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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(1): 010504, 2019 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012689

RESUMEN

We characterize a fluxonium qubit consisting of a Josephson junction inductively shunted with a NbTiN nanowire superinductance. We explain the measured energy spectrum by means of a multimode theory accounting for the distributed nature of the superinductance and the effect of the circuit nonlinearity to all orders in the Josephson potential. Using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy, we address multiple fluxonium transitions, observe multilevel Autler-Townes splitting and measure an excited state lifetime of T_{1}=20 µs. By measuring T_{1} at different magnetic flux values, we find a crossover in the lifetime limiting mechanism from capacitive to inductive losses.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(3): 037701, 2017 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157376

RESUMEN

We report on electron spin resonance measurements of phosphorus donors localized in a 200 µm^{2} area below the inductive wire of a lumped element superconducting resonator. By combining quantum limited parametric amplification with a low impedance microwave resonator design, we are able to detect around 2×10^{4} spins with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 in a single shot. The 150 Hz coupling strength between the resonator field and individual spins is significantly larger than the 1-10 Hz coupling rates obtained with typical coplanar waveguide resonator designs. Because of the larger coupling rate, we find that spin relaxation is dominated by radiative decay into the resonator and dependent upon the spin-resonator detuning, as predicted by Purcell.

3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 227: 1-5, 2016 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27043382

RESUMEN

Clostridium difficile is commonly associated with a spectrum of disease in humans referred to as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and use of antimicrobials is considered a risk factor for development of disease in humans. C. difficile can also inhabit healthy food animals and transmission to humans is possible. As a result of the complexity and cost of testing, C. difficile is rarely tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 376 C. difficile strains (94 each from swine and dairy feces, and 188 from beef cattle feces) were isolated from healthy food animals on farms during studies conducted by the National Animal Health Monitoring System. Using the Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden), samples were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobials implicated as risk factors for CDAD (linezolid, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, rifampicin, and vancomycin). Vancomycin was active against all isolates of C. difficile (MIC90=3.0µg/ml) while almost all isolates (n=369; 98.1%) were resistant to levofloxacin. With the exception of vancomycin, resistance varied by animal species as follows: linezolid (8.5% resistance among swine versus 2.1 and 1.1% resistance among dairy and beef, respectively), clindamycin (56.4% resistance among swine versus 80% and 90.9% resistance among dairy and beef, respectively), and rifampicin (2.1% and 0% resistance among swine and dairy cattle isolates, respectively versus 14.3% resistance among beef isolates). Regardless of species, multiple drug resistance was observed most often to combinations of clindamycin and levofloxacin (n=195; 51.9%) and ampicillin, clindamycin and levofloxacin (n=41; 10.9%). The reason for the variability of resistance between animal species is unknown and requires further research.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Clostridioides difficile/efectos de los fármacos , Clostridioides difficile/aislamiento & purificación , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Heces/microbiología , Animales , Bovinos , Clostridioides difficile/clasificación , Granjas , Humanos , Carne/microbiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Suecia , Porcinos
4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(24): 247601, 2015 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26705654

RESUMEN

Germanium is a widely used material for electronic and optoelectronic devices and recently it has become an important material for spintronics and quantum computing applications. Donor spins in silicon have been shown to support very long coherence times (T_{2}) when the host material is isotopically enriched to remove any magnetic nuclei. Germanium also has nonmagnetic isotopes so it is expected to support long T_{2}'s while offering some new properties. Compared to Si, Ge has a strong spin-orbit coupling, large electron wave function, high mobility, and highly anisotropic conduction band valleys which will all give rise to new physics. In this Letter, the first pulsed electron spin resonance measurements of T_{2} and the spin-lattice relaxation (T_{1}) times for ^{75}As and ^{31}P donors in natural and isotopically enriched germanium are presented. We compare samples with various levels of isotopic enrichment and find that spectral diffusion due to ^{73}Ge nuclear spins limits the coherence in samples with significant amounts of ^{73}Ge. For the most highly enriched samples, we find that T_{1} limits T_{2} to T_{2}=2T_{1}. We report an anisotropy in T_{1} and the ensemble linewidths for magnetic fields oriented along different crystal axes but do not resolve any angular dependence to the spectral-diffusion-limited T_{2} in samples with ^{73}Ge.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(21): 217601, 2015 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26066457

