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1.
Psychol Trauma ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478537

RESUMEN

Physical activity and physical exercise are key factors to help the population to mitigate the effects that the current pandemic is causing on the mental and physical health of citizens worldwide. In such an extreme situation, it is highly recommended to be physically active. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472163

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: The nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor (RXR) belongs to a nuclear receptor superfamily that modulates diverse functions via homodimerization with itself or several other nuclear receptors, including PPARα. While the activation of PPARα by natural or synthetic agonists regulates the sleep-wake cycle, the role of RXR in the sleep modulation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of bexarotene (Bexa, a RXR agonist) or UVI 3003 (UVI, a RXR antagonist) on sleep, sleep homeostasis, levels of neurochemical related to sleep modulation, and c-Fos and NeuN expression. METHODS: The sleep-wake cycle and sleep homeostasis were analyzed after application of Bexa or UVI. Moreover, we also evaluated whether Bexa or UVI could induce effects on dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine epinephrine, adenosine, and acetylcholine contents, collected from either the nucleus accumbens or basal forebrain. In addition, c-Fos and NeuN expression in the hypothalamus was determined after Bexa or UVI treatments. RESULTS: Systemic application of Bexa (1 mM, i.p.) attenuated slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, Bexa increased the levels of dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine epinephrine, adenosine, and acetylcholine sampled from either the nucleus accumbens or basal forebrain. Moreover, Bexa blocked the sleep rebound period after total sleep deprivation, increased in the hypothalamus the expression of c-Fos, and decreased NeuN activity. Remarkably, UVI 3003 (1 mM, i.p.) induced opposite effects in sleep, sleep homeostasis, neurochemicals levels, and c-Fos and NeuN activity. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of RXR agonist or antagonist significantly impaired the sleep-wake cycle and exerted effects on the levels of neurochemicals related to sleep modulation. Moreover, Bexa or UVI administration significantly affected c-Fos and NeuN expression in the hypothalamus. Our findings highlight the neurobiological role of RXR on sleep modulation.

3.
Rev. Psicol. Saúde ; 12(1): 115-126, jan.-abr. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1092163

RESUMEN

Depression represents a common public health problem in the world. Depression in the elderly appears to follow a vulnerability-stress model, with an interaction between individual vulnerabilities, including genetic factors, age-related cognitive and neurobiological changes, and a variety of stressful events that occur more frequently in advanced ages, such as grief, financial problems, and reduction in autonomy/functionality. In the last decades, several studies have indicated that exercise can be effective in preventing or reducing depressive symptoms, both in healthy and psychiatric populations. Due to the scientific community's interest in the efficacy and safety of physical exercise as complementary therapy for depressed elderly patients, we conduct an opinion study on the subject. Despite the researchers' efforts, in the last decades little progress has been made in verifying the efficacy of exercise in geriatric depression.


A depressão representa um problema comum de saúde pública no mundo. A depressão em idosos parece seguir um modelo de vulnerabilidade-estresse, com uma interação entre vulnerabilidades individuais, incluindo fatores genéticos, mudanças cognitivas e neurobiológicas relacionadas à idade, e uma variedade de eventos estressantes que ocorrem mais frequentemente em idades avançadas, como luto, problemas financeiros e redução da autonomia/funcionalidade. Nas últimas décadas, vários estudos indicaram que o exercício pode ser eficaz na prevenção ou redução dos sintomas depressivos, tanto em populações saudáveis como psiquiátricas. Devido ao interesse da comunidade científica na eficácia e segurança do exercício físico como terapia complementar para idosos deprimidos; realizamos um estudo de opinião sobre o assunto. Apesar dos esforços dos pesquisadores, nas últimas décadas pouco progresso foi feito na verificação da eficácia do exercício na depressão geriátrica.


La depresión representa un problema común de salud pública en el mundo. La depresión en los ancianos parece seguir un modelo de vulnerabilidad-estrés, con una interacción entre las vulnerabilidades individuales, incluidos factores genéticos, cambios cognitivos y neurobiológicos relacionados con la edad, y una variedad de eventos estresantes que ocurren con mayor frecuencia en edades avanzadas, como el duelo, problemas financieros y reducción de la autonomía/funcionalidad. En las últimas décadas, varios estudios han indicado que el ejercicio puede ser eficaz para prevenir o reducir los síntomas depresivos, tanto en poblaciones sanas como psiquiátricas. Debido al interés de la comunidad científica en la eficacia y seguridad del ejercicio físico como terapia complementaria para pacientes ancianos deprimidos, realizamos un estudio de opinión sobre el tema. A pesar de los esfuerzos de los investigadores, en las últimas décadas se ha avanzado poco en la verificación de la eficacia del ejercicio en la depresión geriátrica.

