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1.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(3): 541-546, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295559

RESUMEN

Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who then become infected with SARS-CoV-2, are at greater risk of developing complications from COVID-19, which may even lead to death. Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires continuous contact with healthcare facilities; therefore, this type of patients should have regular access to medicines, tests and appointments with healthcare personnel. In Peru, care and treatment continuity have been affected since the national state of emergency due to COVID-19 began; because many healthcare facilities suspended outpatient consultations. The strategies presented in this study were developed by different Peruvian health providers in the pandemic context to ensure care continuity for people with diabetes. This article provides recommendations to strengthen primary healthcare, because it is the first level of healthcare contact for patients with diabetes.

2.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(3): 566-570, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295563

RESUMEN

Neurological infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality; and should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. Typically, it is characterized by fever, headache and behavioral changes. Symptoms association, laboratory tests results and diagnostic imaging are essential for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease, in order to prevent its fatal progression. We present the case of a 45-year-old male patient diagnosed with HSV-2 encephalitis due to chronic steroid use. In previously healthy adult patients, neurological HSV-2 infection due to chronic steroid use is extremely rare; and the association has not been previously described.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244171, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370364

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Peru is among the top ten countries with the highest number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases worldwide. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical features of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 and to determine the prognostic factors associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to Hospital Cayetano Heredia; a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients (median age 59 years [IQR:49-68]; 241 (65.31%) male) were included. Most patients (68.56%) reported at least one comorbidity; more frequently: obesity (42.55%), diabetes mellitus (21.95%), and hypertension (21.68%). The median duration of symptoms prior to hospital admission was 7 days (IQR: 5-10). Reported in-hospital mortality was 49.59%. By multiple Cox regression, oxygen saturation (SaO2) values of less than 90% on admission correlated with mortality, presenting 1.86 (95%CI: 1.02-3.39), 4.44 (95%CI: 2.46-8.02) and 7.74 (95%CI: 4.54-13.19) times greater risk of death for SaO2 of 89-85%, 84-80% and <80%, respectively, when compared to patients with SaO2 >90%. Additionally, age >60 years was associated with 1.88 times greater mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Oxygen saturation below 90% on admission is a strong predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. In settings with limited resources, efforts to reduce mortality in COVID-19 should focus on early identification of hypoxemia and timely access to hospital care.


Asunto(s)
/metabolismo , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidad , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización , Hospitales Públicos/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensión/metabolismo , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/mortalidad , Perú , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , /patogenicidad
6.
Heart ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318082

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke globally. We hypothesised that country-income level variations in knowledge, detection and treatment of hypertension may contribute to variations in the association of blood pressure with stroke. METHODS: We undertook a standardised case-control study in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE). Cases were patients with acute first stroke (n=13 462) who were matched by age, sex and site to controls (n=13 483). We evaluated the associations of knowledge, awareness and treatment of hypertension with risk of stroke and its subtypes and whether this varied by gross national income (GNI) of country. We estimated OR and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with treated and untreated hypertension. RESULTS: Hypertension was associated with a graded increase in OR by reducing GNI, ranging from OR 1.92 (99% CI 1.48 to 2.49) to OR 3.27 (2.72 to 3.93) for highest to lowest country-level GNI (p-heterogeneity<0.0001). Untreated hypertension was associated with a higher OR for stroke (OR 5.25; 4.53 to 6.10) than treated hypertension (OR 2.60; 2.32 to 2.91) and younger age of first stroke (61.4 vs 65.4 years; p<0.01). Untreated hypertension was associated with a greater risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (OR 6.95; 5.61 to 8.60) than ischaemic stroke (OR 4.76; 3.99 to 5.68). The PAR associated with untreated hypertension was higher in lower-income regions, PAR 36.3%, 26.3%, 19.8% to 10.4% by increasing GNI of countries. Lifetime non-measurement of blood pressure was associated with stroke (OR 1.80; 1.32 to 2.46). CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in knowledge, detection and treatment of hypertension contribute to higher risk of stroke, younger age of onset and larger proportion of intracerebral haemorrhage in lower-income countries.

