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2.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740232

RESUMEN

Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in children. It is usually amenable to drug therapy. However, nearly one-third of patients may be refractory to antiseizure drugs. Poor compliance and nonepileptic events should be ruled out as possible causes of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). After failing adequate trials of two appropriate antiseizure drugs, patients with focal DRE or poorly classifiable epilepsy or epileptic encephalopathy with focal electro-clinical features should be worked up for surgical candidacy. A randomized controlled trial provided a class I evidence for epilepsy surgery in pediatric DRE. Pre-surgical screening workup typically includes a high-resolution epilepsy protocol brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a high-quality in-patient video electroencephalography evaluation. Advanced investigations such as positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) may be required in selected cases especially when brain MRI is normal, and further evidence for anatomo-electro-clinical concordance is necessary to refine candidacy for surgery and surgical strategy. Some children may also need functional MRI to map eloquent regions of interest such as motor, sensory, and language functions to avoid unacceptable neurological deficits after surgery. Selected children may need invasive long-term electroencephalographic monitoring using stereotactically implanted intracranial depth electrodes or subdural grids. Surgical options include resective surgeries (lesionectomy, lobectomy, multilobar resections) and disconnective surgeries (corpus callosotomy, etc.) with the potential to obtain seizure freedom. Other surgical procedures, typically considered to be palliative are neuromodulation [deep brain stimulation (DBS), vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), and responsive neural stimulation (RNS)]. DBS and RNS are currently not approved in children. Pediatric DRE should be evaluated early considering the risk of epileptic encephalopathy and negative impact on cognition.

4.
J Child Neurol ; : 883073821996095, 2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624545

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the neurocognitive outcomes and their diffusion tensor imaging correlates in children (aged 6-16 years) with mild traumatic brain injury. This prospective analysis included 74 children with mild traumatic brain injury (52 boys; mean age: 9.5 [±2.7] years). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Indian adaptation (WISC-IV), Child Behavior Checklist, and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were administered for 57 cases (at 3 months postinjury) and 51 controls of similar age. The findings of diffusion tensor imaging (done within 7 days of injury) were correlated with various WISC-IV indices. The presenting features at the time of injury were loss of consciousness (53%), confusion or disorientation (47%), and post-traumatic amnesia (10%). Other features in the acute phase included drowsiness (86%), headache (78%), balance problems (62%), nausea (47%), fatigue (45%), vomiting (35%), nasal or ear bleed (12%), sensitivity to sound and light (12%), etc. At 3 months postinjury, the children with mild traumatic brain injury performed poorly in terms of Intelligence Quotient, perceptual reasoning index, and processing speed index as compared to controls. Based on the Child Behavior Checklist, 17% of children with mild traumatic brain injury had internalizing behavioral problems in comparison with 4% of controls. Prevalence of poor sleepers in the mild traumatic brain injury cohort and controls was 12.3% and 2% respectively. Headache, reduced attention span, and fatigue were common postconcussion symptoms. There was a positive correlation between right uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy and verbal comprehension index (r = 0.32; P < .05).

5.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555568

RESUMEN

The Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII) remains the mainstay in India for diagnostic confirmation and validation of upcoming screening tools for development in infants and toddlers. This is an Indian adaptation of Bayley Scales of Infant Development which is the globally accepted gold standard. However, the DASII cutoff points used for categorizing development and distinguishing normal from abnormal development are not in agreement across different studies conducted over the last two decades in India. This is probably due to a lack of mention of cutoff points in the DASII manual and existing literature. The current systematic review summarizes the heterogeneity in literature for interpretation of DASII and its cutoff points. Also, a perspective on the ideal cutoff points is presented.