4.
Talanta ; 215: 120883, 2020 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312432

RESUMEN

This work describes the development, optimization, and validation of an electrochemical method for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in urine. The method allows fast, cheap and reliable determinations of recent administrations of this diuretic that can be used in doping control in sport. The response of the sensor was determined by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The glassy carbon electrode was modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and gold nanoparticles. The sensor is calibrated in the analysed sample matrix by the cumulative standard addition method. The method validation was based on the bottom-up evaluation of the measurement uncertainty were components were combined using the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) applicable with no restrictions regarding components uncertainty value and measurement function linearity. The developed metrological models were implemented in MS-Excel spreadsheets. The adequacy of the electrochemical measurements was assessed by comparing their relative standard uncertainty with a target value of 20% and by evaluating the compatibility of measurements with determinations performed by a reference procedure. The tools developed for the construction and optimization of working electrodes are applicable to measurements of other analytes and matrices. The used cumulative standard addition method and respective measurement uncertainty models are applicable to any kind of non-destructive chemical measurement of a solution.

6.
Microb Pathog ; 141: 104027, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007620

RESUMEN

The clinical implications of recently discovered porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) infections are still unknown. The potential role of this emerging virus in reproductive loss in swine has been described. Herein, we report a high prevalence of PCV3 in mummified fetuses from sows maintained in modern farms in Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, Goiás, and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil. For this analysis, 276 mummified fetuses from 11 commercial swine farms were included. The presence of PCV3 DNA was confirmed using PCR, and the complete sequence of five different viral strains was obtained. Sequences of PCV3 genomes available on GenBank were then used for phylogenetic tree construction. Of the 276 mummified fetuses examined, 270 (nearly 97%) were positive for PCV3. In 93.1% of the fetuses, co-infections with at least one of the following agents were identified: porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and Leptospira spp. Twelve fetuses were positive for PCV3 alone. The amino acid sequence of the capsid gene for the five viral strains shared 98-100% homology among them. Analysis of the DNA sequence indicates that the viruses identified in this study belong to the PCV3a1 subgroup. In summary, PCV3 DNA was detected in mummified fetuses at a surprisingly high rate. The role of PCV3 in porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) is still uncertain. However, considering that PCV3 has been detected in a variety of conditions, even in healthy animals, the present results confirm the need to investigate PCV3 as a causative agent of fetal mummification in swine.

7.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(7): 774-780, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960704

RESUMEN

The phytostimulation is a phytoremediation technique that can be used to remediate area contaminated with herbicides. It is necessary to select plants with high capacity to stimulate soil microbial activity. The present work aimed at evaluating seven plant species regarding their ability to phytostimulate soil and enhance the degradation of the herbicides imazethapyr, imazapic and imazapyr in a lowland soil. An Alfisol Albaqualf was cultivated with the following species, Canavalia ensiformis, Glycine max, Oryza sativa cultivar PUITÁ INTA CL, Lolium multiflorum, Vicia sativa and consortium Lotus corniculatus + Trifolium repens. The rhizosphere of these plants and non-rhizospheric (uncultivated soil) as a control were contaminated in laboratory with analytical standart of the three herbicides, at rates of 0, 150, 300 and 750 g a.i. ha-1, in separate assays. Biodegradation was estimated by quantifying C-CO2 production and through analysis of herbicides residues in soil using liquid chromatography. Results show that biodegradation of herbicides imazethapyr, imazapic and imazapyr was higher in vegetated soil than in unvegetated soil. The leguminous species Canavalia ensiformis, Glycine max, Vicia sativa and consortium of Lotus corniculatus + Trifolium repens showed a great capacity to promote soil microbial, resulting in average biodegradation rates of 91, 92 and 93% for herbicides imazethapyr, imazapic and imazapyr in soil, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Herbicidas , Oryza , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Suelo
8.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 18(2): 97-108, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368874

