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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(10): 1109-1120, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori, we have previously shown that the eradication frequency was 83·7% (95% CI 80·4-86·6) for triple therapy for 14 days (T14; lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all given twice daily), 85·9% (82·7-88·6) for concomitant therapy for 10 days (C10; lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg, all given twice daily), and 90·4% (87·6-92·6) for bismuth quadruple therapy for 10 days (BQ10; bismuth tripotassium dicitrate 300 mg four times a day, lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily, tetracycline 500 mg four times a day, and metronidazole 500 mg three times a day). In this follow-up study, we assess short-term and long-term effects of these therapies on the gut microbiota, antibiotic resistance, and metabolic parameters. METHODS: This was a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial done at nine medical centres in Taiwan. Adult patients (>20 years) with documented H pylori infection were randomly assigned (1:1:1, with block sizes of six) to receive T14, C10, or BQ10. We assessed long-term outcomes (reinfection frequency, changes in the gut microbiota, antibiotic resistance, and metabolic parameters) in patients with available data, excluding all protocol violators and those with unknown post-treatment H pylori status. Faecal samples were collected before treatment and 2 weeks, 2 months, and at least 1 year after eradication therapy. Amplification of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA was done followed by high-throughput sequencing. Susceptibility testing for faecal Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was done. This trial is complete and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01906879. FINDINGS: Between July 17, 2013, and April 20, 2016, 1620 participants were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups (540 [33%] per group). 1214 (75%) attended 1-year follow-up and are included in this analysis. Compared with baseline, alpha diversity was significantly reduced 2 weeks after T14 (p=0·0002), C10 (p<0·0001), and BQ10 (p<0·0001) treatment. Beta diversity was also significantly altered 2 weeks after T14 (p=0·0010), C10 (p=0·0001), and BQ10 (p=0·0001). Alpha diversity and beta diversity were restored at week 8 (p=0·14 and p=0·918, respectively) and 1 year (p=0·14 and p=0·918) after T14, but were not fully recovered at week 8 and after 1 year in patients treated with C10 (p=0·0001 and p=0·013 at week 8; p=0·019 and p=0·064 at 1 year) and BQ10 (p<0·0001 and p=0·0002; p=0·001 and p=0·029). A transient increase at week 2 after T14 and C10 of the resistance rates of E coli to ampicillin-sulbactam (12% [15/127] to 66% [38/58] for T14, 7% [10/135] to 64% [28/44] for C10), cefazolin (13% [16/127] to 43% [25/58] for T14, 10% [13/135] to 41% [18/44] for C10), cefmetazole (8% [10/127] to 26% [15/58] for T14, 4% [5/135] to 18% [8/44] for C10), levofloxacin (8% [10/127] to 35% [20/58] for T14, 7% [10/135] to 32% [14/44] for C10), gentamicin (13% [19/146] to 47% [27/58] for T14, 15% [22/149] to 45% [20/44] for C10), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (33% [48/146] to 86% [50/58] for T14, 28% [42/148] to 86% [38/44] for C10; p<0·05 in paired samples in the above analyses) returned to basal state at week 8 and after 1 year. Although bodyweight and body-mass index slightly increased, there were significant improvements in metabolic parameters, with a decrease in insulin resistance, triglycerides, and LDL and an increase in HDL. Overall, there was no significant change in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome at week 8 and 1 year after T14, C10, and BQ10. INTERPRETATION: Eradication of H pylori infection has minimal disruption of the microbiota, no effect on antibiotic resistance of E coli, and some positive effects on metabolic parameters. Collectively, these results lend support to the long-term safety of H pylori eradication therapy. FUNDING: National Taiwan University Hospital and Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 82(10): 762-766, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356569