7.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197265

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although low sodium intake (<2g/day) and high potassium intake (>3·5g/day) are proposed as public health interventions to reduce stroke risk, there is uncertainty about the benefit and feasibility of this combined recommendation on prevention of stroke and its subtypes. METHODS: We obtained random urine samples from 9,275 cases of acute first stroke and 9,726 matched controls (8,761 matched pairs for conditional analysis) from 27 countries and estimated the 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion, a surrogate for intake, using the Tanaka formula. Using multivariable conditional logistic regression, we determined the associations of estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion with stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS: The mean estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium urinary excretion was 3·29g/day and 1·57g/day, with 0·01% of participants having both low sodium (<2·0g/day) and high potassium excretion (>3·5g/day). There was a moderate positive correlation between sodium and potassium excretion (r=0·4435, P<0.001) and between sodium excretion and blood pressure (P<0.001). Compared with an estimated urinary sodium excretion of 2·8-3·5g/day (second quartile, reference), higher (>4·26g/day) (OR 1.81;95%CI,1.65-2.00) and lower (<2·8g/day) sodium excretion (OR 1.39;95%CI,1.26-1.53) were significantly associated with increased risk of stroke. The stroke risk associated with the highest quartile of sodium intake (sodium excretion >4·26g/day) was significantly greater (P<0.001) for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (OR 2.38;95%CI,1.93-2.92) than for ischemic stroke (OR 1.67;95%CI,1.50-1.87), and greater for large vessel and small vessel ischemic stroke than for cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Urinary potassium was inversely and linearly associated with risk of stroke, and stronger for ischemic stroke than ICH (P=0.026). In an analysis of combined sodium and potassium excretion, the combination of high potassium intake (>1·58g/day) and moderate sodium intake (2.8-3.5 g/day) was associated with the lowest risk of stroke. CONCLUSION: The association of sodium intake and stroke is J-shaped, with high sodium intake a stronger risk factor for intracerebral haemorrhage than ischemic stroke. Our data suggest that moderate sodium intake - rather than low sodium intake - combined with high potassium intake may be associated with the lowest risk of stroke and expected to be a more feasible combined dietary target.

8.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 23, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923686

RESUMEN

Background: Three previous clinical trials have found that thermometry use reduced diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) incidence four- to ten-fold among individuals with diabetes at high-risk of developing a DFU. However, these benefits depend on patient adherence to self-assessment. Therefore, novel approaches to improve self-management thermometry adherence are needed. Our objective was to compare incidence of DFUs in the thermometry plus mobile health (mHealth) reminders intervention arm vs. thermometry-only control arm. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial, enrolling adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus at risk of foot ulcers (risk groups 2 or 3) but without foot ulcers at the time of recruitment and allocating them to control (instruction to use a liquid crystal-based foot thermometer daily) or intervention (same instruction supplemented with text and voice messages with reminders to use the device and messages to promote foot care) groups and followed for 18 months. The primary outcome was time to occurrence of DFU. A process evaluation was also conducted. Results: A total of 172 patients (63% women, mean age 61 years) were enrolled; 86 to each study group. More patients enrolled in the intervention arm had a history of DFU (66% vs. 48%). Follow-up for the primary endpoint was complete for 158 of 172 participants (92%). DFU cumulative incidence was 24% (19 of 79) in the intervention arm and 11% (9 of 79) in the control arm. After adjusting for history of foot ulceration and study site, the Hazard Ratio (HR) for DFU was 1.44 (95% CI 0.65, 3.22). Adherence to ≥80% of daily temperature measurements was 87% (103 of 118) among the study participants who returned the logbook, with no difference between the intervention and control arms. Conclusions: This trial contributes to the evidence about the value of mHealth in preventing diabetes foot ulcers. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02373592 (27/02/2015).