RESUMEN

Aging is an inevitable process that involves changes across life in multiple neurochemical, neuroanatomical, hormonal systems, and many others. In addition, these biological modifications lead to an increase in age-related sickness such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and sleep disturbances, among others that affect activities of daily life. Demographic projections have demonstrated that aging will increase its worldwide rate in the coming years. The research on chronic diseases of the elderly is important to gain insights into this growing global burden. Novel therapeutic approaches aimed for treatment of age-related pathologies have included the endocannabinoid system as an effective tool since this biological system shows beneficial effects in preclinical models. However, and despite these advances, little has been addressed in the arena of the endocannabinoid system as an option for treating sleep disorders in aging since experimental evidence suggests that some elements of the endocannabinoid system modulate the sleep-wake cycle. This article addresses this less-studied field, focusing on the likely perspective of the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of sleep problems reported in the aged. We conclude that beneficial effects regarding the putative efficacy of the endocannabinoid system as therapeutic tools in aging is either inconclusive or still missing.

9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(1): 97-103, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426515

RESUMEN

Lattari, E, Campos, C, Lamego, MK, Legey, S, Neto, GM, Rocha, NB, Oliveira, AJ, Carpenter, CS, and Machado, S. Can transcranial direct current stimulation improve muscle power in individuals with advanced weight-training experience? J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 97-103, 2020-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in men with advanced strength-training experience. Ten healthy male subjects with advanced strength training and squatting exercise experience were included. Participants took part in an initial visit to the laboratory to complete anthropometric measurements and CMJ kinematic test-retest reliability. Participants then completed 3 experimental conditions, 48-72 hours apart, in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodal, cathodal, and sham-tDCS (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the motor cortex bilaterally). Participants completed 3 CMJ tests before and after each experimental condition, with 1-minute recovery interval between each test. The best CMJ in each moment was selected for analysis. Two-way (condition by moment) repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for CMJ height, flight time (FT), and muscular peak power (PP). Effect sizes and interindividual variability of tDCS responses were also analyzed. There was a significant condition by moment interaction for all outcome measures, with a large prepost increase in CMJ height, FT, and PP in the anodal condition. All the participants displayed CMJ performance improvements after the anodal condition. There were no significant differences in both cathodal and sham conditions. Anodal tDCS may be a valuable tool to enhance muscle power-related tasks performance, which is extremely relevant for sports that require vertical jumping ability. Anodal tDCS may also be used to support strength training, enhancing its effects on performance-oriented outcome measures.

10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(1): 89-96, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329154

RESUMEN

Lattari, E, Rosa Filho, BJ, Fonseca Junior, SJ, Murillo-Rodriguez, E, Rocha, N, Machado, S, and Maranhão Neto, GA. Effects on volume load and ratings of perceived exertion in individuals' advanced weight training after transcranial direct current stimulation. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 89-96, 2020-The aim of this study was investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on volume load and ratings of perceived exertion. Fifteen young healthy individuals, aged between 20 and 30 years in advanced strength training were recruited. Test and retest of the 10 maximum repetitions (10RM) were performed to determine the reliability of load used. Subjects performed 3 experimental conditions in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodic stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodic stimulation (c-tDCS), and sham (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex left). Immediately after the experimental conditions, subjects completed 1 set of maximum repetitions with 10RM load (volume load) and answered to OMNI-RES (poststimulation) (level of significance p ≤ 0.05). The volume load showed main effect for condition (F(2, 28) = 164.801; p < 0.001). In poststimulation, a-tDCS was greater than c-tDCS (p ≤ 0.001) and sham (p ≤ 0.001). For ratings of perceived exertion (OMNI-RES), the results showed main effect for condition (F(2, 28) = 9.768; p ≤ 0.05). In poststimulation, c-tDCS was greater than a-tDCS (p ≤ 0.05) and sham (p ≤ 0.05). We conclude that the use of a-tDCS may promote increase in volume load for the LP45 exercise. Moreover, higher volume loads are necessary to maximize muscle strength and anabolism.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19546, 2019 12 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862909

