidate by selectively targeting iXase.

10.
Plant J ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587330

RESUMEN

Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most important and typical ethylene sensitive cut flowers worldwide, although how ethylene influences the petal senescence process in carnation remains largely unknown. Here, we screened out one of the key transcription factors, DcWRKY75, using a constructed ethylene induced petal senescence transcriptome in carnation and found that it shows quick induction by ethylene treatment. Silencing of DcWRKY75 delays ethylene induced petal senescence in carnation. Molecular evidence confirms that DcWRKY75 can bind to the promoter regions of two main ethylene biosynthetic genes (DcACS1 and DcACO1) and a couple of senescence associated genes (DcSAG12 and DcSAG29) to activate their expression. Furthermore, we show that DcWRKY75 is a direct target gene of DcEIL3-1, which is a homolog of the ethylene signaling core transcription factor EIN3 in Arabidopsis. DcEIL3-1 can physically interact with DcWRKY75 and silencing of DcEIL3-1 also delays ethylene induced petal senescence in carnation and inhibits the ethylene induced expression of DcWRKY75 and its target genes. The present study demonstrates that the transcriptional regulation network is vitally important for ethylene induced petal senescence process in carnation and potentially in other ethylene sensitive cut flowers.

11.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 216, 2021 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544428

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid derivative, which has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in different neurological disease models. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of TUDCA on spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of TUDCA in the SCI mouse model and the related mechanism involved. METHODS: The primary cortical neurons were isolated from E16.5 C57BL/6 mouse embryos. To evaluate the effect of TUDCA on axon degeneration induced by oxidative stress in vitro, the cortical neurons were treated with H2O2 with or without TUDCA added and immunostained with Tuj1. Mice were randomly divided into sham, SCI, and SCI+TUDCA groups. SCI model was induced using a pneumatic impact device at T9-T10 level of the vertebra. TUDCA (200 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline was intragastrically administrated daily post-injury for 14 days. RESULTS: We found that TUDCA attenuated axon degeneration induced by H2O2 treatment and protected primary cortical neurons from oxidative stress in vitro. In vivo, TUDCA treatment significantly reduced tissue injury, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis and promoted axon regeneration and remyelination in the lesion site of the spinal cord of SCI mice. The functional recovery test revealed that TUDCA treatment significantly ameliorated the recovery of limb function. CONCLUSIONS: TUDCA treatment can alleviate secondary injury and promote functional recovery by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis induced by primary injury, and promote axon regeneration and remyelination, which could be used as a potential therapy for human SCI recovery.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27125, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477155

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the genetic and demographic differences and interactions between areas where observed genomic variations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) were distributed uniformly in cold and hot spots.The cold and hot spot areas were identified using the reported incidence of TB over the previous 5 years. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 291 M. tb isolates between January and June 2018. Analysis of molecular variance and a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) model was applied to test gene-gene-environment interactions. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to test the extent to which genetic mutation affects the TB epidemic using a multivariate logistic regression model.The percentage of the Beijing family strain in hot spots was significantly higher than that in cold spots (64.63% vs 50.69%, P = .022), among the elderly, people with a low BMI, and those having a history of contact with a TB patient (all P < .05). Individuals from cold spot areas had a higher frequency of out-of-town traveling (P < .05). The mutation of Rv1186c, Rv3900c, Rv1508c, Rv0210, and an Intergenic Region (SNP site: 3847237) showed a significant difference between cold and hot spots. (P < .001). The MDR model displayed a clear negative interaction effect of age groups with BMI (interaction entropy: -3.55%) and mutation of Rv0210 (interaction entropy: -2.39%). Through the mutations of Rv0210 and BMI had a low independent effect (interaction entropy: -1.46%).Our data suggests a statistically significant role of age, BMI and the polymorphisms of Rv0210 genes in the transmission and development of M. tb. The results provide clues for the study of susceptibility genes of M. tb in different populations. The characteristic strains showed a local epidemic. Strengthening genotype monitoring of strains in various regions can be used as an early warning signal of epidemic spillover.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis/microbiología , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
13.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 295, 2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583708

RESUMEN

Fluorescent labeling and dynamic tracking is a powerful tool for exploring virus infection mechanisms. However, for small-sized viruses, virus tracking studies are usually hindered by a lack of appropriate labeling methods that do not dampen virus yield or infectivity. Here, we report a universal strategy for labeling viruses with chemical dyes and Quantum dots (QDs). Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was produced in a cell line that stably expresses a mutant methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS), which can charge azidonorleucine (ANL) to the methionine sites of viral proteins during translation. Then, the ANL-containing virus was easily labeled with DBCO-AF647 and DBCO-QDs. The labeled virus shows sufficient yield and no obvious decrease in infectivity and can be used for imaging the virus entry process. Using the labeled EV71, different functions of scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), and heparan sulfate (HS) in EV71 infection were comparatively studied. The cell entry process of a strong HS-binding EV71 strain was investigated by real-time dynamic visualization of EV71-QDs in living cells. Taken together, our study described a universal biocompatible virus labeling method, visualized the dynamic viral entry process, and reported details of the receptor usage of EV71.

