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1.
Light Sci Appl ; 11(1): 104, 2022 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449144

RESUMEN

A photonic connection between turbulence and spin glasses has been recently established both theoretically and experimentally using a random fiber laser as a photonic platform. Besides unveiling this interplay, it links the works of two 2021 Nobel laureates in Physics.

3.
Phys Rev E ; 104(5-1): 054143, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942778

RESUMEN

Lévy flight superdiffusion consists of random walks characterized by very long jumps that dominate the transport. However, the finite size of real samples introduces truncation of long jumps and modifies the transport properties. We measure typical Levy flight parameters for photon diffusion in atomic vapor characterized by a Voigt absorption profile. We observe the change of Lévy parameter as a function of truncation length. We associate this variation with size-dependent contributions from different spectral regions of the emission profile with the Doppler core dominating the transport for thin samples and Lorentz wings for thick samples. Monte Carlo simulations are implemented to support the interpretation of results.

4.
Phys Rev E ; 104(5-1): 054129, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942834

RESUMEN

We perform a multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the magnetoconductance data of two standard types of mesoscopic systems: a disordered nanowire and a ballistic chaotic billiard, with two different lattice structures. We observe in all cases that multifractality is generally present and that it becomes stronger in the quantum regime of conduction, i.e., when the number of open scattering channels is small. We argue that this behavior originates from correlations induced by the magnetic field, which can be characterized through the distribution of conductance increments in the corresponding "stochastic time series," with the magnetic field playing the role of a fictitious time. More specifically, we show that the distributions of conductance increments are well fitted by q Gaussians and that the value of the parameter q is a useful quantitative measure of multifractality in magnetoconductance fluctuations.

5.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(12): 3042-3048, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548627

RESUMEN

Haploidentical hematopoietic-cell transplantation using post-transplant cyclophosphamide(Haplo-PTCy) is a feasible procedure in children with haematologic malignancies. However, data of a large series of children with acute leukaemia(AL) in this setting is missing. We analysed 144 AL Haplo-PTCy paediatric recipients; median age was 10 years. Patients had acute lymphoblastic(ALL; n = 86) or myeloblastic leukaemia(AML; n = 58) and were transplanted in remission(CR1: n = 40; CR2: n = 57; CR3+: n = 27) or relapse (n = 20). Bone marrow was the graft source in 57%; donors were father (54%), mother (35%), or sibling (11%). Myeloablative conditioning was used in 87%. Median follow-up was 31 months. At day +100, cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil recovery and acute GVHD (II-IV) were 94% and 40%, respectively. At 2-years, CI of chronic GVHD and relapse, were 31%, 40%, and estimated 2-year overall survival (OS), leukaemia-free survival (LFS) and graft-versus-host-relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 52%, 44% and 34% respectively. For patients transplanted in remission, positive measurable residual disease (MRD) prior to transplant was associated with decreased LFS (p = 0.05) and GRFS (p = 0.003) and increased risk of relapse (p = 0.02). Mother donor was associated with increased risk of chronic GVHD (p = 0.001), decreased OS (p = 0.03) and GRFS (p = 0.004). Use of PBSC was associated with increased risk of chronic GVHD (p = 0.04). In conclusion, achieving MRD negativity pre-transplant, avoiding use of mother donors and PBSC as graft source may improve outcomes of Haplo-PTCy in children with AL.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Células Madre de Sangre Periférica , Niño , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped/etiología , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/métodos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicaciones , Madres , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Acondicionamiento Pretrasplante/métodos , Trasplante Haploidéntico/efectos adversos
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 893-901, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285264