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are a widely accepted biliary endoprosthesis for patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. Here, we identified predictors for the occlusion of SEMS in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients with biliary tract obstruction. METHODS: Patients with a distal malignant biliary obstruction caused by unresectable pancreatic cancer who received partially covered SEMS (PC-SEMS) placement for the first time between January 2003 and January 2016 were retrospectively enrolled for analysis. The rates of PC-SEMS occlusion were evaluated. The possible predictors of PC-SEMS occlusion were analyzed using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 120 patients who received PC-SEMS for unresectable pancreatic cancer were identified. The rate of PC-SEMS occlusion was 37%. The median time to occlusion of PC-SEMS was 359 days. The major causes of occlusion included biliary sludge (61%) and tumor ingrowth (30%). Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed that inadequate alkaline phosphatase/gamma-glutamyl transferase decline (defined by a decrease of <50% within 2 wk after PC-SEMS placement) was the only independent predictor of stent occlusion (hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.28-6.25; p = 0.01) CONCLUSION:: Inadequate alkaline phosphatase/gamma-glutamyl transferase decline is a predictor of occlusion of first-time PC-SEMS placement in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients with biliary tract obstruction.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218436, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199857

RESUMEN

Whether there are subsequent changes of metabolic profiles and microbiota status after partial colectomy remains unknown. We evaluated and compared long-term effects of microbiota status and metabolic profiles in early colorectal cancer (CRC) patients after curative colectomy to the controls. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed metabolic syndrome occurrence in 165 patients after curative partial colectomy with right hemicolectomy (RH) or low anterior resection (LAR) and 333 age-sex matched controls. Fecal samples from some of those with RH, LAR, and controls were analyzed by next-generation sequencing method. The occurrences of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in patients after RH, but not LAR, when compared with the controls over the long term (> 5 years) follow-up (P = 0.020). Compared with control group, RH group showed lower bacterial diversity (P = 0.007), whereas LAR group showed significantly higher bacterial diversity at the genera level (P = 0.016). Compared with the control group, the principal component analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial genera abundance after RH and LAR (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was significantly lower in the RH group than the control group (22.0% versus 49.4%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, early CRC patients after RH but not LAR were associated with a higher occurrence of metabolic syndrome than the controls during long-term follow-up. In parallel with metabolic change, patients with RH showed dysbiosis with a tendency to decreased richness and a significant decrease in the diversity of gut microbiota.

4.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206930, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395589

RESUMEN

Long term effects of subtotal gastrectomy on gut microbiota modifications with subsequent metabolic profiles are limited. We aimed to investigate and compare long-term effects of metabolic profiles and microbiota status in early gastric cancer patients post curative subtotal gastrectomy to the controls. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed type II diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome occurrence in two groups: 111 patients after curative subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth II (BII) anastomosis and Roux-en-Y gastrojejuno (RYGJ) anastomosis and 344 age-sex matched controls. Fecal samples from those with BII, RYGJ, and controls were analyzed by next-generation sequencing method. Metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus occurrences were significantly lower in patients after subtotal gastrectomy with RYGJ than in controls over the long term (> 8 years) follow-up (P < 0.05). The richness and diversity of gut microbiota significantly increased after subtotal gastrectomy with RYGJ (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the principal component analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial genera abundance after subtotal gastrectomy with BII and RYGJ (P < 0.001). Genera of Oscillospira, Prevotella, Coprococcus, Veillonella, Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Anaerosinus, Slackia, Oxalobacter, Victivallis, Butyrivibrio, Sporobacter, and Campylobacter shared more abundant roles both in the RYGJ group and BII groups. Early gastric cancer patients after subtotal gastrectomy with RYGJ had a lower occurrence of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus than the controls during long term follow-up. In parallel with the metabolic improvements, gut microbial richness and diversity also significantly increased after subtotal gastrectomy with RYGJ.

5.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: We aimed to identify the risk factors of first-time occurrence of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) among aspirin users after adjusting for confounding factors like age, gender, underlying co-morbidities, and medications. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan and matching age, gender, underlying co-morbidities and enrollment time by propensity score, 11105 aspirin users and 11105 controls were identified for comparison from a cohort dataset of 1,000,000 randomly sampled subjects. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for first-time occurrence of non-variceal UGIB in the study cohort and in the aspirin users after adjusting for age, gender, underlying co-morbidities, and medications (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2] inhibitors, steroids, thienopyridines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, warfarin, and dipyridamole). RESULTS: By Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, aspirin use increased the risk of first-time occurrence of UGIB (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-1.72). Age, male gender, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)infection, diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), cirrhosis, history of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and use of NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, steroids, and thienopyridines were independent risk factors for UGIB among aspirin users. CONCLUSION: In addition to age, male gender, H. pylori infection, and concomitant use of NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, steroids, and thienopyridines, underlying co-morbidities including diabetes, CKD, cirrhosis, history of PUD are also important risk factors for first-time occurrence of non-variceal UGIB in aspirin users.