9.
Acta méd. peru ; 37(3): 267-277, jul-sep 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142011

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Objetivo: comparar los precios de venta de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo y tratamiento de la COVID-19 en establecimientos farmacéuticos peruanos públicos y privados. Además, estimar el costo por persona del tratamiento farmacológico para casos leves y severos. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal con información reportada por establecimientos farmacéuticos públicos y privados. El precio de los medicamentos se presenta en medianas y se compararon usando la prueba no paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis. Además, se estimó el costo por persona y asequibilidad para el tratamiento de casos leves y severos. Resultados: medicamentos para casos leves como azitromicina, hidroxicloquina, ivermectina y paracetamol tienen medianas de precios entre S/ 0,04 (US$ 0,011) y S/ 23,81 (US$ 6,71) en establecimientos públicos, mientras que los mismos medicamentos en establecimientos privados fluctúan entre S/ 1,00 y S/ 36,00. En promedio, los precios de los medicamentos en el sector privado son 11 veces los precios en el sector público. Los costos de tratamiento por persona en establecimientos públicos son más asequibles que en los privados, especialmente para los medicamentos para casos más severos. Los esquemas de tratamiento para casos leves requieren la inversión de entre uno a cuatro días de salario mínimo. Mientras que los tratamientos de casos severos pueden requerir, hasta 64 días de salario mínimo en establecimientos privados. Conclusiones: el tratamiento farmacológico para COVID-19 supone un gasto importante para el sistema de salud público y para las familias a través de gastos de bolsillo. Urge diseñar e implementar medidas regulatorias para mejorar el acceso a medicamentos a precios asequibles.


ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the sale price of essential drugs used in the management and therapy of COVID-19 in public and private pharmacies in Peru. Also, to assess the cost per person of drug therapy for both mild and severe cases. Materials and methods: this is a cross-sectional study using data reported by public and private pharmacies in Peru. Drug prices are presented as median values and they were compared using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Also, costs per person and drug accessibility for treating mild and moderate cases were estimated. Results: drugs used when treating mild cases of COVID-19, such as azythromycin, hydroxichloroquine, ivermectin, and paracetamol had median prices between S/ 0.04 (US$ 0.011) and S/ 23.81 (US$ 6.71) in public pharmacies, while the same compounds cost between S/ 1.00 (US$ 0.28) and S/ 36.00 (US$ 10.15) in private pharmacies. On average, drug prices in private pharmacies are 11 times higher compared to those in public pharmacies. Costs for (COVID-19) therapy in public pharmacies are more accessible compared to those found in private pharmacies, particularly for drugs used for more severely affected patients. Therapy regimens for mild cases require spending 1 to 4 days of the minimum daily wages, while therapy for severe cases (of COVID-19) may require up to 64 days of the minimum daily wages in private pharmacies. Conclusions: pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 represents an important expense for the public health system and for families through out-of-pocket expenses. It is urgent to design and implement regulatory measures aiming to improve the access to drug therapy (for Covid-19) in order to have drugs sold at accessible prices.

10.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(3): 541-546, jul-sep 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145028

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Las personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 infectadas por SARS-CoV-2 tienen mayores riesgos de desarrollar COVID-19 con complicaciones y de morir como consecuencia de ella. La diabetes es una condición crónica en la que se requiere continuidad de cuidados que implican un contacto con los establecimientos de salud, pues deben tener acceso regular a medicamentos, exámenes y citas con personal de salud. Esta continuidad de cuidados se ha visto afectada en el Perú a raíz de la declaratoria del estado de emergencia nacional, producto de la pandemia por la COVID-19 pues muchos establecimientos de salud han suspendido las consultas externas. Este artículo describe algunas estrategias que han desarrollado los diferentes proveedores de salud peruanos en el marco de la pandemia para proveer continuidad del cuidado a las personas con diabetes y finalmente brinda recomendaciones para que reciban los cuidados que necesitan a través del fortalecimiento del primer nivel de atención, como el punto de contacto más cercano con las personas con diabetes.


ABSTRACT Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who then become infected with SARS-CoV-2, are at greater risk of developing complications from COVID-19, which may even lead to death. Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires continuous contact with healthcare facilities; therefore, this type of patients should have regular access to medicines, tests and appointments with healthcare personnel. In Peru, care and treatment continuity have been affected since the national state of emergency due to COVID-19 began; because many healthcare facilities suspended outpatient consultations. The strategies presented in this study were developed by different Peruvian health providers in the pandemic context to ensure care continuity for people with diabetes. This article provides recommendations to strengthen primary healthcare, because it is the first level of healthcare contact for patients with diabetes.

