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1.
Cortex ; 115: 357-370, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846199

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Memory for music has attracted much recent interest in Alzheimer's disease but the underlying brain mechanisms have not been defined in patients directly. Here we addressed this issue in an Alzheimer's disease cohort using activation fMRI of two core musical memory systems. METHODS: We studied 34 patients with younger onset Alzheimer's disease led either by episodic memory decline (typical Alzheimer's disease) or by visuospatial impairment (posterior cortical atrophy) in relation to 19 age-matched healthy individuals. We designed a novel fMRI paradigm based on passive listening to melodies that were either previously familiar or unfamiliar (musical semantic memory) and either presented singly or repeated (incidental musical episodic memory). RESULTS: Both syndromic groups showed significant functional neuroanatomical alterations relative to the healthy control group. For musical semantic memory, disease-associated activation group differences were localised to right inferior frontal cortex (reduced activation in the group with memory-led Alzheimer's disease); while for incidental musical episodic memory, disease-associated activation group differences were localised to precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (abnormally enhanced activation in the syndromic groups). In post-scan behavioural testing, both patient groups had a deficit of musical episodic memory relative to healthy controls whereas musical semantic memory was unimpaired. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings define functional neuroanatomical substrates for the differential involvement of musical semantic and incidental episodic memory in major phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease. The complex dynamic profile of brain activation group differences observed suggests that musical memory may be an informative probe of neural network function in Alzheimer's disease. These findings may guide the development of future musical interventions in dementia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Memoria/fisiología , Música/psicología , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
2.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(2): 123-132, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29413314

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tests sensitive to presymptomatic changes in Alzheimer's disease could be valuable for clinical trials. Accelerated long-term forgetting-during which memory impairment becomes apparent over longer periods than usually assessed, despite normal performance on standard cognitive testing-has been identified in other temporal lobe disorders. We assessed whether accelerated long-term forgetting is a feature of presymptomatic autosomal dominant (familial) Alzheimer's disease, and whether there is an association between accelerated long-term forgetting and early subjective memory changes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study at the Dementia Research Centre, University College London (London, UK). Participants were recruited from a cohort of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease families already involved in research at University College London, and had to have a parent known to be affected by an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation, and not report any current symptoms of cognitive decline. Accelerated long-term forgetting of three tasks (list, story, and figure recall) was assessed by comparing 7-day recall with initial learning and 30-min recall. 7-day recognition was also assessed. Subjective memory was assessed using the Everyday Memory Questionnaire. The primary outcome measure for each task was the proportion of material retained at 30 min that was recalled 7 days later (ie, 7-day recall divided by 30-min recall). We used linear regression to compare accelerated long-term forgetting scores between mutation carriers and non-carriers (adjusting for age, IQ, and test set) and, for mutation carriers, to assess whether there was an association between accelerated long-term forgetting and estimated years to symptom onset (EYO). Spearman's correlation was used to examine the association between accelerated long-term forgetting and subjective memory scores. FINDINGS: Between Feb 17, 2015 and March 30, 2016, we recruited 35 people. 21 participants were mutation carriers (mean EYO 7·2 years, SD 4·5). Across the three tasks, we detected no differences between carriers and non-carriers for initial learning or 30-min recall. The proportion of material recalled at 7 days was lower in carriers than non-carriers for list (estimated difference in mean for list recall -30·94 percentage points, 95% CI -45·16 to -16·73; p=0·0002), story (-20·10, -33·28 to -6·91; p=0·0048), and figure (-15·41, -26·88 to -3·93; p=0·012) recall. Accelerated long-term forgetting was greater in carriers nearer to their estimated age at onset (p≤0·01 for all three tests). Mutation carriers' 7-day recognition memory was also lower across all tasks (list [mean difference -5·80, 95% CI -9·96 to -2·47; p<0·01], story [-6·84, -10·94 to -3·37; p<0·01], and figure [-17·61, -27·68 to -7·72; p<0·01] recognition). Subjective memory scores were poorer in asymptomatic carriers compared with non-carriers (adjusted difference in means 7·88, 95% CI 1·36 to 14·41; p=0·016), and we found a correlation between accelerated long-term forgetting and subjective memory in mutation carriers. INTERPRETATION: Accelerated long-term forgetting is an early presymptomatic feature of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease, which appears to pre-date other amnestic deficits and might underpin subjective memory complaints in Alzheimer's disease. Accelerated long-term forgetting testing might be useful in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease trials. FUNDING: MRC, NIHR, Alzheimer's Research UK, Dementias Platform UK, Dunhill Medical Trust, ERUK, Great Western Research, Health Foundation, Patrick Berthoud Trust.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Genes Dominantes , Memoria a Largo Plazo , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Estudios de Cohortes , Correlación de Datos , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Diagnóstico Precoz , Femenino , Tamización de Portadores Genéticos , Pruebas Genéticas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
3.
AIDS Behav ; 22(1): 86-101, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063075