6.
Helicobacter ; 23(5): e12533, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A consensus on the management of Helicobacter pylori has been developed. We aimed to assess whether dissemination through continuing medical education (CME) could enhance the adoption of this consensus among clinicians and to explore potential barriers to acceptance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four CME courses were held to disseminate the consensus. Adoption surveys were performed to evaluate participants' behavior in the past and their commitment to adopt the consensus in future clinical practice after CME. The gaps and barriers to adoption were also surveyed. RESULTS: A total of 240 physicians had attended the CME courses and received surveys with the 22 statements/substatements of the consensus. Before CME, adoption was good in six, fair in ten, and poor in six. After CME, 21 statements had either an initial >90% adoption or improvement to good or fair (P < 0.001), but one still had poor even though it showed improvement (P = 0.02). Although commitment was good or fair after CME, there was a >20% gap between "commitment" and "no barrier" to adoption for 11 statements, ten of which had a main barrier of financial incentives. Among the statements with fair or poor commitment after CME, less commitment to adoption and more barriers related to financial incentives were pronounced in clinicians serving in regional/district hospitals or clinics compared to those serving in medical centers. CONCLUSIONS: Continuing medical education may improve the adoption of the H. pylori consensus. The financial incentives were shown to be a main barrier to adoption of the consensus and should be improved.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 155(4): 1109-1119, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to compare the efficacy of genotypic resistance-guided therapy vs empirical therapy for eradication of refractory Helicobacter pylori infection in randomized controlled trials. METHODS: We performed 2 multicenter, open-label trials of patients with H pylori infection (20 years or older) failed by 2 or more previous treatment regimens, from October 2012 through September 2017 in Taiwan. The patients were randomly assigned to groups given genotypic resistance-guided therapy for 14 days (n = 21 in trial 1, n = 205 in trial 2) or empirical therapy according to medication history for 14 days (n = 20 in trial 1, n = 205 in trial 2). Patients received sequential therapy containing esomeprazole and amoxicillin for the first 7 days, followed by esomeprazole and metronidazole, with levofloxacin, clarithromycin, or tetracycline (doxycycline in trial 1, tetracycline in trial 2) for another 7 days (all given twice daily) based on genotype markers of resistance determined from gastric biopsy specimens (group A) or empirical therapy according to medication history. Resistance-associated mutations in 23S ribosomal RNA or gyrase A were identified by polymerase chain reaction with direct sequencing. Eradication status was determined by 13C-urea breath test. The primary outcome was eradication rate. RESULTS: H pylori infection was eradicated in 17 of 21 (81%) patients receiving genotype resistance-guided therapy and 12 of 20 (60%) patients receiving empirical therapy (P = .181) in trial 1. This trial was terminated ahead of schedule due to the low rate of eradication in patients given doxycycline sequential therapy (15 of 26 [57.7%]). In trial 2, H pylori infection was eradicated in 160 of 205 (78%) patients receiving genotype resistance-guided therapy and 148 of 205 (72.2%) patients receiving empirical therapy (P = .170), according to intent to treat analysis. The frequencies of adverse effects and compliance did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Properly designed empirical therapy, based on medication history, is an acceptable alternative to genotypic resistance-guided therapy for eradication of refractory H pylori infection after consideration of accessibility, cost, and patient preference. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01725906.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Infecciones por Helicobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anciano , Amoxicilina/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Pruebas Respiratorias , Claritromicina/administración & dosificación , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Doxiciclina/administración & dosificación , Esquema de Medicación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Esomeprazol/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Genotipo , Infecciones por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/microbiología , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidad , Humanos , Levofloxacino/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Metronidazol/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/efectos adversos , Taiwán , Tetraciclina/administración & dosificación , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(9): 2510-2518, 2018 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846605