11.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(3): 566-570, jul-sep 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145032

RESUMEN

RESUMEN La infección neurológica por el virus del herpes simple tipo 2 (VHS-2) es responsable de una morbimortalidad significativa que debe ser diagnosticada y tratada lo antes posible. Clásicamente se caracteriza por la tríada de fiebre, cefalea y cambios de comportamiento. La asociación de los síntomas, los resultados de las pruebas de laboratorio y las imágenes son fundamentales para el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento inmediato de esta patología, a fin de prevenir que su progresión sea fatal. Presentamos el caso de un paciente varón de 45 años con diagnóstico de encefalitis por VHS-2 después del uso crónico de corticoides. La infección neurológica por VHS-2 en pacientes adultos previamente sanos después del uso crónico de corticoides es extremadamente infrecuente y la asociación no había sido descrita previamente.


ABSTRACT Neurological infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality; and should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. Typically, it is characterized by fever, headache and behavioral changes. Symptoms association, laboratory tests results and diagnostic imaging are essential for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease, in order to prevent its fatal progression. We present the case of a 45-year-old male patient diagnosed with HSV-2 encephalitis due to chronic steroid use. In previously healthy adult patients, neurological HSV-2 infection due to chronic steroid use is extremely rare; and the association has not been previously described.

14.
Preprint en Inglés | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-858

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply affected the national health system in Peru, and despite the many strategies implemented to control the epidemic, the collapse of the sanitary system was imminent. We performed a retrospective cohort from the clinical records of adult patients with COVID-19 admitted in Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima, Peru), between March and June 2020. A total of 369 patient charts were included for analysis; 241 (65.31%) were male and the median age was 59 years (IQR: 49-68). Most patients (68.56%) reported at least one comorbidity; more frequently: obesity (42.55%), diabetes mellitus (21.95%), and hypertension (21.68%). The median duration of symptoms prior to hospital admission was 7 days (IQR: 5-10). Reported in-hospital mortality was 49.59%. By multiple Cox regression, oxygen saturation (SaO2) level at admission was the main predictor of patient mortality, with SaO2 levels of 84-80% and <80% had 4.44 (95%CI 2.46-8.02) and 7.74 (95%CI 4.54-13.19) times greater risk of death, respectively, when compared to patients with SaO2 >90%. Additionally, older age (>60 years old) was associated with 1.9 times greater mortality. Our study finds SaO2 at admission and older age to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. These findings suggest a delay in early detection of hypoxemia in the community, therefore, we propose the implementation of monitoring for hypoxemia among outpatients with COVID-19 as well as appropriate and timely oxygen therapy in admission.  


La pandemia por COVID-19 ha representado un duro golpe al sistema sanitario peruano, y las estrategias implementadas para el control de la epidemia han sido insuficientes en el contexto de colapso del sistema de salud. Se realizó una cohorte retrospectiva a partir de la revisión de las historias clínicas de pacientes adultos hospitalizados por COVID-19, entre marzo y junio de 2020, en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia, Lima- Perú. Se analizó 369 historias clínicas, 241 (65.31%) pacientes eran del sexo masculino y la mediana de edad era de 59 años (RIC: 49-68). El 68.56% presentaba al menos una comorbilidad, siendo las más frecuentes obesidad (42.55%), diabetes mellitus (21.95%) e hipertensión arterial (21.68%). La mediana de duración de síntomas previo al ingreso hospitalario fue de 7 días (RIC: 5-10). La mortalidad intrahospitalaria encontrada fue del 49.59%. En el análisis multivariado, la saturación de oxígeno al ingreso al hospital fue el principal factor predictor de mortalidad. Se observó un marcado incremento de mortalidad; encontrándose que la SatO2 de 84-80% y <80% tuvieron 4.44 (IC95% 2.46-8.02) y 7.74 (IC95% 4.54- 13.19) veces mayor riesgo de muerte, respectivamente, en comparación con pacientes con SatO2 basal >90%. Adicionalmente, la edad mayor a 60 años se asocia a 1.90 veces mayor mortalidad. Nuestro estudio muestra que la edad mayor a 60 años y el nivel de hipoxemia presente al momento de la admisión al hospital son factores asociados de forma independiente a la mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Los hallazgos sugieren una demora en detección de hipoxemia en la comunidad, por lo que se propone reforzar el sistema de monitoreo e identificación temprana de hipoxemia en pacientes con COVID-19, asociada a un soporte oxigenatorio en el momento oportuno.