RESUMEN

Sperm storage in the female reproductive tract after mating and before ovulation is a reproductive strategy used by many species. When insemination and ovulation are poorly synchronized, the formation and maintenance of a functional sperm reservoir improves the possibility of fertilization. In mammals, the oviduct regulates sperm functions, such as Ca2+ influx and processes associated with sperm maturation, collectively known as capacitation. A fraction of the stored sperm is released by unknown mechanisms and moves to the site of fertilization. There is an empirical association between the hormonal milieu in the oviduct and sperm detachment; therefore, we tested directly the ability of progesterone to induce sperm release from oviduct cell aggregates. Sperm were allowed to bind to oviduct cells or an immobilized oviduct glycan and then challenged with progesterone, which stimulated the release of 48% of sperm from oviduct cells or 68% of sperm from an immobilized oviduct glycan. The effect of progesterone on sperm release was specific; pregnenolone and 17α-OH-progesterone did not affect sperm release. Ca2+ influx into sperm is associated with capacitation and development of hyperactivated motility. Progesterone increased sperm intracellular Ca2+, which was abrogated by blocking the sperm-specific Ca2+ channel CatSper with NNC 055-0396. NNC 055-0396 also blocked the progesterone-induced sperm release from oviduct cells or immobilized glycan. An inhibitor of the non-genomic progesterone receptor that activates CatSper similarly blocked sperm release. This is the first report indicating that release of sperm from the sperm reservoir is induced by progesterone action through CatSper channels.

12.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 585-595, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587291

RESUMEN

Motivation plays an important role when it comes to regular physical exercise. Hence, low levels of intentions to continue exercising in the future may ultimately lead to higher rates of exercise dropout. The first objective of the present research was to test a theoretical model considering the dark side of motivational determinants on intentions towards exercising in the future. The second objective consisted in comparing groups with different characteristics, as a way to identify individuals with weaker intention, which is believed to be an indicator of a higher dropout risk. In total, 544 (294 female; 250 male) gym exercisers aged between 18 and 58 years (M = 35.00; SD = 11.57) partook in the present research. Participants were engaged in fitness group classes (n = 273) or in cardio/resistance workouts (n = 271), and their exercise experience ranged from 3 to 120 months (M = 47.41; SD = 7.54). Results showed that the measurement and the structural model had an excellent fit. In addition, the structural model was invariant between gender, fitness activities, and exercise experience. Each group displayed different explained variance in intention to continue exercising. Overall, male, young adults and more experienced exercisers had stronger intentions towards exercising. Fitness instructors should be aware of their own thwarting behaviors, especially when interacting with female, young and less experienced exercisers, since they have weaker intentions to exercise in the future, possibly representing an increased risk of withdrawal.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivación/fisiología , Autonomía Personal , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Teoría Psicológica , Adulto Joven
13.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(3): 216-242, sept. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET5-622

RESUMEN

Nas últimas décadas, vários estudos estão investigando a dose-resposta ideal em termos de frequência, intensidade e volume de treinamento para alcançar o aumento da força muscular, tanto em atletas quanto em não atletas. A dose-resposta é fundamental para a prescrição do treinamento, uma vez que sua manipulação equivocada pode acarretar alto risco de desenvolvimento de lesões por esforços repetitivos, bem como pelo não desenvolvimento da força esperada. Em indivíduos com nível avançado de treinamento de força, é extremamente importante aumentar sua intensidade e volume de treinamento. Nesse sentido, com os avanços encontrados na área de treinamento de força e a necessidade de novas estratégias para otimizar ganhos de força, um novo método vem ganhando força na literatura, a estimulação transcraniana por corrente contínua (ETCC). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo é analisar criticamente os efeitos do ETCC como potencial recurso ergogênico para a realização de força muscular e percepção de esforço, bem como se seu uso é ético ou não. Para tanto, foram pesquisadas as bases de dados Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge e Scielo, apenas em inglês, e com as palavras-chave: força muscular, resistência muscular, estimulação transcraniana por corrente contínua, ETCC. Nós comparamos o efeito do ETCC anódico (ETCC-a) com uma condição sham/controle nos resultados de força muscular e percepção de esforço. Nenhum estudo menciona efeitos colaterais negativos da intervenção. Os dados mostram diferenças entre os estudos que investigam os estudos de avaliação da força muscular e resistência muscular, em termos do uso bem sucedido de ETCC. Estudos que investigaram a eficiência do ETCC na melhora da força muscular demonstraram efeitos positivos do ETCC-a em 66,7% dos parâmetros testados. Amaioria dos dados mostra consistentemente a influência do ETCC-a na força muscular, mas não no desempenho de resistência