RESUMEN

Background: Whether extending the treatment length and the use of high-dose esomeprazole may optimize the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication remains unknown. Objectives: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of optimized 14 day sequential therapy and 10 day bismuth quadruple therapy containing high-dose esomeprazole in first-line therapy. Methods: We recruited 620 adult patients (≥20 years of age) with H. pylori infection naive to treatment in this multicentre, open-label, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 14 day sequential therapy or 10 day bismuth quadruple therapy, both containing esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily. Those who failed after 14 day sequential therapy received rescue therapy with 10 day bismuth quadruple therapy and vice versa. Our primary outcome was the eradication rate in the first-line therapy. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03156855. Results: The eradication rates of 14 day sequential therapy and 10 day bismuth quadruple therapy were 91.3% (283 of 310, 95% CI 87.4%-94.1%) and 91.6% (284 of 310, 95% CI 87.8%-94.3%) in the ITT analysis, respectively (difference -0.3%, 95% CI -4.7% to 4.4%, P = 0.886). However, the frequencies of adverse effects were significantly higher in patients treated with 10 day bismuth quadruple therapy than those treated with 14 day sequential therapy (74.4% versus 36.7% P < 0.0001). The eradication rate of 14 day sequential therapy in strains with and without 23S ribosomal RNA mutation was 80% (24 of 30) and 99% (193 of 195), respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Optimized 14 day sequential therapy was non-inferior to, but better tolerated than 10 day bismuth quadruple therapy and both may be used in first-line treatment in populations with low to intermediate clarithromycin resistance.

9.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 81(12): 1027-1032, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778548

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that uremia patients under hemodialysis (HD) have a significantly higher occurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) than healthy controls and that elderly patients remain at high risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and PUB. Here we aimed to identify the risk factors for PUB in aging (≥65-years-old) uremic patients under regular HD. METHODS: Using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we compared 18,252 aging regular HD patients and 17,883 age-, gender-, and medication-matched patients without kidney disease (control group). The log-rank test was performed to analyze the differences in accumulated hazard of PUB between the two groups. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate independent risk factors for PUB between the two groups and identify risk factors of PUB in aging HD patients. RESULTS: In a 7-year follow-up, aging HD patients had significantly higher incidences of PUB than the matched controls (p < 0.001 by the log-rank test). By Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, HD (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.61; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 4.03-5.27) was independently associated with increased risk of PUB. Age, diabetes mellitus (DM), history of uncomplicated PUD, cirrhosis, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids were risk factors for PUB in aging HD patients. CONCLUSION: Aging HD patients are associated with higher risk of PUB. The use of NSAIDs and corticosteroids and co-morbidities including DM, history of uncomplicated PUD, and cirrhosis were identified as risk factors for PUB in these patients.

10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 81(9): 759-765, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778550

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) is an alternative method to colonoscopy that can be used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. If the iFOBT result is positive, a colonoscopy is recommended. In this retrospective study, we identify factors associated with negative colonoscopy and positive iFOBT results obtained during CRC screening. METHODS: We collected data for subjects who received a colonoscopy at Taipei Veterans General Hospital after receiving a positive iFOBT result during CRC screening from January 2015 to December 2015. Subjects' baseline data, medications, and co-morbidities as well as colonoscopy and histological findings were recorded. A negative colonoscopy result was defined as no detection of any colorectal neoplasia including non-advanced adenoma, advanced adenoma, and adenocarciona. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the associated factors in screening subjects with positive iFOBT but negative colonoscopy results. RESULTS: 559 (46.3%) out of 1207 eligible study subjects received a colonoscopy with a negative result. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the use of antiplatelets [odds ratio (OR) = 0.654; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.434-0.986], occurrence of hemorrhoid (OR = 0.595; 95% CI, 0.460-0.768), and the existence of colitis/ulcer (OR = 0.358; 95% CI, 0.162-0.789) were independent factors associated with negative colonoscopy but positive iFOBT results during CRC screening. The colon clean level, underlying diseases of gastrointestinal bleeding tendency (e.g., chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis), and the use of anticoagulant or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents were not associated with negative colonoscopy and positive iFOBT results. CONCLUSION: The use of antiplatelet agents and the presence of hemorrhoids and colitis/ulcers were factors associated with negative colonoscopy and positive iFOBT results.