14.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132358, 2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583294

RESUMEN

Previous studies suggested immunotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), but contradictory findings were reported for the associations of PFASs with allergies. The current study aimed to investigate the association of serum PFASs with incident chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in adults. A nested case-control study within a longitudinal cohort of 7051 government employees in China was conducted. Participants with urticaria at the baseline were excluded. During the first follow-up, 70 incident CSU cases were included, and 70 matched healthy controls were randomly selected. In serum samples collected at the baseline, eight PFASs were determined using the UHPLC-MS/MS approach. The median serum concentrations of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were significantly higher in participants with incident CSU. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.714 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83) based on the joint prediction by PFBA and PFHpA. The Bayesian kernel machine regression showed a nonlinear positive overall effect of the mixture of PFASs, and identified significant single effects of PFBA and PFHpA. Serum interleukin-4 was significantly higher in the case group at baseline, and was positively associated with PFHpA (r = 0.24). Causal mediation analysis indicated interleukin-4 as a partial mediator (14.8%) in the association of PFHpA with CSU. In conclusion, serum PFASs are associated with an increased risk of incident CSU, and PFBA and PFHpA might be the effective compounds.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12424-12436, 2021 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506115

RESUMEN

Our previous study demonstrated massive emissions of liquid crystal monomers (LCMs) from liquid crystal display (LCD)-associated e-waste dismantling; however, the compositions, priority list, and inventory of LCMs in waste LCD panels remain unknown. Herein, we conducted the first comprehensive identification covering a broader range of LCMs, including 21 biphenyls and analogues (BAs), 28 cyanobiphenyls and analogues (CBAs), and 44 fluorinated biphenyls and analogues (FBAs), in waste television/computer LCD panels. A total of 64 of the 93 target LCMs, including 19 BAs, 6 CBAs, and 39 FBAs, were widely detected in collected waste LCD panels. Approximately 10-18 of the 64 detectable LCMs were identified as the main compositions in various waste LCD panels, which contributed to >90% of the total LCMs. Total concentrations of FBAs in the television/computer LCD panel samples were comparable to those of BAs but much higher than those of CBAs, indicating FBAs and BAs being the commonly used LCM categories. The composition distribution of LCMs varied between television/computer LCDs and among different brands of television/computer LCDs. A preliminary estimate of the globally direct release of LCMs from waste television/computer LCD panels into various environmental compartments was about 1.07-107 kg/year, which will increase considerably in the near future.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Electrónicos , Cristales Líquidos , Residuos Electrónicos/análisis
16.
Nanoscale ; 13(38): 16104-16112, 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486632

RESUMEN

Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation can induce cellular senescence and cause skin photoaging, which is mainly driven by the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Emerging studies have focused on new strategies for the prevention of skin photoaging. Ultrasmall Prussian blue nanoparticles (USPBNPs) demonstrate an intensive ability to scavenge ROS as nanozymes and exhibit great potential in the treatment of ROS-related diseases. Our goal was to investigate the anti-senescent role of USPBNPs against UVA-induced premature senescence in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Our results showed that the activation of senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) and the arrest of the cell cycle induced by UVA radiation in HDFs were significantly inhibited by pretreatment of USPBNPs (1 µg ml-1). Furthermore, USPBNPs downregulated the expression of DNA damage marker γH2AX and inhibited the secretion of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASP) including IL-6, TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In addition, we found that the antiphotoaging effect of USPBNPs involved the scavenging of ROS as well as the inhibition of the ERK/AP-1 pathway. In conclusion, USPBNPs exhibited great potential to become novel anti-photoaging agents by alleviating UVA-induced cellular senescence and thus delaying the process of skin photoaging.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Factor de Transcripción AP-1 , Células Cultivadas , Senescencia Celular , Ferrocianuros , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Piel , Rayos Ultravioleta
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545660

RESUMEN

DNA is a true polymer that stores the genetic information for an organism. With its amazing biological and polymeric characters, DNA has been regarded as a universal building block for the construction of diverse materials for real-world applications. Through various approaches including ligation, polymerization, chemical crosslinking, and physical cross-linking, both pure and hybrid DNA gels have been developed as generic materials. This minireview discusses the recent advances in the construction strategies of DNA-based networks without considering any of DNA's genetic properties.  In addition, this minireview highlights the biomedical and non-biomedical applications of DNA as generic materials. With the superb molecular recognition, self-assembly, and responsiveness, a mushrooming number of DNA materials with various properties would be developed for general utilization.