RESUMEN

Survival and growth of the native oyster Crassostrea gasar along the juvenile and adult phases were evaluated in three different stocking densities [low (D), medium (2D) and high (3D)] and in two grow-out systems (fixed and floating system). The fixed system consisted of a rack made with PVC, fixed from the bottom with wood sticks. The floating system consisted of floating bags suspended by a rack made with PVC and maintained submerged from the seawater surface by eight floats. Survival and shell height of oysters cultured after 30, 60 and 90 days were registered in each phase and in each grow-out system. Results showed that the grow-out system did not affect survival and growth of C. gasar in the juvenile and adult phases. The tested densities affected the survival of oysters cultured over time in both phases but did not affect oyster growth. At times analyzed, it was observed positive growth in juvenile oysters grow after 90 days of culture. However, in the adult phase, no growth was observed after 90 days of culture. Oyster yield was higher in the density 3D, in both juvenile and adult phases. These findings contributed to the development of the oyster C. gasar culture.(AU)


A sobrevivência e o crescimento da ostra nativa Crassostrea gasar nas fases juvenil e adulta foram avaliados sob três diferentes densidades de estocagem [baixa (D), média (2D) e alta (3D)] e dois sistemas de engorda (fixo e flutuante). O sistema fixo consistiu em uma mesa de PVC, fixada na parte inferior com varas de madeira. O sistema flutuante consistiu em travesseiros flutuantes suspensos por uma mesa de PVC e mantidas submersas da superfície da água do mar por oito flutuadores. Registraram-se sobrevivência e altura da concha de ostras cultivadas após 30, 60 e 90 dias, em cada fase (juvenil e adulta) e em cada sistema (fixo e flutuante). Os resultados mostraram que o sistema de engorda não afetou a sobrevivência e o crescimento de C. gasar nas fases juvenil e adulta. As densidades testadas afetaram a sobrevivência das ostras ao longo do tempo, em ambas as fases, mas não afetaram o crescimento em altura. Nos tempos analisados, ostras juvenis apresentaram crescimento após 90 dias de cultivo. Porém, na fase adulta, não foi observado crescimento após 90 dias de cultivo. A produção de ostras, foi maior na densidade 3D, nas fases juvenil e adulta. Os presentes achados contribuíram para o desenvolvimento do cultivo da ostra C. gasar.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Acuicultura/métodos , Crassostrea/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sobrevida , Clima Tropical
7.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 24(2): 5-11, abr.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178061

RESUMEN

Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la adaptación marginal de coronas de disilicato de litio obtenidas mediante técnicas de escaneo (CAD/CAM), antes y des- pués de la cristalización, a través de análisis in vitro con microscopía confocal (MC). Métodos. Fueron confeccionadas 16 réplicas en poliuretano a partir de la pieza 1.4, de modelo typodont, tallada para corona total. Las réplicas fueron divididas en dos gru- pos, de acuerdo a la técnica de escaneo: Técnica Indirecta (Grupo IND, n=08), donde modelos de yeso fueron escaneados con escáner de laboratorio (inEos X5, Sirona Den- tal Systems) y Técnica Directa (Grupo DIR, n=08), donde modelos typodont fueron escaneados con escáner intraoral (CEREC BlueCam, Sirona Dental Systems). A seguir, se fresaron (inLab MC XL, Sirona Dental Systems) coronas en disilicato de litio (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) y se adaptaron a las réplicas. Se evaluó la adaptación marginal con análisis de MC en dos momentos, antes y después de la cristalización del disilicato de litio. Los datos fueron analizados con la prueba de Mann-Whitney, t de Student y Wilcoxon (α= 0,05). Resultados. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la adaptación marginal horizontal entre los grupos IND y DIR después de la cristalización (p=0,05). En el grupo IND, la comparación de la adaptación mar- ginal vertical antes y después de la cristalización mostró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0,038). Conclusiones. Las coronas de disilicato de litio obtenidas me- diante escaneo directo (CAD/CAM) presentaron menor desajuste marginal vertical. La etapa de cristalización afectó la adaptación marginal de las coronas.