11.
Pain Med ; 19(2): 225-231, 2018 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460044

RESUMEN

Objective: Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs) are associated with less upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) than traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs). However, they also increase the risk of UGIB in high-risk patients. We aimed to identify the risk factors of UGIB in coxibs users. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: 2000-2010 National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Subjects: Patients taking coxibs as the study group and patients not taking any coxibs as controls. Methods: After age, gender, and comorbidity matching by propensity score, 12,145 coxibs users and 12,145 matched controls were extracted for analysis. The primary end point was the occurrence of UGIB. Cox multivariate proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the risk factors for UGIB among all the enrollees and coxibs users. Results: During a mean follow-up of three years, coxibs users had significantly higher incidence of UGIB than matched controls (P < 0.001, log-rank test). Cox regression analysis showed that coxibs increased risk of UGIB in all participants (hazard ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-1.55, P < 0.001). Independent risk factors for UGIB among coxibs users were age, male gender, diabetes, chronic renal disease, cirrhosis, history of peptic ulcer disease, PU bleeding (PUB), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, and concomitant use of tNSAIDs, acetylsalicylic acid, or thienopyridines. Conclusions: Among coxibs users, H. pylori infection and history of PUB were especially important risk factors for UGIB. Further studies are needed to determine whether proton pump inhibitors might play a protective role in these at-risk patients.

12.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 52(5): 392-400, 2018 May/Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727630

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Split-dose regimens (SpDs) were recommended as a first choice for bowel preparation, whereas same-day regimens (SaDs) were recommended as an alternative; however, randomized trials compared them with mixed results. The meta-analysis was aimed at clarifying efficacy level between the 2 regimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to identify randomized trials published from 1990 to 2016, comparing SaDs to SpDs in adults. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for preparation quality, cecal intubation rate (CIR), adenoma detection rate (ADR), and any other adverse effects. RESULTS: Fourteen trials were included. The proportion of individuals receiving SaDs and SpDs with adequate preparation in the pooled analysis were 79.4% and 81.7%, respectively, with no significant difference [OR=0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-1.36] in 11 trials. Subgroup analysis revealed that the odds of adequate preparation for SaDs with bisacodyl were 2.45 times that for SpDs without bisacodyl (95% CI, 1.45-4.51, in favor of SaDs with bisacodyl). Subjects received SaDs experienced better sleep. CONCLUSIONS: SaDs were comparable with SpDs in terms of bowel cleanliness, CIR, and ADR, and could also outperform SpDs in preparation quality with bisacodyl. SaDs also offered better sleep the previous night than SpDs did, which suggests that SaDs might serve as a superior alternative to SpDs. The heterogenous regimens and measurements likely account for the low rates of optimal bowl preparations in both arms. Further studies are needed to validate these results and determine the optimal purgatives and dosages.

13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 72(12): 3481-3489, 2017 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961996

RESUMEN

Background: The impact of amoxicillin resistance on the efficacy of regimens containing amoxicillin for Helicobacter pylori eradication remains unknown. Objectives: To investigate whether the efficacy of an amoxicillin-containing regimen is affected by amoxicillin resistance and to identify the optimal breakpoint for amoxicillin resistance. Methods: This was a pooled analysis of five randomized trials conducted in Taiwan from 2007 to 2016. Patients who received amoxicillin-containing regimens were recruited. MICs were determined by agar dilution testing. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the risk ratio of eradication failure in amoxicillin-resistant strains compared with susceptible strains of seven different regimens. We performed further the pooled analysis and logistic regression in patients treated with clarithromycin triple therapy to identify the optimal breakpoint for amoxicillin resistance. Results: A total of 2339 patients with available amoxicillin MICs were enrolled. Meta-analysis showed that the presence of amoxicillin resistance was consistently associated with increased risk of treatment failure of amoxicillin-containing regimens at different breakpoints (risk ratio: 1.41, 95% CI 1.12-1.78, P = 0.004 when the cut-off was 0.5 mg/L). The heterogeneity was low (I2 = 0%, P = 0.615). Pooled analysis also showed that amoxicillin resistance was an independent risk factor for treatment failure of clarithromycin triple therapy at different breakpoints. The best correlation was observed when the breakpoint of amoxicillin resistance was ≥0.125 mg/L (kappa coefficient 0.298), at which the resistance rate was 11.1% (110 of 990). Conclusions: The efficacies of amoxicillin-containing regimens are affected by amoxicillin resistance and the optimal breakpoint MIC is ≥ 0.125 mg/L.