RESUMEN

We report the use of novel, capacitively terminated coplanar waveguide resonators to measure the quadratic Stark shift of phosphorus donor qubits in Si. We confirm that valley repopulation leads to an anisotropic spin-orbit Stark shift depending on electric and magnetic field orientations relative to the Si crystal. By measuring the linear Stark effect, we estimate the effective electric field due to strain in our samples. We show that in the presence of this strain, electric-field sources of decoherence can be non-negligible. Using our measured values for the Stark shift, we predict magnetic fields for which the spin-orbit Stark effect cancels the hyperfine Stark effect, suppressing decoherence from electric-field noise. We discuss the limitations of these noise-suppression points due to random distributions of strain and propose a method for overcoming them.

6.
Nat Mater ; 14(5): 490-4, 2015 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25799326

RESUMEN

Electrical detection of spins is an essential tool for understanding the dynamics of spins, with applications ranging from optoelectronics and spintronics, to quantum information processing. For electron spins bound to donors in silicon, bulk electrically detected magnetic resonance has relied on coupling to spin readout partners such as paramagnetic defects or conduction electrons, which fundamentally limits spin coherence times. Here we demonstrate electrical detection of donor electron spin resonance in an ensemble by transport through a silicon device, using optically driven donor-bound exciton transitions. We measure electron spin Rabi oscillations, and obtain long electron spin coherence times, limited only by the donor concentration. We also experimentally address critical issues such as non-resonant excitation, strain, and electric fields, laying the foundations for realizing a single-spin readout method with relaxed magnetic field and temperature requirements compared with spin-dependent tunnelling, enabling donor-based technologies such as quantum sensing.

7.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(2): 025116, 2013 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23464260

RESUMEN

We discuss the design and implementation of thin film superconducting coplanar waveguide micro-resonators for pulsed electron spin resonance experiments. The performance of the resonators with P doped Si epilayer samples is compared to waveguide resonators under equivalent conditions. The high achievable filling factor even for small sized samples and the relatively high Q-factor result in a sensitivity of 4.5 × 10(8) spins per shot, which is superior to that of conventional waveguide resonators, in particular to spins close to the sample surface. The peak microwave power is on the order of a few milliwatts, which is compatible with measurements at ultra-low temperatures. We also discuss the effect of the nonuniform microwave magnetic field on the Hahn echo power dependence.

8.
Nat Mater ; 11(2): 143-7, 2011 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22138791

RESUMEN

Silicon is one of the most promising semiconductor materials for spin-based information processing devices. Its advanced fabrication technology facilitates the transition from individual devices to large-scale processors, and the availability of a (28)Si form with no magnetic nuclei overcomes a primary source of spin decoherence in many other materials. Nevertheless, the coherence lifetimes of electron spins in the solid state have typically remained several orders of magnitude lower than that achieved in isolated high-vacuum systems such as trapped ions. Here we examine electron spin coherence of donors in pure (28)Si material (residual (29)Si concentration <50 ppm) with donor densities of 10(14)-10(15) cm(-3). We elucidate three mechanisms for spin decoherence, active at different temperatures, and extract a coherence lifetime T(2) up to 2 s. In this regime, we find the electron spin is sensitive to interactions with other donor electron spins separated by ~200 nm. A magnetic field gradient suppresses such interactions, producing an extrapolated electron spin T(2) of 10 s at 1.8 K. These coherence lifetimes are without peer in the solid state and comparable to high-vacuum qubits, making electron spins of donors in silicon ideal components of quantum computers, or quantum memories for systems such as superconducting qubits.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 106(20): 207601, 2011 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21668263

RESUMEN

We have measured the electrically detected magnetic resonance of donor-doped silicon field-effect transistors in resonant X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavities. The two-dimensional electron gas resonance signal increases by 2 orders of magnitude from X to W band, while the donor resonance signals are enhanced by over 1 order of magnitude. Bolometric effects and spin-dependent scattering are inconsistent with the observations. We propose that polarization transfer from the donor to the two-dimensional electron gas is the main mechanism giving rise to the spin resonance signals.