18.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 124: 104084, 2021 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nurses play a vitally important role in promoting equitable and essential care. China undertook bold reforms in its education and healthcare systems since 1990s. The effect of these reforms on the nursing workforce has not been assessed systematically. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the changing trends and the underlying challenges of the nursing workforce in Mainland China in the period of 1998-2018. DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis. METHODS: Data were acquired from the National Health Statistics Yearbook from 1999 to 2019. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the nature of the nursing workforce in terms of quantity, quality, and structure. Non-parametric tests were used to compare doctors and nurses in terms of number and work experiences. Global Moran's I index and hotspot analysis were applied to compare the equity in distribution of nurses at national and provincial levels. RESULTS: From 1998 to 2018, the number of nurses increased from 1.22 to 4.10 million with an average rate of increase of 6.3% per annum. The ratio of doctors to nurses changed from 1: 0.61 to 1: 1.14, reaching 1: 1 in 2013. The main educational level of registered nurses elevated to associated degree (48.9%), and nurses with advanced titles increased at the most rapid rate. In 2018, 60.3% of nurses were younger than 35 years old. The Global Moran's I index ranged from 0.211 to 0.198 (Z > 1.96, P < 0.05). Hotspot analysis showed the distribution of nurses was unequally concentrated in the northern region and with the highest distribution in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: Great improvement on the scale and the quality of nursing workforce over the past 20 years has been witnessed in China. However, the shortage of nurses, outflow of younger nurses and the imbalance distribution of nursing workforce among the country are emerging challenges. Plans should not be ignored on continuously cultivating more qualified nurses, retaining younger nurses, attracting nurses to work in rural areas and the northeast region. Tweetable abstract: The number of nurses in Mainland China increased greatly in the period of 1998-2018, with its improvement in quality, structure, and distribution. However, the shortage of nurses, nurse outflow and the imbalance in the distribution are underlying risks that influence nurse development.

19.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047462, 2021 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344677

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the distribution of health-related behaviours and dietary habits by sociodemographics among public workers in China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A representative sample was obtained from 10 government-run institutions in Hunan province of China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5029 public workers were included in this study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence on their sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviours and dietary habits. Socioeconomic status (SES) scores were calculated by multiplying ordinal numerical values assigned to consecutive categories of education level and annual household income. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and categorical principal component analysis were used to estimate differences in health-related behaviours and dietary habits by sociodemographics. RESULTS: The distribution of health-related behaviours and dietary habits was varied by sociodemographic groups. Middle-aged groups (41-60 years) were more likely to smoke (for men, 34.5%), use alcohol (for men, 22.5%), and have short sleep duration (for men, 36.3%; for women, 39.6%). Young participants (≤30 years) were more likely to have multiple unhealthy behaviours and dietary habits. Those in low-SES have a significant higher rate of smoking (ORadj=1.46, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.85) and leisure-time physical inactivity (ORadj=1.18, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.37), but a lower rate of late sleeping (ORadj=0.69, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.83) than those in high-SES. Notably, older men (≥51 years) with low-SES preferred the 'smoked and pickled foods and dessert' and 'fish and nut' pattern. In high-SES groups, 41-50 year old people preferred the 'traditional foods' and 'cereals and dairy product' pattern. No difference in dietary patterns by sociodemographics was found among women (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of the disparity distribution of health-related behaviours and dietary habits by specific gender, age and SES among Chinese public workers have important policy implications for developing targeted health interventions to facilitate health-related behaviours and dietary habits in this population.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clase Social
20.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410715

RESUMEN

Metasurface-based structural coloration is a promising enabling technology for advanced optical encryption with a high-security level. Herein, we propose a paradigm of electrically switchable, polarization-sensitive optical encryption based on designed metasurfaces integrated with polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. The metasurfaces consist of anisotropic and isotropic aluminum nanoaperture arrays. Optical images can be encrypted by elaborately arranging anisotropic and isotropic nanoapertures based on their polarization-dependent plasmonic resonance characteristics. We demonstrate high-quality encrypted images and QR codes with electrically switchable, polarization-sensitive properties based on PDLC-integrated aluminum nanoaperture arrays. The proposed technique can be applied to many fields including high-security optical encryption, security tags, anticounterfeiting, multichannel imaging, and dynamic displays.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...