Asunto(s)
Amoxicilina/administración & dosificación , Amoxicilina/farmacología , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Resistencia betalactámica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Claritromicina/administración & dosificación , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Medición de Riesgo , Taiwán , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
14.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 80(11): 690-696, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803891

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether cholecystectomy can decrease recurrent cholangitis and all-cause mortality in patients who received endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and successful clearance of bile duct (BD) stones after gallstone-related cholangitis. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health Insurance research database of Taiwan. Patients who had gallstone-related cholangitis and underwent successful endoscopic clearance of BD stones were eligible for enrollment. This population-based, propensity score (PS)-matched cohort study involved 2 cohorts; (1) patients who underwent cholecystectomy after ERCP with BD stone clearance as the study group; and (2) those who had no cholecystectomy after ERCP with BD stone clearance as the control group. The primary endpoint was recurrent cholangitis, and the secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During a mean 5.7-year follow-up, the incidence rates of recurrent cholangitis were 20.47 per 1000 person-years in the cholecystectomy cohort, and 34.60 per 1000 person-years in the PS-matched control cohort. The risk of recurrent cholangitis was significantly lower in the cholecystectomy cohort than in the control cohort (HR, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.87; P = 0.006). The HR for all cause mortality among the cholecystectomy cohort was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.54-0.90; P = 0.006) compared with the control cohort. CONCLUSION: Cholecystectomy decreased the recurrent cholangitis and all-cause mortality in patients with endoscopic sphincterotomy and successful clearance of BD stones after gallstone-related cholangitis.


Asunto(s)
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colangitis/prevención & control , Colecistectomía , Cálculos Biliares/cirugía , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Colangitis/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Cálculos Biliares/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puntaje de Propensión , Recurrencia , Esfinterotomía Endoscópica
15.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 112(7): 1084-1093, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397874

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: An increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events was reported for concomitant use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients taking antiplatelet agents. The present study aimed at determining whether PPI use alone could be associated with first-time ischemic stroke. METHODS: This was a retrospective nationwide study using database from Taiwan National Health Insurance and involved subjects aged ≥20 years. In propensity score-matched analysis, patients with current PPI use were compared with propensity score-matched PPI non-use controls at a 1:1 ratio. Patients with prior stroke or hospitalization before the index date were excluded. The primary outcome measure was hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke during 120-day follow-up. A parallel analysis adopting a nested case-control design was carried out. Patients hospitalized for a first-time ischemic stroke were identified and were compared with matched controls using conditional logistic regression analyses focusing on PPI use before the index date. RESULTS: The propensity score-matched analysis included 198,148 PPI treatment courses and control periods without PPI use. PPI use was associated with a higher risk of hospitalization due to ischemic stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.620, P=0.001). Based on subgroup analysis, patients aged <60 years were more susceptible (P=0.043 for interaction), whereas gender, history myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, use of antiplatelet agents of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or type of PPIs had no effect on the risk. In the nested case-control analysis, 15,378 patients hospitalized owing to ischemic stroke were identified and were compared with 15,378 matched controls. An association between PPI use and increased cerebrovascular risks was identified, and the adjusted odds ratios for PPI use were 1.77 (95% CI 1.45-2.18, P<0.001) within 30 days, 1.65 (95% CI 1.31-2.08, P<0.001) between 31 and 90 days, and 1.28 (95% CI 1.03-1.59, P=0.025) between 91 and 180 days before the onset of first-time ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: PPI use is associated with an increased risk of first-time ischemic stroke in the general population, and the risk is independent of antiplatelet agents. However, caution should be exercised when considering its clinical relevance as the magnitude of association was modest and a cause-and-effect relationship remained to be established.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/efectos adversos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/inducido químicamente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puntaje de Propensión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Taiwán/epidemiología
16.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 51(6): 539-547, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067752