A pandemia do COVID-19 representou um duro golpe no sistema de saúde peruano, e as estratégias implementadas para controlar a epidemia foram insuficientes no contexto do colapso do sistema de saúde. Foi realizada uma coorte retrospectiva com base na revisão dos prontuários de pacientes adultos internados pelo COVID-19, entre março e junho de 2020, no Hospital Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru. Foram analisados ​​369 prontuários, 241 (65,31%) pacientes eram do sexo masculino e a idade média foi de 59 anos (RIC: 49-68). 68,56% apresentavam pelo menos uma comorbidade, sendo as mais frequentes obesidade (42,55%), diabetes mellitus (21,95%) e hipertensão (21,68%). A duração mediana dos sintomas antes da internação foi de 7 dias (RIC: 5-10). A mortalidade hospitalar encontrada foi de 49,59%. Na análise multivariada, a saturação de oxigênio na admissão hospitalar foi o principal preditor de mortalidade. Um aumento acentuado na mortalidade foi observado; constatando que SatO2 de 84-80% e <80% tinha 4,44 (IC95% 2,46-8,02) e 7,74 (IC95% 4,54-13,19) vezes maior risco de morte, respectivamente, em comparação com pacientes com SatO2 basal> 90%. Além disso, a idade acima de 60 anos está associada a uma mortalidade 1,90 vezes maior. Nosso estudo mostra que a idade superior a 60 anos e o nível de hipoxemia presente no momento da admissão no hospital são fatores independentemente associados à mortalidade hospitalar. Os resultados sugerem um atraso na detecção de hipoxemia na comunidade, motivo pelo qual se propõe fortalecer o sistema de monitoramento e identificação precoce de hipoxemia em pacientes com COVID-19, associados ao suporte à oxigenação no momento apropriado.

15.
Medwave ; 20(4): e7905, 2020 May 25.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469857

RESUMEN

Introduction: Medical empathy is a characteristic that allows us to understand the subjective experiences and the perspective of the patient. Empathy can improve the clinical outcomes of our clinical actions. However, it is not easy to teach this ability in a medical school program. Objective: We aimed to identify the level of empathy and related factors in students enrolled in medicine in 2019. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study. We used a questionnaire with sociodemographic questions, and Jefferson's Medical Empathy Scale to measure the variables. Results: We surveyed 189 medical students. The mean score was 118,01 (range: 20 to 140), standard deviation, 11,61; median, 120; and a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0,76. We found that the year of the enrollment is inversely related to the level of empathy (p = 0,0095), that the female sex has a higher level of empathy (p = 0,0123) and that practicing a religious denomination is related to a higher level of empathy (p = 0,0001). Conclusion: Medical students have an above-average level of empathy when compared to other local studies. We describe higher levels of empathy according to sex, and religious beliefs, and an inverse relation to the year of enrollment.

16.
Preprint en Español | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-375

RESUMEN

The Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA, in Spanish) has published ministerial resolutions (RM) with the aim of regulating the treatment of people affected by COVID-19. The last RM published on April 29 includes the use of tocilizumab, corticosteroids, and enoxaparin. These guidelines do not make clear what process was followed to make decisions, how each of these decisions was justified, nor who their authors are or their potential conflicts of interest. It is important to make an effort to promptly make these data transparent, especially in a subject in which there is not yet much evidence, such as COVID-19. In this article, we present controversies on the tocilizumab, corticosteroids, and enoxaparin established by the MINSA, as well as recommendations on the decision-making process.


El Ministerio de Salud del Perú (MINSA) ha publicado resoluciones ministeriales (RM) con el objetivo de normar el tratamiento de personas afectadas por COVID-19. La última RM publicada el 29 de abril incluye el uso de tocilizumab, corticoides y enoxaparina. Estos lineamientos no dejan claro qué proceso se siguió para tomar decisiones, cómo se justificó cada una de estas decisiones, ni quiénes son sus autores ni sus potenciales conflictos de interés. Resulta importante hacer un esfuerzo por transparentar prontamente estos datos, especialmente en un tema en el cual aún no se cuenta con mucha evidencia como es el COVID-19. En el presente artículo presentamos controversias sobre el tocilizumab, corticoides y enoxaparina establecido por el MINSA, así como recomendaciones sobre el proceso de toma de decisiones.

