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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 514, 2019 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420002

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Stroke is a major global public health burden. Unfortunately, stroke invariably leads to functional limitations, consequently, most stroke survivors are hugely dependent on family members/informal caregivers in carrying out essential daily activities. The increased demands of caregiving negatively impact caregivers' mental health. Nevertheless, caregivers who receive an adequate amount of social support are likely to adjust better to the caregiving role. We sought to determine the impact of social support on the mental wellbeing of 71 caregivers of patients with stroke in Zimbabwe, a low-resourced country. RESULTS: The mean caregiver age was 41.5 (SD 13.8) years. Patients had a mean age of 65.2 (SD 15.3) years with most being functionally dependent (93.2%). 45.1% of the caregivers showed excessive psychiatric morbidity. The mean Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) score was 44 (SD 9.4), denoting high levels of social support. Caregivers who received an adequate amount of social support were likely to report of lower psychiatric morbidity (Rho = - 0.285, p = 0.016). Furthermore, caregiver who were; poorer, were caring for more functionally-dependent patients, and did not receive additional assistance were likely to report of poor mental health functioning. There is therefore a strong need to implement context-specific caregivers wellness programs.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Apoyo Social , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cuidadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Probabilidad , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sobrevivientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Zimbabwe
2.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 13: 31, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080500

RESUMEN

Worldwide, people with mental disorders are detained within the justice system at higher rates than the general population and often suffer human rights abuses. This review sought to understand the state of knowledge on the mental health of people detained in the justice system in Africa, including epidemiology, conditions of detention, and interventions. We included all primary research studies examining mental disorders or mental health policy related to detention within the justice system in Africa. 80 met inclusion criteria. 67% were prevalence studies and meta-analysis of these studies revealed pooled prevalence as follows: substance use 38% (95% CI 26-50%), mood disorders 22% (95% CI 16-28%), and psychotic disorders 33% (95% CI 28-37%). There were only three studies of interventions. Studies examined prisons (46%), forensic hospital settings (37%), youth institutions (13%), or the health system (4%). In 36% of studies, the majority of participants had not been convicted of a crime. Given the high heterogeneity in subpopulations identified in this review, future research should examine context and population-specific interventions for people with mental disorders.

3.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 795, 2018 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400994

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB) is the second prime cause of mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and remains a major worldwide public health problem. Unfortunately, patients with TB are at risk of poor mental health. However, patients who receive an adequate amount of social support are likely to have improved health outcomes. The study was done to establish how social support influences the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with TB in Harare, Zimbabwe. Data were collected from 332 TB patients and were analysed through structural equation modelling. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 40.1 (SD 12.5) years and most were; males (53%), married (57.8%), educated (97.3%), unemployed (40.7%), stayed with family (74.4%), and reported of less than average levels of income (51.5%). Patients received the most significant amount of social support from the family. Patients also presented with lower HRQoL as they considerably reported of pain, anxiety and depression. The final model accounted for 68.8% of the variance. Despite methodological limitations, the study findings suggest that social support optimises patients' HRQoL. Based on the patients' responses, it was noted that patients presented with lower mental health, therefore, there is a need to develop and implement patient wellness interventions.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Dolor/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Apoyo Social , Tuberculosis/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 4(11): 876-886, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28625876

RESUMEN

There has been little external analysis of Zimbabwe's mental health system. We did a systems analysis to identify bottlenecks and opportunities for mental health service improvement in Zimbabwe and to generate cost-effective, policy-relevant solutions. We combined in-depth interviews with a range of key stakeholders in health and mental health, analysis of mental health laws and policies, and publicly available data about mental health. Five themes are key to mental health service delivery in Zimbabwe: policy and law; financing and resources; criminal justice; workforce, training, and research; and beliefs about mental illness. We identified human resources, rehabilitation facilities, psychotropic medication, and community mental health as funding priorities. Moreover, we found that researchers should prioritise measuring the economic impact of mental health and exploring substance use, forensic care, and mental health integration. Our study highlights forensic services as a central component of the mental health system, which has been a neglected concept. We also describe a tailored process for mental health systems that is transferable to other low-income settings and that garners political will, builds capacity, and raises the profile of mental health.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Legislación Médica , Servicios de Salud Mental , Salud Mental , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica , Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental/economía , Psiquiatría Forense/economía , Psiquiatría Forense/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Política de Salud/economía , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/economía , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Salud Mental/economía , Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Servicios de Salud Mental/economía , Servicios de Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica/economía , Participación de los Interesados , Análisis de Sistemas , Zimbabwe
6.
Community Ment Health J ; 53(2): 143-153, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221123

RESUMEN

There is growing evidence supporting the use of lay health workers (LHWs) to address the treatment gap for common mental disorders (CMD) through task-shifting. This study looks at the experience of LHWs delivering a problem solving therapy (PST) intervention for CMD for people living with HIV (PLWH) in a primary health care setting. Semi-structured interviews of LHWs (n = 7) and PLWH (10) who received PST were carried out using thematic content analysis. Over a 4 year period LHWs developed indigenous concepts of PST which were: Opening the mind (Kuvhura pfungwa), uplifting (kusimudzira), strengthening and strengthening further (kusimbisa and kusimbisisa) respectively. Using terms locally conceived through knowledge sharing amongst LHWs made it acceptable to deliver PST as part of their daily work. Indigenous terms conceived and developed by LWHs to describe components and processes of PST contribute to the therapy's acceptability and continued use in primary care facilities.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Infecciones por VIH , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Solución de Problemas , Investigación Cualitativa , Zimbabwe
7.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0161860, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27607240

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. METHODS: We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. RESULTS: Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets"), what they advocate for ("asks"), how advocates reach their targets ("access"), how they make their asks ("arguments"), and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes"). DISCUSSION: Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.