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral nucleos(t)ide analogs are recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute exacerbation (AE) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The efficacy and safety of administering entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LAM) to such patients remain unclear. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed to select studies published before December 2015 on therapy involving ETV or LAM for chronic HBV-related AE with or without ACLF. The main outcomes were short-term (within 4 mo) and long-term (beyond 4 mo) mortality. The secondary outcomes were virological and biochemical responses, ACLF recurrence, and safety. RESULTS: Three prospective and 8 retrospective cohort studies involving 1491 patients were selected. An overall analysis revealed comparable short-term and long-term mortality rates among all patients who received ETV or LAM [short term: risk ratio (RR)=0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.27; long term: RR=0.82; 95% CI, 0.45-1.52]. However, in patients with ACLF, ETV yielded a more favorable long-term outcome than did LAM (RR=0.60; 95% CI, 0.45-0.80). Furthermore, ETV resulted in more efficient virological and biochemical responses than did LAM regarding the HBV DNA undetectable rate (RR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.63), HBV DNA reduction rate (weighted mean difference=-0.41; 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.13), and serum alanine aminotransferase normalization rate (RR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.21). CONCLUSIONS: ETV and LAM treatments exerted similar effects on the mortality rate of patients with chronic HBV-related AE with or without ACLF. However, ETV yielded a more favorable long-term outcome than did LAM in patients with ACLF; ETV was associated with greater clinical improvements. Additional larger, long-term randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Hepática Crónica Agudizada/tratamiento farmacológico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatitis B Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Lamivudine/uso terapéutico , Insuficiencia Hepática Crónica Agudizada/mortalidad , Insuficiencia Hepática Crónica Agudizada/virología , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Guanina/efectos adversos , Guanina/uso terapéutico , Hepatitis B Crónica/complicaciones , Hepatitis B Crónica/mortalidad , Humanos , Lamivudine/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
19.
Eur J Intern Med ; 37: 75-82, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27727075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) remains unclear. In this study, we compared the risk of recurrent PUB between patients with and those without COPD. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we first selected patients newly diagnosed with PUB in 2002-2009. Two groups comprising 13,732 COPD cases and 13,732 non-COPD matched controls were created using propensity score matching, thereby making the differences in basic demographics, medication use, and disease conditions between the two groups negligible. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate the risk of recurrent PUB during the follow-up period. RESULTS: The cumulative recurrence rate of PUB was significantly higher in the patients with COPD than in the non-COPD matched controls (2years: 10.8% vs 9.3%; 6years: 18.3% vs 15.7%, P all <0.05), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.26, P<0.001) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.12-1.26, P<0.001) within 2-year and 6-year follow-ups, respectively. Patients with COPD using steroids were at a marginally higher risk of recurrent PUB than those who did not use steroids. Multivariate stratified analysis revealed similar results in many subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of recurrent PUB is higher in patients with COPD than in patients without COPD.


Asunto(s)
Úlcera Péptica Hemorrágica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo , Taiwán/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 21(2): 294-301, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess whether cholecystectomy can decrease the recurrent pancreatitis in the elderly patients who received endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and successful clearance of bile duct (BD) stones after gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. METHODS: We analyzed data from National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Elderly patients (age ≧70 years old) who had gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and underwent successful EST with BD stones clearance were eligible for enrollment. This nationwide, population-based, propensity score (PS)-matched cohort study involved two cohorts: (1) patients who underwent cholecystectomy after ERCP with BD stone clearance as study group and (2) those who adopted wait-and-see strategy (without cholecystectomy) after ERCP with BD stone clearance as control group. The primary and secondary endpoints were recurrent acute pancreatitis and all-cause mortality, respectively. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 670 elderly patients (male 291, female 379) with a mean age of 79.1 was enrolled for analysis after PS matching. The incidence rate of recurrent acute pancreatitis was 12.39 per 1000 person-years in the cholecystectomy cohort and 23.94 per 1000 person-years in the PS-matched control cohort. The risk of recurrent acute pancreatitis was significantly lower in the cholecystectomy cohort (HR, 0.56; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.91; P = 0.021). The HR for all-cause mortality among the cholecystectomy cohort was 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.59-0.95; P = 0.016) compared with the control cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Cholecystectomy decreased the subsequent recurrent acute pancreatitis and the all-cause mortality in elderly patients with EST and clearance of BD stones after gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.


Asunto(s)
Colecistectomía , Cálculos Biliares/cirugía , Pancreatitis/prevención & control , Esfinterotomía Endoscópica , Enfermedad Aguda , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colecistectomía/mortalidad , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Cálculos Biliares/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Pancreatitis/etiología , Pancreatitis/mortalidad , Puntaje de Propensión , Recurrencia , Prevención Secundaria , Esfinterotomía Endoscópica/mortalidad
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