10.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 82(3): 034704, 2011 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21456773

RESUMEN

We describe a low-temperature sample probe for the electrical detection of magnetic resonance in a resonant W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavity. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by experiments on silicon field-effect transistors. A comparison with conventional low-frequency measurements at X-band (9.7 GHz) on the same devices reveals an up to 100-fold enhancement of the signal intensity. In addition, resonance lines that are unresolved at X-band are clearly separated in the W-band measurements. Electrically detected magnetic resonance at high magnetic fields and high microwave frequencies is therefore a very sensitive technique for studying electron spins with an enhanced spectral resolution and sensitivity.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 106(11): 110504, 2011 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21469852

RESUMEN

Electron spin qubits in molecular systems offer high reproducibility and the ability to self-assemble into larger architectures. However, interactions between neighboring qubits are "always on," and although the electron spin coherence times can be several hundred microseconds, these are still much shorter than typical times for nuclear spins. Here we implement an electron-nuclear hybrid scheme which uses coherent transfer between electron and nuclear spin degrees of freedom in order to both effectively turn on or off interqubit coupling mediated by dipolar interactions and benefit from the long nuclear spin decoherence times (T(2n)). We transfer qubit states between the electron and (15)N nuclear spin in (15)N@C(60) with a two-way process fidelity of 88%, using a series of tuned microwave and radio frequency pulses and measure a nuclear spin coherence lifetime of over 100 ms.

12.
J Food Prot ; 74(1): 130-3, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21219775

RESUMEN

Two isolation methods were compared for isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animal feces. The single alcohol shock method (SS) used selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate, followed by alcohol shock and isolation on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood, and cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose agar. The double alcohol shock method (DS) used alcohol shock prior to and after selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate, followed by isolation on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose agar. A total of 55 (15.9%, n = 345) swine fecal samples, 32 (2.4%, n = 1,325) dairy cattle fecal samples, and 188 (6.3%, n = 2,965) beef cattle fecal samples were positive for C. difficile by either method. However, the DS was significantly better than the SS for the recovery of C. difficile from swine feces, while the SS was significantly better than the DS for the recovery of C. difficile from beef cattle feces. There was no significant difference between methods for the recovery of C. difficile from dairy cattle feces. This study suggests that food animals might harbor C. difficile and it provides critical information that isolation methods might not have universal application across animal species.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Clostridioides difficile/aislamiento & purificación , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana/métodos , Heces/microbiología , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Agar , Animales , Bovinos , Medios de Cultivo , Microbiología de Alimentos , Humanos , Prevalencia , Porcinos
13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(26): 266803, 2011 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22243176

RESUMEN

Unprecedented transport efficiency is demonstrated for electrons on the surface of micron-scale superfluid helium-filled channels by co-opting silicon processing technology to construct the equivalent of a charge-coupled device. Strong fringing fields lead to undetectably rare transfer failures after over a billion cycles in two dimensions. This extremely efficient transport is measured in 120 channels simultaneously with packets of up to 20 electrons, and down to singly occupied pixels. These results point the way towards the large scale transport of either computational qubits or electron spin qubits used for communications in a hybrid qubit system.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(4): 040503, 2010 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867827

RESUMEN

We propose a hybrid architecture in which an on-chip high finesse superconducting cavity is coupled to the lateral motion and spin state of a single electron trapped on the surface of superfluid helium. We estimate the motional coherence times to exceed 15 µs, while energy will be coherently exchanged with the cavity photons in less than 10 ns for charge states and faster than 1 µs for spin states, making the system attractive for quantum information processing and strong coupling cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The cavity is used for nondestructive readout and as a quantum bus mediating interactions between distant electrons or an electron and a superconducting qubit.