17.
Medwave ; 20(4)30 de mayo de 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103963

RESUMEN

Introducción La empatía médica es una característica que nos permite entender las experiencias internas y la perspectiva del paciente. Aplicándola a nuestro actuar médico, puede mejorar nuestros resultados clínicos. Sin embargo, no es una capacidad fácil de enseñar en el pregrado de la carrera de medicina. Objetivo Identificar el nivel de empatía y factores relacionados con ésta, en estudiantes de la carrera de medicina en el año 2019. Métodos El presente es un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se utiliza como herramientas un cuestionario con preguntas sociodemográficas y la Escala de Empatía Médica de Jefferson (Jefferson's Medical Empathy Scale). Resultados Se encuestó a 189 estudiantes de medicina. La media de puntaje fue de 118,01 (rango posible entre 20 y 140), con una desviación estándar de 11,61; mediana de 120 y un coeficiente α de Cronbach de 0,76. Se encontró que el año de estudio tiene una relación inversa con el nivel de empatía (p = 0,0095), que el sexo femenino (p = 0,0123) y practicar alguna religión (p = 0,0001), están relacionados con mayor nivel de empatía. Conclusión Los estudiantes de medicina tienen un nivel de empatía alta, por encima del promedio cuando se compara con otros estudios locales. Describimos mayores niveles de empatía según sexo y confesión religiosa del estudiante y una relación inversa con el año de estudio.


Introduction Medical empathy is a characteristic that allows us to understand the subjective experiences and the perspective of the patient. Empathy can improve the clinical outcomes of our clinical actions. However, it is not easy to teach this ability in a medical school program. Objective We aimed to identify the level of empathy and related factors in students enrolled in medicine in 2019. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study. We used a questionnaire with sociodemographic questions, and Jefferson's Medical Empathy Scale to measure the variables. Results We surveyed 189 medical students. The mean score was 118,01 (range: 20 to 140), standard deviation, 11,61; median, 120; and a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0,76. We found that the year of the enrollment is inversely related to the level of empathy (p = 0,0095), that the female sex has a higher level of empathy (p = 0,0123) and that practicing a religious denomination is related to a higher level of empathy (p = 0,0001). Conclusion Medical students have an above-average level of empathy when compared to other local studies. We describe higher levels of empathy according to sex, and religious beliefs, and an inverse relation to the year of enrollment.

20.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 692-701, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The authors previously reported that perioperative aspirin and/or clonidine does not prevent a composite of death or myocardial infarction 30 days after noncardiac surgery. Moreover, aspirin increased the risk of major bleeding and clonidine caused hypotension and bradycardia. Whether these complications produce harm at 1 yr remains unknown. METHODS: The authors randomized 10,010 patients with or at risk of atherosclerosis and scheduled for noncardiac surgery in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to clonidine/aspirin, clonidine/aspirin placebo, clonidine placebo/aspirin, or clonidine placebo/aspirin placebo. Patients started taking aspirin or placebo just before surgery; those not previously taking aspirin continued daily for 30 days, and those taking aspirin previously continued for 7 days. Patients were also randomly assigned to receive clonidine or placebo just before surgery, with the study drug continued for 72 h. RESULTS: Neither aspirin nor clonidine had a significant effect on the primary 1-yr outcome, a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, with a 1-yr hazard ratio for aspirin of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.12; P = 0.948; 586 patients [11.8%] vs. 589 patients [11.8%]) and a hazard ratio for clonidine of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.20; P = 0.218; 608 patients [12.1%] vs. 567 patients [11.3%]), with effect on death or nonfatal infarction. Reduction in death and nonfatal myocardial infarction from aspirin in patients who previously had percutaneous coronary intervention at 30 days persisted at 1 yr. Specifically, the hazard ratio was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.95) in those with previous percutaneous coronary intervention and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.91to 1.16) in those without (interaction P = 0.033). There was no significant effect of either drug on death, cardiovascular complications, cancer, or chronic incisional pain at 1 yr (all P > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Neither perioperative aspirin nor clonidine have significant long-term effects after noncardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin in patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention showed persistent benefit at 1 yr, a plausible sub-group effect.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Aspirina/administración & dosificación , Clonidina/administración & dosificación , Atención Perioperativa/métodos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/diagnóstico , Anciano , Analgésicos/efectos adversos , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/efectos adversos , Aspirina/efectos adversos , Clonidina/efectos adversos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio/prevención & control , Atención Perioperativa/efectos adversos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/prevención & control , Factores de Tiempo
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