Objective. This study aimed to evaluate lithium disilicate marginal adaption on crowns by scanning techniques (CAD/CAM), before and after crystallization, through confocal microscopy (CM) in vitro analysis. Methods. Sixteen polyurethane replicas were per- formed from tooth 1.4, of a typodont model, prepared for a full crown. The replicas were divided into two groups, according to the scanning technique: Indirect Technique (Group IND, n=08), where dental stone models were scanned with a laboratory scanner (inEos X5, Sirona Dental Systems) and Direct Technique (Group DIR, n=08), where typodont models were scanned with an intraoral scanner (CEREC BlueCam, Sirona Dental Systems). Then, the lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were milled (inLab MC XL, Sirona Dental Systems) and adapted to the replicas. Margin- al adaptation was evaluated with CM analysis before and after lithium disilicate crystalli- zation. Data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney, t test, and Wilconxon test (α=0.05). Results. There was a statistically significant difference in horizontal marginal adaptation between IND and DIR groups after crystallization (p=0.05). In IND group, the compar- ison of vertical marginal adaptation before and after crystallization showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.038). Conclusions. Lithium disilicate crowns obtained by direct scanning technique (CAD/CAD) showed less vertical marginal maladjustment. The crystallization stage affected the crown's marginal adaptation.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 81(2): 246-250, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428096

RESUMEN

AIM: This study aimed to verify the correlation between murine measurements and retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats exposed to the high-fat diet. Material and methods: Wistar male adult rats, descendants of mothers who consumed a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation and fed the same diet after weaning were used. At 60 days of life, body weight, longitudinal axis and waist circumference (WC) were measured. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Lee Index were calculated for a posterior analysis of the correlation with the amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue dissected on the same day. For analysis of the data, the Pearson correlation test was used, considering statistical significance for p <0.05. Results: Body weight had a weak correlation (r= 0.31; p= 0.38) with retroperitoneal adipose tissue. While the longitudinal correlated moderately and negative (r= -0.40; p= 0.25). Abdominal circumference (r= 0.62; p= 0.05), body mass index (r= 0.61; p= 0.03) and Lee (r= 0.69; p= 0.03) correlated moderately and positively with adipose tissue. Conclusion: Among the measured murine measurements, weight and longitudinal axis were not good indicators to represent accumulation of retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats. However, Lee's index seems to be the best murine marker to diagnose the accumulation of retroperitoneal fat. BMI, CA and Lee index were murine parameters with higher correlation.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Alta en Grasa , Grasa Intraabdominal , Animales , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Embarazo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Circunferencia de la Cintura
9.
HIV Med ; 22(3): 212-217, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012065

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize neurocognitive impairment (NI) in an HIV-2 population using an observational cross-sectional study in four Portuguese hospitals. METHODS: Adult HIV-2-infected patients were included. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) scales were applied for screening of NI. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scales were used for assessment of depression and functionality. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess for risk factors for NI. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included, 50.6% of African origin (n = 41) and 49.4% of Portuguese origin (n = 40). The MoCA scale showed alterations in 81.5% of patients (100% of migrants vs. 62.5% of non-migrants, P < 0.001) and the IHDS scale showed alterations in 42%. Both scales were altered simultaneously in 35.8%. Variables independently associated with NI were age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.885] and migrant status (OR = 9.150). CONCLUSIONS: Neurocognitive impairment (both scales altered) was present in 35.8%, which is comparable to what is described for HIV-1. The MoCA performed worse in the migrant population and might not be applicable in this setting.


Asunto(s)
Complejo SIDA Demencia , Disfunción Cognitiva , Infecciones por VIH , Actividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , VIH-2 , Humanos , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 246-250, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153363

RESUMEN

Aim: This study aimed to verify the correlation between murine measurements and retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats exposed to the high-fat diet. Material and methods: Wistar male adult rats, descendants of mothers who consumed a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation and fed the same diet after weaning were used. At 60 days of life, body weight, longitudinal axis and waist circumference (WC) were measured. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Lee Index were calculated for a posterior analysis of the correlation with the amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue dissected on the same day. For analysis of the data, the Pearson correlation test was used, considering statistical significance for p<0.05. Results: Body weight had a weak correlation (r= 0.31; p= 0.38) with retroperitoneal adipose tissue. While the longitudinal correlated moderately and negative (r= -0.40; p= 0.25). Abdominal circumference (r= 0.62; p= 0.05), body mass index (r= 0.61; p= 0.03) and Lee (r= 0.69; p= 0.03) correlated moderately and positively with adipose tissue. Conclusion: Among the measured murine measurements, weight and longitudinal axis were not good indicators to represent accumulation of retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats. However, Lee's index seems to be the best murine marker to diagnose the accumulation of retroperitoneal fat. BMI, CA and Lee index were murine parameters with higher correlation.


Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a correlação entre medidas murinométricas e tecido adiposo retroperitoneal em ratos expostos à dieta hiperlipídica. Material e métodos: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar machos adultos, descendentes de mães que consumiram dieta hiperlipídica durante a gestação e lactação e alimentados com a mesma dieta após o desmame. Aos 60 dias de vida, foram medidos o peso corporal, o eixo longitudinal e a circunferência da cintura (CC). O Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e o Índice de Lee foram calculados para posterior análise da correlação com a quantidade de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal dissecado no mesmo dia. Para análise dos dados, utilizou se o teste de correlação de Pearson, considerando significância estatística para p<0.05. Resultados: O peso corporal apresentou uma correlação fraca (r= 0,31; p= 0,38) com o tecido adiposo retroperitoneal. Enquanto o longitudinal correlacionou moderadamente e negativo (r= -0,40; p= 0,25). A circunferência abdominal (r = 0,62; p = 0,05), índice de massa corporal (r= 0,61; p= 0,03) e Lee (r= 0,69; p= 0,03) correlacionaram-se moderada e positivamente com o tecido adiposo. Conclusão: Entre as medidas murinométricas, o peso e o eixo longitudinal não foram bons indicadores para representar o acúmulo de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal em ratos. No entanto, o índice de Lee parece ser o melhor indicador murinométrico para diagnosticar o acúmulo de gordura retroperitoneal. O IMC, índice de Lee e CA foram parâmetros murinométricos com maior correlação.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Grasa Intraabdominal/anatomía & histología , Dieta Alta en Grasa/veterinaria , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ratas Wistar/anatomía & histología , Estándares de Referencia , Circunferencia de la Cintura
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1397-1402, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131506

RESUMEN

A captive adult male bush dog (Speothos venaticus) was referred to our Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from a local zoo due to a two-week history of progressive hind limb gait impairment and ataxia, non-responsive to clinical management. Computed tomography revealed decreased disc space at L3 - L4 level, with probable disc extrusion narrowing the right side of the spinal canal, compressing the spinal cord. We opted to surgically remove the disc material using both fenestration and right lateral pediculectomy (mini-hemilaminectomy) techniques. Twelve days after surgery there was mild residual proprioceptive ataxia. Gait was fully regained with remission of the neurological deficits around the 30th postoperative day. This is - to the best of our knowledge - the first successful report of a lumbar intervertebral disc extrusion in a bush dog (Speothos venaticus) surgically treated by pediculectomy and disc fenestration.(AU)


Um cachorro-vinagre (Speothos venaticus), macho, adulto, mantido em cativeiro, foi encaminhado ao Hospital Veterinário Universitário pelo zoológico local com histórico de duas semanas de comprometimento progressivo da marcha dos membros posteriores e ataxia, que não responderam ao tratamento clínico. Tomografia computadorizada revelou diminuição do espaço em disco no nível L3 - L4, com provável extrusão de disco estreitando o lado direito do canal vertebral, comprimindo a medula espinhal. Optamos por remover cirurgicamente esse material do disco usando técnicas de fenestração e pediculectomia lateral direita (mini-hemilaminectomia). Doze dias após a cirurgia, houve melhora na deambulação, com ataxia proprioceptiva residual leve. A marcha foi totalmente recuperada com remissão dos déficits neurológicos por volta do trigésimo dia de pós-operatório. Este é - até onde sabemos - o primeiro relato bem-sucedido de uma extrusão de disco intervertebral lombar em um cachorro-vinagre (Speothos venaticus) tratado cirurgicamente por pediculectomia e fenestração de disco.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ataxia/veterinaria , Canidae/lesiones , Disco Intervertebral/patología , Región Lumbosacra/cirugía , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/veterinaria , Animales de Zoológico
12.
Food Res Int ; 134: 109236, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517934