En las últimas décadas, diversos estudios están investigando la dosis-respuesta ideal en cuanto a la frecuencia, intensidad y volumen de entrenamiento para alcanzar el aumento de fuerza muscular, sea en atletas y no atletas. La dosis-respuesta es fundamental para la prescripción de entrenamiento, pues su manipulación equivocada puede llevar a un alto de riesgo de desarrollo de lesiones por esfuerzo repetitivo, así como para el no desarrollo de la fuerza esperada. En sujetos con nivel avanzado de entrenamiento de fuerza es extremadamente importante aumentar su intensidad y volumen de entrenamiento. En este sentido, con los avances encontrados en el área de entrenamiento de fuerza y la necesidad de nuevas estrategias para optimizar las ganancias de fuerza, un nuevo método está ganando fuerza en la literatura, la estimulación transcraneal por corriente continua (ETCC). Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio es analizar de forma crítica los efectos de la ETCC como potencial recurso ergogénico al desempeño de fuerza muscular y percepción de esfuerzo, así como si su uso es ético o no. Por lo tanto, se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge y Scielo, solamente en inglés y con las palabras clave: fuerza muscular, resistencia muscular, estimulación transcraneal de corriente continua, ETCC. Comparamos el efecto de la ETCC anódica (ETCC-a) a una condición sham/control sobre los resultados de la fuerza muscular y percepción de esfuerzo. Ningún estudio menciona efectos secundarios negativos de la intervención. Los datos muestran diferencias entre los estudios que investigan la fuerza muscular y los estudios de evaluación de resistencia muscular, en lo que se refiere al uso exitoso de la ETCC. Los estudios que investigan la eficiencia de la ETCC en la mejora de la fuerza muscular demuestran efectos positivos de la ETCC-a en el 66,7% de los parámetros probados. La mayoría de los datos muestran consistentemente influencia de la ETCC-a en la fuerza muscular, pero no en el rendimiento de resistencia


In the last decades, several studies are investigating the optimal dose-response in terms of frequency, intensity and volume of training to achieve increased muscle strength in both athletes and non-athletes. Dose-response is critical to the prescription of training, since its mismanagement may pose a high risk of developing repetitive strain injuries as well as failure to develop the expected strength. In individuals with advanced level of strength training, it is extremely important to increase their intensity and training volume. In this sense, with the advances in the area of strength training and the need for new strategies to optimize force gains, a new method is gaining strength in the literature, the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to critically analyze the effects of tDCS as a potential ergogenic resource for achieving muscle strength and perceived exertion, as well as whether its use is ethical or not. To do so, we searched the databases Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledgeand Scielo, in English only, and with the keywords: muscle strength, muscular endurance, transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS. We compared the effect of anodic tDCS (a-tDCS) with a sham/control condition on muscle strength and perceived exertion results. No study mentions the negative side effects of the intervention. The data show differences between studies investigating studies of muscle strength and muscle endurance in terms of the successful use of tDCS. Studies that investigated tDCS efficiency in improving muscle strength demonstrated positive effects of a-tDCS on 66.7% of the parameters tested. Most data consistently show the influence of a-tDCS on muscle strength, but not on resistance performance

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(34): 30810-30818, 2019 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369703

RESUMEN

This study describes a systematic investigation of the electrocatalytic activity of poly[Ni(salen)] films, as catalysts for the electro-oxidation of Cn alcohols (Cn = methanol, ethanol, and glycerol) in alkaline medium. The [Ni(salen)] complex was electropolymerized on a glassy carbon surface and electrochemically activated in NaOH solution by cyclic voltammetry. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that during the activation step the polymeric film hydrolyzes, leading to the formation of ß-Ni(OH)2 spherical nanoparticles, with an average size of 2.4 ± 0.5 nm, encapsulated with the poly[Ni(salen)] film. Electrochemical results obtained together with the in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm that the electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and glycerol occurs by involving a cycling oxidation of ß-Ni(OH)2 with the formation of ß-NiOOH species, followed by the charge transfer to the alcohols, which regenerates ß-Ni(OH)2. Analyses of the oxidation products at low potentials indicate that the major product obtained during the oxidation of methanol and glycerol is the formate, while the oxidation of ethanol leads to the formation of acetate. On the other hand, at high potentials (E = 0.6 V), there is evidence that the oxidation of Cn alcohols leads to carbonate ions as an important product.