6.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(1): 93, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452793
11.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(1)2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367907

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, psychological problems like anxiety, depression, irritability, mood swings, inattention and sleep disturbance are fairly common among quarantined children in several studies. A systematic review of these publications to provide an accurate burden of these psychiatric/behavioral problems is needed for planning mitigating measures by the health authorities. METHODS: Different electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, medRxiv and bioRxiv) were searched for articles describing psychological/behavioral complications in children/adolescents with/without pre-existing behavioral abnormalities and their caregivers related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Only original articles with/without comparator arms and a minimum sample size of 50 were included in the analysis. The pooled estimate of various psychological/behavioral problems was calculated using a random-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen studies describing 22 996 children/adolescents fulfilled the eligibility criteria from a total of 219 records. Overall, 34.5%, 41.7%, 42.3% and 30.8% of children were found to be suffering from anxiety, depression, irritability and inattention. Although the behavior/psychological state of a total of 79.4% of children was affected negatively by the pandemic and quarantine, at least 22.5% of children had a significant fear of COVID-19, and 35.2% and 21.3% of children had boredom and sleep disturbance. Similarly, 52.3% and 27.4% of caregivers developed anxiety and depression, respectively, while being in isolation with children. CONCLUSION: Anxiety, depression, irritability, boredom, inattention and fear of COVID-19 are predominant new-onset psychological problems in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children with pre-existing behavioral problems like autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a high probability of worsening of their behavioral symptoms.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Pandemias , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Mental , Problema de Conducta
12.
Trop Doct ; : 49475520972523, 2020 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232218

RESUMEN

Tuberous sclerosis complex is a common neurocutaneous disorder that predominantly affects the brain, skin, eyes, heart and kidneys. The management of tuberous sclerosis complex has been revolutionised with vigabatrin for spasms and everolimus for angiomyolipomas and seizures. We describe a 10-year-old girl with generalised tonic-clonic seizures whose diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex was made in view of the presence of a forehead plaque. Certain clinical pointers such as ashleaf macules, café-au-lait spots, shagreen patches and forehead plaques must therefore be looked for in a child with unprovoked seizures.

14.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136675

RESUMEN

A 6-year-old girl presented with complaints of absent horizontal eye movements since birth. There was also associated progressive scoliosis for past 1 year. Neuroimaging revealed split pons sign, butterfly-shaped medulla, and prominent inferior olivary nuclei. The presence of congenital horizontal gaze palsy, childhood onset progressive scoliosis, and abnormal neuroimaging findings confirmed the diagnosis of horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis. This case highlights the importance of neuroimaging in a child presenting with horizontal gaze palsy and scoliosis that helped for starting early rehabilitation of the child, prevention of permanent vision loss, and parental counseling for future pregnancies.

15.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103229

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of pulse methylprednisolone in comparison with intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in children with West syndrome (WS). METHODS: This open-label, pilot study with a parallel-group assignment included 44 recently diagnosed children with WS. Methylprednisolone therapy was given as intravenous infusion at a dose of 30 mg/kg/d for five days followed by oral steroids 1 mg/kg gradually tapered over 5-6 wk. The efficacy outcomes included a cessation of epileptic spasms (as per caregiver reporting) and resolution of hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalogram; safety outcome was the frequency of various adverse effects. RESULTS: By day 14 of therapy, 6/18 (33.3%) children in the methylprednisolone group and 10/26 (38.5%) children in the ACTH group achieved cessation of epileptic spasms [group difference - 5.2%; confidence interval (CI) -30.7 to 22.8; p = 0.73]. However, by six weeks of therapy, 4/18 (22.2%) children in the methylprednisolone group and 11/26 (42.3%) children in the ACTH group had cessation of epileptic spasms (group difference - 20.1%; CI -43.0 to 8.4; p = 0.17). Hypertension was more commonly observed in the ACTH group (10 children) than in the methylprednisolone group (2 children; p = 0.046). Pulse methylprednisolone therapy was relatively safe. CONCLUSIONS: The study observed limited effectiveness of both ACTH and pulse methylprednisolone therapy, which may partially be due to preponderance of structural etiology and a long treatment lag. However, pulse methylprednisolone therapy appeared to be safe, tolerable, and feasible for management of WS.