RESUMEN

Poincianella (Caesalpinia) microphylla fractions were analyzed by LC-DAD-MS and by statistical tools to determine the possible bioactive compounds against T. vaginalis. Tannins enriched-fractions toxicity (M5 and M10) were analyzed in in vitro against human red cells and in in vivo model of Galleria mellonella. Twenty-six compounds were detected from the P. microphylla fractions. The main compounds identified were hydrolyzable tannins (gallotanins and ellagitannis), such as O-digalloyl hexoside, O-digalloyl HHDP -hexoside, tri-O-galloyl HHDP-hexoside, O-galloyl HHDP-DHHDP-hexoside and their isomers. In addition, procyanidin dimer, epicatechin, ellagic acid and O-(digalloyl) quinic acid were also identified. Based on univariate statistical analyses, stronger correlations with the anti-T. vaginalis properties were observed for the compounds 7 (O-galloyl HHDP-DHHDP-hexoside - Geraniin isomer), 3 (O-digalloyl HHDP -hexoside - mallotinic acid), 2 (O-digalloyl) quinic acid), 1 (O-digalloyl hexoside) and 9 (unknown). Tannins enriched-fractions (M5 and M10) presented anti-Trichomonas activity (IC50 70.41 µg/mL and 142.1 µg/mL, respectively) and no toxicity in the in vivo model of G. mellonella. This innovative approach allowed us to identify likely bioactive compounds in the extracts, although the mechanism(s) underlying anti-trichomonal activity encompass a complex trait.


Asunto(s)
Caesalpinia , Trichomonas vaginalis , Frutas , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolizables/farmacología , Taninos
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 805-810, May-June 2019. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011323

RESUMEN

Ducks, geese and swans are included in the Anatidae family, Anseriformes order. The leading injuries causes to waterfowl are tangling in fishing materials and foreign bodies ingestion. A muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) was referred for treatment at Veterinary Teaching Hospital and a radiographic examination showed the presence of a hook in the coelom. Surgical exposure and incision of the proventriculus was made through left intercostal access and the hook along with a fishing line were gently removed. The animal began to feed voluntarily at the fourth post-operative day and two weeks after the procedure the patient was clinically well and was released to wild. This surgical approach differs in some aspects from the listed techniques in the known literature. It proved to be a viable and appropriate alternative to treat this affection since it did not cause any trans- or post-operative complications and enabled rapid recovery and subsequent patient release.(AU)


Patos, gansos e cisnes estão incluídos na família Anatidae, ordem Anseriformes. Entre as principais causas de ferimentos em aves aquáticas, o embaraço com materiais de pesca e a ingestão de corpos estranhos são os mais citados. Um pato-do-mato (Cairina moschata) foi encaminhado para tratamento no Hospital Veterinário e, mediante exame radiográfico, verificou-se a presença de um anzol na cavidade celomática, provavelmente no proventrículo. Utilizando-se o acesso intercostal esquerdo, foi feita a exposição e a incisão do proventrículo. Por meio dessa incisão, o anzol com um segmento de linha de pesca foi delicadamente retirado. O animal começou a se alimentar voluntariamente no quarto dia pós-operatório e duas semanas após o procedimento o paciente se encontrava clinicamente bem e apto à soltura. Esta abordagem cirúrgica difere, em alguns aspectos, das técnicas listadas na literatura e provou ser uma alternativa viável e adequada ao caso, não causando complicações e permitindo recuperação rápida, com posterior soltura do animal.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Proventrículo/cirugía , Patos/cirugía , Accidentes
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(14): 143903, 2019 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050490