15.
Poult Sci ; 86(5): 964-7, 2007 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17435033

RESUMEN

Raw broiler breast fillets were subjected to germicidal ultraviolet (UV) light (dose of 1,000 microW/cm(2) for 5 min at a wavelength of 254 nm) to evaluate its potential to reduce Listeria monocytogenes numbers on raw product before shipment to a poultry further-processing plant. Boneless, skinless breast fillets were inoculated with 4 different strains of L. monocytogenes 5 min before treatment. After the UV treatment, breast fillets were stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h. Enumeration of remaining L. monocytogenes was performed using the spread plate method on modified Oxford agar. An approximate 2-log reduction in viable L. monocytogenes was observed with all 4 strains on UV-treated breast fillets as compared with the nontreated breast fillets. The UV treatment caused only slight changes in meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness) on day of treatment or after 7 d of storage. This study suggests that UV treatment of raw breast fillets at a slaughter plant can significantly reduce L. monocytogenes without negatively affecting meat color. This process could be used to reduce the negative effect of raw poultry as a transmission vector of L. monocytogenes into a poultry further-processing plant.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología de Alimentos/normas , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeria monocytogenes/efectos de la radiación , Carne/microbiología , Rayos Ultravioleta , Animales , Pollos , Color
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 97(17): 176404, 2006 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17155489

RESUMEN

We report Stark shift measurements for 121Sb donor electron spins in silicon using pulsed electron spin resonance. Interdigitated metal gates on a Sb-implanted 28Si epilayer are used to apply the electric fields. Two quadratic Stark effects are resolved: a decrease of the hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins of the donor and a decrease in electron Zeeman g factor. The hyperfine term prevails at magnetic fields of 0.35 T, while the g factor term is expected to dominate at higher magnetic fields. We discuss the results in the context of the Kane model quantum computer.

17.
J Chem Phys ; 124(23): 234508, 2006 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16821930

RESUMEN

Over the past 50 years, electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) has become a fairly ubiquitous spectroscopic technique, allowing the study of spin transitions for nuclei which are coupled to electron spins. However, the low spin number sensitivity of the technique continues to pose serious limitations. Here we demonstrate that signal intensity in a pulsed Davies ENDOR experiment depends strongly on the nuclear relaxation time T(1n), and can be severely reduced for long T(1n). We suggest a development of the original Davies ENDOR sequence that overcomes this limitation, thus offering dramatically enhanced signal intensity and spectral resolution. Finally, we observe that the sensitivity of the original Davies method to T(1n) can be exploited to measure nuclear relaxation, as we demonstrate for phosphorous donors in silicon and for endohedral fullerenes N@C(60) in CS(2).

18.
J Chem Phys ; 124(1): 14508, 2006 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16409042

RESUMEN

We examine the temperature dependence of the electron spin relaxation times of the molecules N@C60 and N@C70 (which comprise atomic nitrogen trapped within a carbon cage) in liquid CS2 solution. The results are inconsistent with the fluctuating zero-field splitting (ZFS) mechanism, which is commonly invoked to explain electron spin relaxation for S> or =1 spins in liquid solution, and is the mechanism postulated in the literature for these systems. Instead, we find an Arrhenius temperature dependence for N@C60 , indicating the spin relaxation is driven primarily by an Orbach process. For the asymmetric N@C70 molecule, which has a permanent ZFS, we resolve an additional relaxation mechanism caused by the rapid reorientation of its ZFS. We also report the longest coherence time (T2) ever observed for a molecular electron spin, being 0.25 ms at 170 K.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 95(20): 200501, 2005 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16384042

RESUMEN

Systematic errors in spin rotation operations using simple rf pulses place severe limitations on the usefulness of the pulsed magnetic resonance methods in quantum computing applications. In particular, the fidelity of quantum logic operations performed on electron spin qubits falls well below the threshold for the application of quantum algorithms. Using three independent techniques, we demonstrate the use of composite pulses to improve this fidelity by several orders of magnitude. The observed high-fidelity operations are limited by pulse phase errors, but nevertheless fall within the limits required for the application of quantum error correction.

20.
J Chem Phys ; 122(17): 174504, 2005 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15910042

RESUMEN

Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) has been observed for the first time from a coupled heterospin pair of electron and nucleus in liquid solution. Previously, modulation effects in spin-echo experiments have only been described in liquid solutions for a coupled pair of homonuclear spins in nuclear magnetic resonance or a pair of resonant electron spins in electron paramagnetic resonance. We observe low-frequency ESEEM (26 and 52 kHz) due to a new mechanism present for any electron spin with S > 12 that is hyperfine coupled to a nuclear spin. In our case these are electron spin (S = 32) and nuclear spin (I = 1) in the endohedral fullerene N@C(60). The modulation is shown to arise from second-order effects in the isotropic hyperfine coupling of an electron and (14)N nucleus.

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