Asunto(s)
Defensa del Consumidor , Mercadotecnía , Salud Mental , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Mental , Zimbabwe
8.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 10: 39, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27175215

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are few accounts of evidence-based interventions for depression and other common mental disorders (CMDs) in primary care in low-income countries. The Friendship Bench Project is a collaborative care mental health intervention in primary care in Harare for CMDs which began as a pilot in 2006. CASE PRESENTATION: We employed a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches to investigate the project's acceptability and implementation, 4-8 years after the initial pilot study. We carried out basic descriptive analyses of routine data on attendance collected between 2010 and 2014. We also conducted five focus group discussions (FGDs) with LHWs in 2013 and 12 in-depth interviews, six with staff and six with patients, to explore experiences of the intervention, which we analysed using grounded theory. Results show that the intervention appears highly acceptable as evidenced by a consistent number of visits between 2010 and 2014 (mean 505 per year, SD 132); by the finding that the same team of female community LHWs employed as government health promoters continue to deliver assessment and problem-solving therapy, and the perceived positive benefits expressed by those interviewed. Clients described feeling 'relieved and relaxed' after therapy, and having their 'mind opened', and LHWs describing satisfaction from being agents of change. Characteristics of the LHWs (status in the community, maturity, trustworthiness), and of the intervention (use of locally validated symptom screen, perceived relevance of problem-solving therapy) and continuity of the LHW team appeared crucial. Challenges to implementation included the LHWs ongoing need for weekly supervision despite years of experience; the supervisors need for supervision for herself; training needs in managing suicidal and hostile clients; poor documentation; lack of follow-up of depressed clients; and poor access to antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: This case study shows that a collaborative care intervention for CMDs is positively received by patients, rewarding for LHWs to deliver, and can be sustained over time at low cost. Next steps include evaluation of the impact of the intervention through a randomised trial, and testing of a technological platform for supporting supervision and monitoring clients' attendance.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 198: 50-5, 2016 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27011359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In low income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa there are few validated tools to screen for common disabling mental disorders such as depression and general anxiety disorder (GAD). OBJECTIVES: We validated three screening tools: the Shona Symptom Questionnaire for common mental disorders (SSQ-14), the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). The study participants were attendees at a primary health care clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: Consecutive adults aged 18 and above attending the clinic were enrolled over a two-week period in September 2013. Trained research assistants administered the screening tools to eligible participants after obtaining written consent. Participants were then interviewed by one of four psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID). Performance characteristics were calculated for each tool, against the SCID as the gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 264 participants were enrolled, of whom 52 (20%) met the SCID criteria for depression alone, 97 (37%) for mixed depression and anxiety and 9 (3%) for anxiety alone. Of the 237 where HIV status was known, 165 (70%) were HIV positive. With the optimal cutoff of ≥9, the sensitivity and specificity for the SSQ-14 against a diagnosis of either depression and/or general anxiety were 84% (95%CI:78-89%) and 73% (95%CI:63-81%) respectively. Internal reliability was high (Cronbach α=0.74). The optimal cutoff for PHQ-9 was ≥11, which provided a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI:78-90%) and specificity of 69% (95%CI:59-77%) against a SCID diagnosis of depression (Cronbach α=0.86). The GAD-7 (optimal cutoff ≥10) had sensitivity and specificity of 89% (95%CI:81-94%) and 73% (95%CI:65-80%) respectively against a SCID diagnosis of GAD (Cronbach α=0.87). CONCLUSION: Screening tools for depression and GAD had good performance characteristics in a primary health care population in Zimbabwe with a high prevalence of HIV. These can be used for research and also in clinical care to screen patients who may benefit from treatment.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Depresión/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
10.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 3(1): 65-76, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26772066

RESUMEN

Commitment to building mental health treatment capacity in Africa is increasing but little agreement exists on strategies to train health workers on mental health or evaluation of training efforts. We systematically reviewed published literature on interventions to train health-care workers in Africa on mental health. 37 studies met our inclusion criteria. Training outcomes focused on changes in knowledge and attitude, with few studies evaluating skill and practice and only two studies measuring clinical outcomes. Quality of study methodology was generally not high, with scarce follow-up data and use of control cohorts. Existing studies provide examples of many training and evaluation strategies, but evidence to draw conclusions about the efficacy of different training techniques is inadequate. Key knowledge gaps include development and testing of innovative educational strategies; development of standardised, competency-based learning objectives and outcome measures; and training that facilitates implementation of integrated mental health systems. African institutions need to be empowered to do research in these areas to encourage the development of best practices for the continent.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/educación , Salud Mental/educación , África , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 20(7): 903-13, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754063

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To document the lived experiences of people with both poor mental health and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in high HIV prevalence settings. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 (female = 31) HIV-positive adults who scored above the cut-point on a locally validated scale for common mental disorders (CMDs). Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants with evidence of poor adherence. Six additional key informant interviews (female = 6) were conducted with healthcare workers. Data were collected and analysed inductively by an interdisciplinary coding team. RESULTS: The major challenges faced by participants were stressors (poverty, stigma, marital problems) and symptoms of CMDs ('thinking too much', changes to appetite and sleep, 'burdened heart' and low energy levels). Thinking too much, which appears closely related to rumination, was the symptom with the greatest negative impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults with CMDs. In turn, thinking too much was commonly triggered by the stressors faced by people living with HIV/AIDS, especially poverty. Finally, participants desired private counselling, access to income-generating activities and family engagement in mental health care. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of the local expression of mental disorders and of underlying stressors can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce CMDs and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Estrés Psicológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Adulto , Cultura , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Estigma Social , Apoyo Social , Esposos , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Pensamiento , Zimbabwe
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