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1.
Nanoscale ; 10(17): 8187-8195, 2018 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676427

RESUMEN

An outstanding current carrying performance (namely critical current density, Jc) over a broad temperature range of 10-77 K for magnetic fields up to 12 T is reported for films of YBa2Cu3O7-x with Ba2Y(Nb,Ta)O6 inclusion pinning centres (YBCO-BYNTO) and thicknesses in the range of 220-500 nm. Jc values of 10 MA cm-2 were measured at 30 K - 5 T and 10 K - 9 T with a corresponding maximum of the pinning force density at 10 K close to 1 TN m-3. The system is very flexible regarding properties and microstructure tuning, and the growth window for achieving a particular microstructure is wide, which is very important for industrial processing. Hence, the dependence of Jc on the magnetic field angle was readily controlled by fine tuning the pinning microstructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis highlighted that higher growth rates induce more splayed and denser BYNTO nanocolumns with a matching field as high as 5.2 T. Correspondingly, a strong peak at the B||c-axis is noticed when the density of vortices is lower than the nanocolumn density. YBCO-BYNTO is a very robust and reproducible composite system for high-current coated conductors over an extended range of magnetic fields and temperatures.

2.
Nano Lett ; 17(4): 2506-2511, 2017 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287748

RESUMEN

Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) is demonstrated at terahertz (THz) frequencies by using terahertz time-domain magnetospectroscopy to examine vertically aligned nanocomposites (VANs) and planar thin films of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3. At the Curie temperature (room temperature), the THz conductivity of the VAN was dramatically enhanced by over 2 orders of magnitude under the application of a magnetic field with a non-Drude THz conductivity that increased with frequency. The direct current (dc) CMR of the VAN is controlled by extrinsic magnetotransport mechanisms such as spin-polarized tunneling between nanograins. In contrast, we find that THz CMR is dominated by intrinsic, intragrain transport: the mean free path was smaller than the nanocolumn size, and the planar thin-film exhibited similar THz CMR to the VAN. Surprisingly, the observed colossal THz magnetoresistance suggests that the magnetoresistance can be large for alternating current motion on nanometer length scales, even when the magnetoresistance is negligible on the macroscopic length scales probed by dc transport. This suggests that colossal magnetoresistance at THz frequencies may find use in nanoelectronics and in THz optical components controlled by magnetic fields. The VAN can be scaled in thickness while retaining a high structural quality and offers a larger THz CMR at room temperature than the planar film.

3.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 2(2): 110-117, 2017 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260672

RESUMEN

Coating of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures has previously been achieved using batch processes poorly suited for high-throughput manufacturing. It is demonstrated that uniform, nanoscale coatings can be rapidly deposited on zinc oxide nanorod arrays in open-air using an atmospheric pressure spatial deposition system. The morphology of the metal oxide coatings is examined and good electrical contact with the underlying nanorods is observed. The functionality of the coatings is demonstrated in colloidal quantum dot and hybrid solar cells.

4.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 10(1): 407, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26474888

RESUMEN

The atomic structure and chemistry of thin films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 (BFMO) films with a target composition of Bi2FeMnO6 on SrTiO3 are studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is shown that Mn(4+)-rich antiphase boundaries are locally nucleated right at the film substrate and then form stepped structures that are approximately pyramidal in three dimensions. These have the effect of confining the material below the pyramids in a highly strained state with an out-of-plane lattice parameter close to 4.1 Å. Outside the area enclosed by the antiphase boundaries, the out-of-plane lattice parameter is much closer to bulk values for BFMO. This suggests that to improve the crystallographic perfection of the films whilst retaining the strain state through as much of the film as possible, ways need to be found to prevent nucleation of the antiphase boundaries. Since the antiphase boundaries seem to form from the interaction of Mn with the Ti in the substrate, one route to perform this would be to grow a thin buffer layer of pure BiFeO3 on the SrTiO3 substrate to minimise any Mn-Ti interactions.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(4): 047204, 2014 Jul 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25105651

RESUMEN

Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we observe an induced magnetization of 75 ± 25 kA/m at 10 K in a La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) (LSMO)/BiFeO(3) superlattice extending from the interface through several atomic layers of the BiFeO(3) (BFO). The induced magnetization in BFO is explained by density functional theory, where the size of band gap of BFO plays an important role. Considering a classical exchange field between the LSMO and BFO layers, we further show that magnetization is expected to extend throughout the BFO, which provides a theoretical explanation for the results of the neutron scattering experiment.