15.
Neurosci Lett ; 711: 134444, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445061

RESUMEN

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is acknowledged to modulate autonomic cardiac activity and hemodynamic responses at rest and during exercise. However, its potential to optimize postexercise hypotension (PEH) has not been investigated. This study investigated the effects of anodal tDCS applied over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) upon blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout 60 min following acute aerobic exercise. Fifteen young men (27.5 ± 5.2 yrs; 72.9 ± 8 kg; 170 ± 0.1 cm; 124.1 ± 1.9/67.7 ± 2.1 mmHg) underwent three counterbalanced experimental sessions: a) anodal tDCS + exercise (tDCS); b) sham stimulation + exercise (SHAM); c) non-exercise control (CONT). Exercise consisted in 50-min cycling at 65-70% heart rate reserve. BP and HRV were assessed during 60-min postexercise. Mean reduction in systolic BP occurred after tDCS vs. SHAM (-4.1 mmHg; P=0.03) and CONT (-5.8 mmHg; P=0.003), and in MAP vs. CONT (-3.0 mmHg, P=0.03). Parasympathetic activity lowered after tDCS and SHAM vs. CONT, as respectively reflected by R-R intervals (-328.1% and -396.4%; P = 0.001), SDNN (-155.7% and -193.4%; P = 0.006), and pNN50 (-272.3% and -259.1%; P = 0.021). There was a clear tendency of increased sympatho-vagal balance vs. CONT (P = 0.387) after SHAM (+246.3%), but not tDCS (+25.9%). In conclusion, an aerobic exercise bout preceded by tDCS applied over mPFC induced PEH in normotensive men. Parasympathetic activity lowered, while sympatho-vagal balance increased after both tDCS and SHAM vs. CONT. However, these responses seemed to be tempered by anodal stimulation, which might help explaining the occurrence of PEH after tDCS and not SHAM. These findings warrant further research on the role of tDCS within exercise programs aiming at BP management.

16.
Rev. Psicol. Saúde ; 11(2): 145-152, maio-ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1020434

RESUMEN

Developing an approach to predict happiness based on individual conditions and actions could enable us to select daily behaviors for enhancing well-being in life. Therefore, we propose a novel approach of applying machine learning, a branch of the field of artificial intelligence, to a variety of information concerning people's lives (i.e., a lifelog). We asked a participant (a healthy young man) to record 55 lifelog items (e.g., positive mood, negative events, sleep time etc.) in his daily life for about eight months using smartphone apps and a smartwatch. We then constructed a predictor to estimate the degree of happiness from the multimodal lifelog data using a support vector machine, which achieved 82.6% prediction accuracy. This suggests that our approach can predict the behaviors that increase individuals' happiness in their daily lives, thereby contributing to improvement in their happiness. Future studies examining the usability and clinical applicability of this approach would benefit from a larger and more diverse sample size.


Desenvolver uma abordagem para prever a felicidade com base em condições e ações individuais pode nos permitir selecionar comportamentos diários para melhorar o bem-estar na vida. Portanto, propomos uma nova abordagem de aplicação da aprendizagem de máquina, um ramo do campo da inteligência artificial, para uma variedade de informações sobre a vida das pessoas (ou seja, um lifelog). Pedimos a um participante (um jovem saudável) que registrasse 55 itens de vida útil (por exemplo, humor positivo, eventos negativos, tempo de sono etc.) em sua vida diária por cerca de oito meses usando aplicativos de smartphones e um relógio inteligente. Em seguida, construímos um preditor para estimar o grau de felicidade dos dados de vida multimodal usando uma máquina de vetores de suporte, que atingiu 82,6% de precisão de previsão. Isso sugere que nossa abordagem pode prever os comportamentos que aumentam a felicidade dos indivíduos em suas vidas diárias, contribuindo para uma melhoria em sua felicidade. Estudos futuros examinando a usabilidade e a aplicabilidade clínica dessa abordagem se beneficiariam de um tamanho de amostra maior e mais diversificado.


El desarrollar un enfoque para predecir la felicidad, basado en las condiciones y acciones individuales, nos permitiría seleccionar comportamientos habituales para mejorar el bienestar en la vida. Por lo tanto, proponemos un novedoso enfoque de aplicación del aprendizaje automático, una rama del campo de la Inteligencia Artificial, a una variedad de información de la vida de las personas (es decir, un lifelog). Se le pidió a un participante (un sujeto joven sano) que registrara 55 elementos de lifelog (por ejemplo, humor positivo, eventos negativos, tiempo de sueño etc.) en su vida diaria, durante aproximadamente ocho meses, usando aplicaciones de teléfonos inteligentes, y un reloj inteligente. Posteriormente, construimos un predictor para estimar el grado de felicidad, a partir de los datos lifelog multimodales, utilizando un equipo de vectores de soporte, que logró una precisión de predicción del 82.6%. Estos datos sugieren que nuestro enfoque, puede predecir los comportamientos que incrementan la felicidad de las personas en su vida diaria, contribuyendo así, a una mejora en su felicidad. Los futuros estudios que examinen la usabilidad, y la aplicabilidad clínica de este enfoque, se beneficiarían al analizar un tamaño de muestra más grande, y más diversa.