RESUMEN

The ground breaking extension of the key concept of phase structure to nonequilibrium regimes was only recently achieved in Floquet systems, characterized by a time-dependent quantum Hamiltonian with a periodic driving source. However, despite the theoretical advances, only very few systems are known to display experimental Floquet phases, not one of them employing a laser emission-based mechanism. Here we report the first experimental observation of a Floquet phase in a photonic system, a disordered fiber laser with spatial eigenmode localization. We apply a periodically oscillating cw pumping source that drives the random couplings of the Floquet Hamiltonian. A photonic Floquet spin-glass phase is demonstrated in the random-lasing regime by extensive measurements of the Parisi overlap parameter and asymmetry properties of its distribution. In contrast, in the fluorescent regime below threshold, the absence of mode localization prevents the stabilization of a Floquet phase. Our results are nicely described by theoretical arguments.

16.
Phys Rev E ; 99(2-1): 022133, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934239

RESUMEN

We analyze the heat exchange distribution of open quantum systems undergoing a thermal relaxation process with a time-dependent effective temperature. We show that such processes arise, for example, if the dynamics maximizes the entropy production. Using a two-point measurement scheme, we find an expression for the heat moment generating function that depends solely on the system's partition function and on the thermalization function (i.e., the law of cooling) describing the effective temperature. Applications include the relaxation of free bosonic and fermionic modes, for which closed-form expressions for the time-dependent heat distribution function are derived. Multiple free modes with arbitrary dispersion relations are also briefly discussed. In the semiclassical limit our formula agrees with previous results of the literature for the heat distribution of an optically trapped nanoscopic particle far from equilibrium.

17.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 220-232, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-989460

RESUMEN

Abstract Introduction Understanding associations between food preferences and maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could inform efforts to understanding the obesity mechanisms and provide insight to prevent it. Objective: To identify studies that investigated the effects of nutritional interventions during the pregnancy and lactation on the food preferences of offspring. Method: The review was conducted with search for articles in the databases: Scopus, Pubmed, Medline, LILACS, Scielo and Science Direct. Exclusion criteria were used: reviews, human studies, studies with drugs or other substances not related to food. Results: At the end of the search in the databases, 176 references were found. After use the exclusion criteria, reading the titles, abstracts and full articles, were selected 11 articles to compose the review. Conclusion: The selected studies suggested that unbalanced nutrition in early life alters the food preference and neural components related to the consumption of fatty and sugary foods in offspring rodents.


Resumo Introdução O entendimento das associações entre as preferências alimentares e nutrição materna durante a gravidez e lactação poderia colaborar para a compreensão dos mecanismos da obesidade e fornecer informações para prevenir essa infermidade. Objetivo: Identificar estudos que investigaram os efeitos das intervenções nutricionais durante a gravidez e lactação em preferências alimentares dos descendentes. Método: A revisão foi conduzida com busca de artigos nas bases de dados: Scopus, Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo e Science Direct. Os critérios de exclusão utilizados: revisões, estudos em humanos, estudos com drogas ou outras substâncias não-alimentares. Resultados: No final da pesquisa nas bases de dados, 176 referências foram encontradas. Depois de usar os critérios de exclusão, lendo os títulos, resumos e artigos completos, 11 artigos foram selecionados para compor a revisão. Conclusão: Os estudos selecionados sugeriram que a nutrição desequilibrada no início da vida altera a preferência alimentar e componentes neurais relacionadas com o consumo de alimentos gordurosos e açucarados em prole de roedores.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Ratas , Lactancia/fisiología , Embarazo/fisiología , Modelos Animales , Fenómenos Fisiologicos de la Nutrición Prenatal/fisiología , Preferencias Alimentarias
18.
J Clin Psychol ; 75(3): 562-573, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431650

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore associations between positive and negative symptoms, mindfulness, positive affect, and social safeness; and to understand the mediator role of positive emotions in the relationship between mindfulness and social safeness. METHOD: Fifty-six participants with a psychotic disorder were assessed with measures of mindfulness, negative and positive symptoms, positive affect, and social safeness. RESULTS: All variables were associated with each other except for positive symptoms and active affect. Mindfulness predicted social safeness through safe affect, when controlling for positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to knowledge of mechanisms behind social safeness adding the role of mindfulness and activation of positive emotions. The continuing study of mindfulness as an important mechanism for social safeness will allow further improvement of interventions for psychosis.