RESUMEN

Using a pilot trial design in an HIV care clinic in Zimbabwe, we randomised 32 adults with poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy and at least mild depression to either six sessions of Problem-Solving Therapy for adherence and depression (PST-AD) delivered by an adherence counsellor, or to Enhanced Usual Care (Control). Acceptability of PST-AD was high, as indicated by frequency of session attendance and through qualitative analyses of exit interviews. Fidelity was >80% for the first two sessions of PST-AD but fidelity to the adherence component of PST-AD dropped by session 4. Contamination occurred, in that seven patients in the control arm received one or two PST-AD sessions before follow-up assessment. Routine health records proved unreliable for measuring HIV viral load at follow-up. Barriers to measuring adherence electronically included device failure and participant perception of being helped by the research device. The study was not powered to detect clinical differences, however, promising change at 6-months follow-up was seen in electronic adherence, viral load suppression (PST-AD arm 9/12 suppressed; control arm 4/8 suppressed) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-4.7 points in PST-AD arm vs. control, adjusted p value = 0.01). Results inform and justify a future randomised controlled trial of task-shifted PST-AD.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/etiología , Depresión/terapia , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Solución de Problemas , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Admisión y Programación de Personal , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
4.
Neurology ; 89(21): 2167-2175, 2017 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070659

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether serum neurofilament light (NfL) concentration is increased in familial Alzheimer disease (FAD), both pre and post symptom onset, and whether it is associated with markers of disease stage and severity. METHODS: We recruited 48 individuals from families with PSEN1 or APP mutations to a cross-sectional study: 18 had symptomatic Alzheimer disease (AD) and 30 were asymptomatic but at 50% risk of carrying a mutation. Serum NfL was measured using an ultrasensitive immunoassay on the single molecule array (Simoa) platform. Cognitive testing and MRI were performed; 33 participants had serial MRI, allowing calculation of atrophy rates. Genetic testing established mutation status. A generalized least squares regression model was used to compare serum NfL among symptomatic mutation carriers, presymptomatic carriers, and noncarriers, adjusting for age and sex. Spearman coefficients assessed associations between serum NfL and (1) estimated years to/from symptom onset (EYO), (2) cognitive measures, and (3) MRI measures of atrophy. RESULTS: Nineteen of the asymptomatic participants were mutation carriers (mean EYO -9.6); 11 were noncarriers. Compared with noncarriers, serum NfL concentration was higher in both symptomatic (p < 0.0001) and presymptomatic mutation carriers (p = 0.007). Across all mutation carriers, serum NfL correlated with EYO (ρ = 0.81, p < 0.0001) and multiple cognitive and imaging measures, including Mini-Mental State Examination (ρ = -0.62, p = 0.0001), Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (ρ = 0.79, p < 0.0001), baseline brain volume (ρ = -0.62, p = 0.0002), and whole-brain atrophy rate (ρ = 0.53, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Serum NfL concentration is increased in FAD prior to symptom onset and correlates with measures of disease stage and severity. Serum NfL may thus be a feasible biomarker of early AD-related neurodegeneration.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/sangre , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/sangre , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangre , Adulto , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Estudios Transversales , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Salud de la Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Escala del Estado Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/etiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Presenilina-1/genética
5.
Front Neurol ; 8: 377, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28824534

RESUMEN

Young onset Alzheimer's disease (YOAD) is defined as symptom onset before the age of 65 years and is particularly associated with phenotypic heterogeneity. Atypical presentations, such as the clinic-radiological visual syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), often lead to delays in accurate diagnosis. Eyetracking has been used to demonstrate basic oculomotor impairments in individuals with dementia. In the present study, we aim to explore the relationship between eyetracking metrics and standard tests of visual cognition in individuals with YOAD. Fifty-seven participants were included: 36 individuals with YOAD (n = 26 typical AD; n = 10 PCA) and 21 age-matched healthy controls. Participants completed three eyetracking experiments: fixation, pro-saccade, and smooth pursuit tasks. Summary metrics were used as outcome measures and their predictive value explored looking at correlations with visuoperceptual and visuospatial metrics. Significant correlations between eyetracking metrics and standard visual cognitive estimates are reported. A machine-learning approach using a classification method based on the smooth pursuit raw eyetracking data discriminates with approximately 95% accuracy patients and controls in cross-validation tests. Results suggest that the eyetracking paradigms of a relatively simple and specific nature provide measures not only reflecting basic oculomotor characteristics but also predicting higher order visuospatial and visuoperceptual impairments. Eyetracking measures can represent extremely useful markers during the diagnostic phase and may be exploited as potential outcome measures for clinical trials.