19.
Epilepsy Res ; 167: 106453, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927329

RESUMEN

In the wake of the pandemic COVID-19 and nationwide lockdowns gripping many countries globally, the national healthcare systems are either overwhelmed or preparing to combat this pandemic. Despite all the containment measures in place, experts opine that this novel coronavirus is here to stay as a pandemic or an endemic. Hence, it is apt to be prepared for the confrontation and its aftermath. From protecting the vulnerable individuals to providing quality care for all health conditions and maintaining essential drug supplies, it is going to be a grueling voyage. Preparedness to sustain optimal care for each health condition is a must. With a higher risk for severe COVID-19 disease in infants, need of high-dose hormonal therapy with a concern of consequent severe disease, presence of comorbidities, and a need for frequent investigations and follow-up; children with West syndrome constitute a distinctive group with special concerns. In this viewpoint, we discuss the important issues and concerns related to the management of West syndrome during COVID-19 pandemic in the South Asian context and provide potential solutions to these concerns based on the current evidence, adeptness, and consensus. Some plausible solutions include the continuation of containment and mitigation measures for COVID-19, therapeutic decision- making for West syndrome based on risk stratification, and tele-epileptology.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/uso terapéutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Espasmos Infantiles/tratamiento farmacológico , Telemedicina , Vigabatrin/uso terapéutico , Corticoesteroides/provisión & distribución , Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/provisión & distribución , Anticonvulsivantes/provisión & distribución , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Betacoronavirus , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Humanos , Lactante , Pandemias , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Vigabatrin/provisión & distribución
20.
Epilepsia Open ; 5(3): 461-474, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913954

RESUMEN

Objectives: Considering the dearth of literature on West syndrome (WS) from South Asian countries, this study aimed to evaluate the management practices in South Asia by an online survey and meta-analysis. Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to 223 pediatric neurologists/pediatricians in India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Their responses were evaluated and supplemented by a meta-analysis. Results: Of 125 responses received (response rate: 56%), around 60% of responders observed male preponderance and an approximate lead-time-to-treatment (LTTT) of 4-12 weeks. The commonest etiology observed was a static structural insult (88.6% of responders). Most commonly used first-line drug (country-wise) was as follows: India-adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, 50%); Pakistan-oral steroids (45.5%); Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Nepal-oral steroids (94.4%); Bangladesh-ACTH (2/2); Bhutan-vigabatrin (3/5). ACTH and vigabatrin are not available in Myanmar and Nepal. The most commonly used regime for ACTH was maximal-dose-at-initiation-regime in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh and gradually escalating-regime in Pakistan. Maximum dose of prednisolone was variable-most common response from India: 3-4 mg/kg/d; Pakistan, Bhutan, and Bangladesh: 2 mg/kg/d; Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Myanmar: 5-8 mg/kg/d or 60 mg/d. The total duration of hormonal therapy (including tapering) ranged from 4 to 12 weeks (67/91). Most responders considered cessation of spasms for four weeks as complete response (54/111) and advised electroencephalography (EEG; 104/123) to check for hypsarrhythmia resolution. Difficult access to pediatric EEG in Bhutan and Nepal is concerning. More than 95% of responders felt a need for more awareness. The meta-analysis supported the preponderance of male gender (68%; confidence interval [CI]: 64%-73%), structural etiology(80%; CI 73%-86%), longer LTTT (2.4 months; CI 2.1-2.6 months), and low response rate to hormonal therapy(18% and 28% for ACTH and oral steroids respectively) in WS in South Asia. Significance: This study highlights the practices and challenges in the management of WS in South Asia. These include a preponderance of male gender and structural etiology, a longer LTTT, difficult access to pediatric EEG, nonavailability of ACTH and vigabatrin in some countries, and low effectiveness of hormonal therapy in this region.

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