Asunto(s)
Afecto/fisiología , Atención Plena , Trastornos Psicóticos/fisiopatología , Medio Social , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción Social , Adulto Joven
19.
Braz J Biol ; 79(2): 220-232, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156603

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Understanding associations between food preferences and maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could inform efforts to understanding the obesity mechanisms and provide insight to prevent it. Objective: To identify studies that investigated the effects of nutritional interventions during the pregnancy and lactation on the food preferences of offspring. Method: The review was conducted with search for articles in the databases: Scopus, Pubmed, Medline, LILACS, Scielo and Science Direct. Exclusion criteria were used: reviews, human studies, studies with drugs or other substances not related to food. Results: At the end of the search in the databases, 176 references were found. After use the exclusion criteria, reading the titles, abstracts and full articles, were selected 11 articles to compose the review. Conclusion: The selected studies suggested that unbalanced nutrition in early life alters the food preference and neural components related to the consumption of fatty and sugary foods in offspring rodents.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia/fisiología , Modelos Animales , Embarazo/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiologicos de la Nutrición Prenatal/fisiología , Animales , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Ratones , Ratas
20.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(2): 446-465, maio-ago. 2018. tab, ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas | ID: biblio-986276

RESUMEN

As políticas brasileiras, no campo da educação, estimulam a relação escola-bairro como parte importante do processo educativo, para o que entendemos ser fundamental valorizar tanto as características do ambiente sócio físico, quanto a experiência das pessoas que ali convivem. Com base nesse quadro geral, investigamos a percepção dos estudantes sobre os locais onde moram e estudam, explorando os limites do bairro e como situam a escola nesse contexto. Metodologicamente foram utilizados diários pessoais com solicitação do desenho de mapas e entrevistas realizadas durante caminhadas pela área. Participaram 23 estudantes (15 mulheres e 7 homens), com idades entre 13 e 17 anos, matriculados no 9º ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública do bairro Guarapes, Natal-RN. Os resultados mostram sua percepção sobre a setorização do espaço, a predominância de descrições gráficas relativas ao centro do bairro e dificuldades no reconhecimento de mudanças previstas para acontecerem naquela zona urbana.(AU)


Brazil's policies in the field of education encourage school-community relathionship as an important part of the educational process, for which we believe is essential to valorise both the physical characteristics of the social environment and the experience of the people who live there. Based on this, we investigate the perception of students about where they live and study, exploring the boundaries of the local and how to place the school in this context. Methodologically they were used diary personal with drawing maps and interviews during walks in the area. There were 23 students (15 women and 7 men) aged between 13 and 17 years enrolled in the 9th grade in a public school Guarapes neighborhood, Natal-RN. The results show their perception of the compartmentalization of space, the predominance of graphic descriptions of the center of the neighborhood and difficulties in recognizing changes set to take place in that urban area.(AU)


Políticas de Brasil en el campo de la educación fomentan la relacion escuela-barrio como una parte importante del proceso educativo, esencial para valorizar tanto las características físicas del entorno social y la experiencia de las personas que viven allí. Sobre este marco, se investiga la percepción de los estudiantes acerca de donde viven y estudian, la exploración de los límites del barrio y cómo colocar la escuela en este contexto. Metodológicamente fueron utilizados diarios personales con el dibujo de mapas y entrevistas durante los paseos en la zona. Había 23 estudiantes (15 mujeres y 7 hombres) con edades entre los 13 y 17 años matriculados en el noveno grado en una escuela pública situado en barrio Guarapes, Natal-RN. Los resultados muestran la compartimentación del espacio, el predominio de las descripciones gráficas del centro de la zona y las dificultades para reconocer los cambios que tendrá lugar en esa zona urbana.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Percepción , Medio Social , Estudiantes/psicología
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