18.
Neurosci Lett ; 707: 134311, 2019 08 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158433

RESUMEN

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of different electrode assemblies and electric current polarity on the ROM of the hip and pain perception. Ten healthy male, sedentary, right-leg-dominant, and aged between 19 and 30 years (24.0 ± 4.0 years) subjects were recruited. For the experimental conditions, the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was performed with the following montages. In the montage 1, the cathodal electrode was placed over the motor cortex (MC) horizontally, and the anodal electrode was positioned over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In the montage 2, the anodal electrode was placed over the MC bilaterally, and the cathode electrode was positioned over the left DLPFC. The sham montage was the same as the montage 1. In the montage 1 and 2 stimulation was applied with 2 mA current intensity for 20 min. In the Sham condition, the stimulator was turned off after 30 s of active stimulation and the electrodes remained on the participants for 20 min. Before and after experimental conditions (Pre-stimulation, Post-stimulation), the maximum Hip ROM and pain perception was measured. For the Montage 1, the maximum Hip ROM increased in post-stimulation compared to pre-stimulation, and in the Montage 2, the maximum Hip ROM decreased in post-stimulation compared to pre-stimulation. The pain perception in the Montage 1 decreased in the post-stimulation compared to pre-stimulation. In the post-stimulation, pain perception for the Montage 1 was lower compared to Montage 2 (p = 0.005), and sham (p = 0.004). When the anodic stimulus was applied on the left DLPFC and the cathodic stimulus on the motor cortex, an increase in ROM and a reduction in the pain perception was observed. This montage may to modulate pain perception and joint flexibility.

19.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1127, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156520

RESUMEN

Exercise performance is influenced by many physical factors, such as muscle strength and endurance. Particularly in the physical fitness and sports performance contexts, there are many types of ergogenic aids to improve muscular strength and endurance performance, with non-athletes and even athletes using illegal drugs to reach the top. Thus, the development of innovative methods to aid in exercise performance is of great interest. One such method is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A systematic search was performed on the following databases, until January 2019; PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Pedro database. Studies on tDCS for muscular strength and endurance performance improvement in non-athletes and athletes adults were included. We compared the effect of anodal-tDCS (a-tDCS) to a sham/control condition on the outcomes muscular strength and endurance performance. We found 26 controlled trials. No trial mentions negative side effects of the intervention. The data show differences between the studies investigating muscle strength and the studies evaluating endurance, with regard to successful use of tDCS. Studies investigating the efficiency of tDCS on improving muscular strength demonstrate positive effects of a-tDCS in 66.7% of parameters tested. In contrast, in studies evaluating the effects of a-tDCS on improving endurance performance the a-tDCS revealed a significant improvement in only 50% of parameters assessed. The majority of the data shows consistently influence of a-tDCS on muscular strength, but not to endurance performance. The results of this systematic review suggest that a-tDCS can improve muscular strength, but not to endurance performance.

20.
Front Psychol ; 10: 945, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080432

RESUMEN

It was the main goal of this study to investigate performance on the mental rotation test (MRT) in Brazilian and German adolescents. Mental rotation is the ability to mentally transform a three-dimensional stimulus in mind and relates to science education. 60 German and 60 Brazilian adolescents (76 males and 44 females, 11-17 years) completed the Mental Rotation Test, a physical activity and media use questionnaire and a Number Connection Test. The result showed no difference between Brazilian and German adolescents in the cognitive processing speed measurement. German adolescents are more active and show a less media use compared to the Brazilian adolescents. Furthermore, German adolescents demonstrate a better MRT performance than Brazilian ones, as well as boys show a better performance than girls do. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the MRT performance could be predicted by nationality, sex, and cognitive processing speed. Since cognitive processing speed did not differ between Brazilian and German adolescents, the worse MRT performance of the Brazilian adolescents could be explained by different educational systems. Further studies have to follow which investigate the reasons for the different nations in more detail.

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