6.
Opt Lett ; 39(5): 1121-4, 2014 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24690686

RESUMEN

Polarization-resolved terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy was utilized to examine the complex refractive index of lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3), a rhombohedrally distorted perovskite that exhibits crystallographic twin domains. The uniaxial anisotropy of the refractive index was quantified. The ellipticity of THz radiation pulses after transmission through single domains indicated that LaAlO3 can be used as a quarter- or half-wave plate. The effective anisotropy of [001]-oriented LaAlO3 was found to be reduced when the material exhibited multiple, narrow twin domains.

7.
Nat Commun ; 2: 428, 2011 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21847102

RESUMEN

The formation of carbon nanotube and superconductor composites makes it possible to produce new and/or improved functionalities that the individual material does not possess. Here we show that coating carbon nanotube forests with superconducting niobium carbide (NbC) does not destroy the microstructure of the nanotubes. NbC also shows much improved superconducting properties such as a higher irreversibility and upper critical field. An upper critical field value of ~5 T at 4.2 K is much greater than the 1.7 T reported in the literature for pure bulk NbC. Furthermore, the aligned carbon nanotubes induce anisotropy in the upper critical field, with a higher upper critical field occurring when the magnetic field is parallel to the carbon nanotube growth direction. These results suggest that highly oriented carbon nanotubes embedded in superconducting NbC matrix can function as defects and effectively enhance the superconducting properties of the NbC.

8.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 23(30): 305002, 2011 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21709353

RESUMEN

We show the influence of pulsed laser deposition fluence on the transport properties of the LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) (LAO/STO) heterointerface. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction and medium energy ion spectrometry enables us to deduce that the electronic behaviour is extremely sensitive to the stoichiometry of the LAO layer as well as the structural quality of the STO surface. An optimum balance of these two quantities is demonstrated for an intermediate laser fluence.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 21(9): 095604, 2010 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20124663

RESUMEN

The striking influence of the growth kinetics and substrate enhanced surface mobility on the control of the self-assembly of rare earth tantalate particles (1.5 mol% of nanoparticles in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) thin films) is demonstrated. Strongly enhanced flux pinning, control of the anisotropy property and superior critical current densities were achieved. Owing to the unique ability to probe nanoparticle self-assembly through determination of the nature and extent of the anisotropy of the superconducting properties, this system serves as the perfect model system for understanding how to tune and control functional nanocomposite nanostructures for a wide range of multifunctional applications.

10.
Nanotechnology ; 21(5): 055601, 2010 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20023309

RESUMEN

The length of titania nanotubes formed by anodization of 0.1 mm thick titanium foil was found to be a strong function of the pH of the electrolyte. The longest nanotubes were formed by using an electrolyte consisting of 1 M Na(2)SO(4) plus 5 wt% NH(4)F with pH 7. At this pH, after 30 min of anodization, 3 microm length nanotubular titania arrays with top diameters of approximately 50 nm and bottom diameters of 100 nm were produced. No acid was added to this electrolyte. The formation of titania nanotubes in neutral pH systems was therefore successful due to the excess NH(4)F in the electrolyte which increases the chemical dissolution process at the metal/oxide interface. Since the pH of the electrolyte at the top part of the nanotubes is kept very high, the dissolution of the nanotubes at the surface is minimal. However, the amount is adequate to remove the initial barrier layer, forming a rather well-defined nanoporous structure. All anodized foils were weakly crystalline and the transformation to anatase phase was achieved by heat treatment at temperatures from 200 to 500 degrees C for 1 h in air. Annealing at temperatures above 500 degrees C induce rutile phase formation and annealing at higher temperatures accelerates the diffusion of Ti(4+) leading to excessive growth and the nanotubular structure diminishes.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 103(16): 166802, 2009 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19905715

RESUMEN

The thickness and origin of the free charge layer which forms at the LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} interface is still uncertain. By inserting Mn dopants at different distances from the interface we can locate the position of carriers within the SrTiO3 surface layers. We show that the majority of the carriers in fully-oxygenated samples are confined within 1 unit cell of the interface. This confirms the "polar-catastrophe" mechanism proposed for this system but the low mobility of these carriers demonstrates the need for improved materials for applications and a more complete understanding of the role of the minority of higher mobility carriers identified.