6.
Neurobiol Aging ; 57: 8-17, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578156

RESUMEN

Mechanisms underlying phenotypic heterogeneity in young onset Alzheimer disease (YOAD) are poorly understood. We used diffusion tensor imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) with tract-based spatial statistics to investigate apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 modulation of white-matter damage in 37 patients with YOAD (22, 59% APOE ε4 positive) and 23 age-matched controls. Correlation between neurite density index (NDI) and neuropsychological performance was assessed in 4 white-matter regions of interest. White-matter disruption was more widespread in ε4+ individuals but more focal (posterior predominant) in the absence of an ε4 allele. NODDI metrics indicate fractional anisotropy changes are underpinned by combinations of axonal loss and morphological change. Regional NDI in parieto-occipital white matter correlated with visual object and spatial perception battery performance (right and left, both p = 0.02), and performance (nonverbal) intelligence (WASI matrices, right, p = 0.04). NODDI provides tissue-specific microstructural metrics of white-matter tract damage in YOAD, including NDI which correlates with focal cognitive deficits, and APOEε4 status is associated with different patterns of white-matter neurodegeneration.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/patología , Apolipoproteína E4 , Axones/patología , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Sustancia Blanca/diagnóstico por imagen , Sustancia Blanca/patología , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Femenino , Humanos , Inteligencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuritas/patología , Fenotipo , Procesamiento Espacial
7.
BMC Neurol ; 17(1): 75, 2017 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing age is the biggest risk factor for dementia, of which Alzheimer's disease is the commonest cause. The pathological changes underpinning Alzheimer's disease are thought to develop at least a decade prior to the onset of symptoms. Molecular positron emission tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging allow key pathological processes underpinning cognitive impairment - including ß-amyloid depostion, vascular disease, network breakdown and atrophy - to be assessed repeatedly and non-invasively. This enables potential determinants of dementia to be delineated earlier, and therefore opens a pre-symptomatic window where intervention may prevent the onset of cognitive symptoms. METHODS/DESIGN: This paper outlines the clinical, cognitive and imaging protocol of "Insight 46", a neuroscience sub-study of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. This is one of the oldest British birth cohort studies and has followed 5362 individuals since their birth in England, Scotland and Wales during one week in March 1946. These individuals have been tracked in 24 waves of data collection incorporating a wide range of health and functional measures, including repeat measures of cognitive function. Now aged 71 years, a small fraction have overt dementia, but estimates suggest that ~1/3 of individuals in this age group may be in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Insight 46 is recruiting 500 study members selected at random from those who attended a clinical visit at 60-64 years and on whom relevant lifecourse data are available. We describe the sub-study design and protocol which involves a prospective two time-point (0, 24 month) data collection covering clinical, neuropsychological, ß-amyloid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, biomarker and genetic information. Data collection started in 2015 (age 69) and aims to be completed in 2019 (age 73). DISCUSSION: Through the integration of data on the socioeconomic environment and on physical, psychological and cognitive function from 0 to 69 years, coupled with genetics, structural and molecular imaging, and intensive cognitive and neurological phenotyping, Insight 46 aims to identify lifetime factors which influence brain health and cognitive ageing, with particular focus on Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease. This will provide an evidence base for the rational design of disease-modifying trials.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico Precoz , Proyectos de Investigación , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análisis , Demencia/diagnóstico , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Escocia
8.
J Health Psychol ; 22(10): 1265-1276, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26893295

RESUMEN

Few evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy have been adapted for use in Africa. We selected, culturally adapted and tested the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adherence and for delivery in a clinic setting in Harare, Zimbabwe. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated using a mixed-methods assessment, including ratings of provider fidelity of intervention delivery, and qualitative assessments of feasibility using individual semi-structured interviews with counsellors (n=4) and patients (n=15). The intervention was feasible and acceptable when administered to 42 patients and resulted in improved self-reported adherence in a subset of 15 patients who were followed up after 6months.


Asunto(s)
Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/etnología
9.
Neurology ; 87(19): 2050-2057, 2016 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733562

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify a cortical signature pattern of cortical thinning in familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) and assess its utility in detecting and tracking presymptomatic neurodegeneration. METHODS: We recruited 43 FAD mutation carriers-36 PSEN1, 7 APP (20 symptomatic, 23 presymptomatic)-and 42 healthy controls to a longitudinal clinical and MRI study. T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired at baseline in all participants; 55 individuals (33 mutation carriers; 22 controls) had multiple (mean 2.9) follow-up scans approximately annually. Cortical thickness was measured using FreeSurfer. A cortical thinning signature was identified from symptomatic FAD participants. We then examined cortical thickness changes in this signature region in presymptomatic carriers and assessed associations with cognitive performance. RESULTS: The cortical signature included 6 regions: entorhinal cortex, inferior parietal cortex, precuneus, superior parietal cortex, superior frontal cortex, and supramarginal gyrus. There were significant differences in mean cortical signature thickness between mutation carriers and controls 3 years before predicted symptom onset. The earliest significant difference in a single region, detectable 4 years preonset, was in the precuneus. Rate of change in cortical thickness became significantly different in the cortical signature at 5 years before predicted onset, and in the precuneus at 8 years preonset. Baseline mean signature thickness predicted rate of subsequent thinning and correlated with presymptomatic cognitive change. CONCLUSIONS: The FAD cortical signature appears to be similar to that described for sporadic AD. All component regions showed significant presymptomatic thinning. A composite signature may provide more robust results than a single region and have utility as an outcome measure in presymptomatic trials.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/patología , Corteza Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Salud de la Familia , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Adulto , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Presenilina-1/genética , PubMed/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 10: 97, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27014028

RESUMEN

Despite considerable evidence for abnormalities of self-awareness in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive mechanisms of altered self-processing in AD have not been fully defined. Here we addressed this issue in a detailed analysis of self/non-self-processing in three patients with AD. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery comprising tests of tactile body schema coding, attribution of tactile events to self versus external agents, and memory for self- versus non-self-generated vocal information, administered in conjunction with a daily life measure of self/non-self-processing (the Interpersonal Reactivity Index). Three male AD patients (aged 54-68 years; one with a pathogenic mutation in the Presenilin 1 gene, one with a pathogenic mutation in the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, and one with a CSF protein profile supporting underlying AD pathology) were studied in relation to a group of eight healthy older male individuals (aged 58-74 years). Compared to healthy controls, all patients had relatively intact tactile body schema processing. In contrast, all patients showed impaired memory for words previously presented using the patient's own voice whereas memory for words presented in other voices was less consistently affected. Two patients showed increased levels of emotional contagion and reduced perspective taking on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Our findings suggest that AD may be associated with deficient self/non-self differentiation over time despite a relatively intact body image: this profile of altered self-processing contrasts with the deficit of tactile body schema previously described in frontotemporal dementia associated with C9orf72 mutations. We present these findings as a preliminary rationale to direct future systematic study in larger patient cohorts.

11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 49(1): 111-9, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26444779

RESUMEN

Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Emociones , Demencia Frontotemporal/psicología , Afasia Progresiva Primaria no Fluente/psicología , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Trop Med Int Health ; 20(7): 903-13, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754063

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To document the lived experiences of people with both poor mental health and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in high HIV prevalence settings. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 (female = 31) HIV-positive adults who scored above the cut-point on a locally validated scale for common mental disorders (CMDs). Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants with evidence of poor adherence. Six additional key informant interviews (female = 6) were conducted with healthcare workers. Data were collected and analysed inductively by an interdisciplinary coding team. RESULTS: The major challenges faced by participants were stressors (poverty, stigma, marital problems) and symptoms of CMDs ('thinking too much', changes to appetite and sleep, 'burdened heart' and low energy levels). Thinking too much, which appears closely related to rumination, was the symptom with the greatest negative impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults with CMDs. In turn, thinking too much was commonly triggered by the stressors faced by people living with HIV/AIDS, especially poverty. Finally, participants desired private counselling, access to income-generating activities and family engagement in mental health care. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of the local expression of mental disorders and of underlying stressors can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce CMDs and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Estrés Psicológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Adulto , Cultura , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Estigma Social , Apoyo Social , Esposos , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Pensamiento , Zimbabwe
13.
Front Psychol ; 4: 888, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24348442

RESUMEN

Depression is associated with significant difficulty staying "in the moment" as the mind tends to wander away from current activity to focus instead on personal concerns. Mind-wandering (MW) may in some instances be a precursor for depressive rumination, a thinking style believed to confer vulnerability to the likelihood and extent of depression. Thus, MW may be not only a consequence but also a cause of low mood. Identifying a paradigm that could modulate MW, particularly in depressed individuals, would allow future studies to test whether elevated rates of MW causally drive cognitive-affective features of depression, such as rumination and anhedonia. This study therefore explored the feasibility of using an existing task manipulation to modulate behavioral and self-report indices of MW in participants with varying levels of self-reported dysphoria. Participants completed two go/no-go tasks-the SART and a high target probability task-and measures of state and trait MW. The two tasks were identical in all respects apart from the lower probability of no-go targets on the SART, a feature considered to encourage mindless, or inattentive, responding. Across participants, errors of commission (a behavioral indicator of MW) were elevated on the SART relative to the high probability task, a pattern that was particularly pronounced in dysphoric participants. Dysphoric individuals furthermore reported elevated levels of MW, though the modulation of these subjective reports by task was present to a similar rather than greater extent in the dysphoric individuals. These findings provide encouraging preliminary support for the use of this paradigm as one that modulates MW in depressed individuals. The implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.

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