12.
Nanotechnology ; 20(36): 365604, 2009 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19687541

RESUMEN

Large-area free-standing arrays of TiO(2) nanorods and nanotubes were selectively synthesized on transparent conducting indium tin oxide substrates using sol-gel electrophoresis and anodic alumina (AAO) thin film templates. The effect of sol-gel ageing on the growth of TiO(2) was explained, providing a tailored ability to produce nanotubes and nanorods. An annular tungsten base electrode, stemming from the anodization of the AAO template, was found to be crucial to the growth of nanotubes. This was supported by a study of substrate annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The work can be readily adapted for the fabrication of free-standing arrays of other metal, metal oxide, and complex oxide nanorod and nanotube arrays on conducting substrates.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 19(45): 455608, 2008 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21832785

RESUMEN

A simple, catalyst-free growth method for vertically aligned, highly crystalline iron oxide (α-Fe(2)O(3)) wires and needles is reported. Wires are grown by the thermal oxidation of iron foils. Growth properties are studied as a function of temperature, growth time and oxygen partial pressure. The size, morphology and density of the nanostructures can be controlled by varying growth temperature and time. Oxygen partial pressure shows no effect on the morphology of resulting nanostructures, although the oxide thickness increases with oxygen partial pressure. Additionally, by using sputtered iron films, the possibility of growth and patterning on a range of different substrates is demonstrated. Growth conditions can be adapted to less tolerant substrates by using lower temperatures and longer growth time. The results provide some insight into the mechanism of growth.

14.
Nat Mater ; 6(9): 631-42, 2007 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17767181

RESUMEN

Twenty years ago in a series of amazing discoveries it was found that a large family of ceramic cuprate materials exhibited superconductivity at temperatures above, and in some cases well above, that of liquid nitrogen. Imaginations were energized by the thought of applications for zero-resistance conductors cooled with an inexpensive and readily available cryogen. Early optimism, however, was soon tempered by the hard realities of these new materials: brittle ceramics are not easily formed into long flexible conductors; high current levels require near-perfect crystallinity; and--the downside of high transition temperature--performance drops rapidly in a magnetic field. Despite these formidable obstacles, thousands of kilometres of high-temperature superconducting wire have now been manufactured for demonstrations of transmission cables, motors and other electrical power components. The question is whether the advantages of superconducting wire, such as efficiency and compactness, can outweigh the disadvantage: cost. The remaining task for materials scientists is to return to the fundamentals and squeeze as much performance as possible from these wonderful and difficult materials.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 98(11): 117003, 2007 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17501078

RESUMEN

This Letter reports the observation of hysteresis in the vortex pinning in a superconductor-ferromagnetic epitaxial nanocomposite consisting of fcc Gd particles incorporated in a Nb matrix. We show that this hysteretic pinning is associated with magnetic reversal losses in the Gd particles and is fundamentally different in origin to pinning interactions previously observed for ferromagnetic particles or other microstructural features.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 97(25): 257002, 2006 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17280382

RESUMEN

The critical current (Jc) of highly twinned YBa2Cu3O7 films has been measured as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and angle. For much of the parameter space we observe a strong suppression of Jc for fields in the twin boundary (TB) directions; this is quantitatively modeled as flux-cutting-mediated vortex channeling. For certain temperatures and fields a crossover occurs to a regime in which channeling is blocked and the TBs act as planar pinning centers so that TB pinning enhances the overall Jc. In this regime, intrinsic pinning along the TBs is comparable to that between the twins.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 16(2): 320-4, 2005 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21727443

RESUMEN

ZnO films were grown on polycrystalline Zn foil by cathodic electrodeposition in an aqueous zinc chloride/calcium chloride solution at 80 °C. Variation in the electrochemical parameters resulted in a variation in growth morphology from 1D (nanorods), 2D ('nanoplates') to 3D crystal growth. An as-received or mechanically polished substrate proved the most suitable substrate finish and allowed more highly aligned, dense structures to be grown; in contrast, electropolished substrates formed inhomogeneous deposits. Substrate annealing gave rise to large homogenous areas of nanorod deposition. Two-dimensional sheet growth was found to occur in conjunction with nanorods under specific electrochemical conditions. Hexagonal 'plates' approximately 50 nm in thickness and several microns in diameter were formed normal to the substrate.

18.
Nat Mater ; 3(7): 439-43, 2004 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15170180

RESUMEN

There are numerous potential applications for superconducting tapes based on YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) (YBCO) films coated onto metallic substrates. A long-established goal of more than 15 years has been to understand the magnetic-flux pinning mechanisms that allow films to maintain high current densities out to high magnetic fields. In fact, films carry one to two orders of magnitude higher current densities than any other form of the material. For this reason, the idea of further improving pinning has received little attention. Now that commercialization of YBCO-tape conductors is much closer, an important goal for both better performance and lower fabrication costs is to achieve enhanced pinning in a practical way. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and industrially scaleable route that yields a 1.5-5-fold improvement in the in-magnetic-field current densities of conductors that are already of high quality.

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