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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
2.
Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 39(4): 412-416, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37346443

RESUMEN

Coronary stent infections (CSI) are rare but a potentially life-threatening disease, the incidence of which has been on a rise over the last two decades. We report the case of a patient who presented with episodes of fever and discharging sternal wound. The patient was diagnosed as CSI arising from the left anterior descending artery stent which was communicating anteriorly to the skin and posteriorly as lobar-fistula. He was treated by stent removal and plication of the fistula. Blood culture, culture of the pus and infected stent, and coronary angiography are the preferred diagnostic modalities, followed by positron emission tomography (PET) scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for delineating the extent of pathology. Surgery seems to be the treatment of choice, providing a definitive diagnosis of CSI and removing the source of infection, repairing aneurysms, and providing bypass vascular grafts if feasible. Thorough evaluation and a multidisciplinary approach with the institution of appropriate medical and surgical therapy lead to timely detection and good outcome.

3.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 41: 28-32, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36870745

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To understand the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination (Covishield, Covaxin) on clinical features and outcome of COVID-19 during the third wave in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary study aim was to describe the clinical profile and outcome of COVID-19 regarding their vaccination and to identify risk factors for disease progression in vaccinated patients. This was a prospective observational multicentric study of COVID-19 attended by Infectious Disease physicians during January 15, 2022 to February 15, 2022. Adult patients with positive RT-PCR or rapid antigen test for COVID-19 were enrolled. Patient received treatment as per local institutional protocol. Chi square test for categorical and Mann Whitney test for continuous variables were applied for the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. RESULTS: A total of 788 patients were included in analysis out of 883 enrolled patients from 13 centers across Gujarat. By the end of two weeks' follow up, 22 patients (2.8%) had expired. The Median age of subjects was 54 years, with a (55.8%) male. 90% of the subjects were vaccinated, majority (77%) of them had received 2 doses of vaccine with Covishield (659, 93%). Mortality among the non-vaccinated was significantly (11.4%) higher than vaccinated (1.8%). Logistic regression analysis showed numbers of comorbidities (p â€‹= â€‹0.027), baseline higher WBC count (p â€‹= â€‹0.02), higher NLR (p â€‹= â€‹0.016), and Ct value (p â€‹= â€‹0.046) were associated with mortality while vaccination was associated with survival (p â€‹= â€‹0.001). The factors associated with mortality among vaccinated were age, comorbidities, baseline higher WBC, NLR, and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Omicron variant was associated with mild symptoms. Clinical and laboratory risk factors for getting severe disease with Omicron variant were the same with previous SARS CoV-2 strain. Two doses of vaccine protect people against severe disease and death. Age, comorbidities, baseline leucocytosis, high NLR, elevated CRP are the risk factors for poor outcome in vaccinated patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , India , Estudios de Cohortes
4.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 38(1): 204-208, 2023 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36897822

RESUMEN

Primary cardiac hydatid cyst is a rare and fatal pathology, especially when involving the left ventricular free wall. A 44-year-old male was diagnosed with large intramural left ventricular hydatid cyst with wall thickness of 6 mm at the thinnest point. Cyst was accessed through pleuropericardial approach (left pleura opened, followed by entry into cyst directly through adjacent pericardium without removing the pericardial adhesions) which resulted in easy entry into the cyst, mitigating the risk of mechanical injury. This case report highlights that with detailed evaluation, cardiac hydatidosis can be addressed with off-pump technique, reducing the anaphylaxis risks and cardiopulmonary bypass-related effects.


Asunto(s)
Quistes , Equinococosis , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pleura , Equinococosis/cirugía , Ventrículos Cardíacos/cirugía , Pericardio
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 38(1): 204-208, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423070

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Primary cardiac hydatid cyst is a rare and fatal pathology, especially when involving the left ventricular free wall. A 44-year-old male was diagnosed with large intramural left ventricular hydatid cyst with wall thickness of 6 mm at the thinnest point. Cyst was accessed through pleuropericardial approach (left pleura opened, followed by entry into cyst directly through adjacent pericardium without removing the pericardial adhesions) which resulted in easy entry into the cyst, mitigating the risk of mechanical injury. This case report highlights that with detailed evaluation, cardiac hydatidosis can be addressed with off-pump technique, reducing the anaphylaxis risks and cardiopulmonary bypass-related effects.

7.
Pragmat Obs Res ; 13: 75-84, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975180

RESUMEN

Purpose: WHO recommends dolutegravir (DTG) based regimens as first-line treatment for HIV-1 infection. However, few studies have been conducted in Indian population. Hence, our study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of DTG 50 mg with Tenofovir and Lamivudine (300/300mg) fixed dose combination in treatment naïve adult Indian patients. Methods: This was an open label, multicenter, prospective, interventional, phase IV study conducted across 14 sites between February 2019 and July 2020. 24 weeks was the treatment duration for each subject. The primary end point was to assess the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and secondary end points were to assess the proportion of patients achieving plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <50 copies/mL at week 24 and change in CD4+ cell count from the baseline. Safety analysis was conducted using Safety Analysis Set and efficacy analysis was carried out using Full Analysis Set and Per protocol set. Results: A total of 288 patients were screened; 250 were enrolled; and 229 completed the study. 389 AEs were reported from 58% of patients. Of these, 61 were related to study treatment. One event of decreased creatinine clearance led to study discontinuation. One serious event of pyrexia was reported, which was unrelated to the study drug. The most common AEs were headache (18%), pyrexia (14%), vomiting (6.4%) and upper respiratory tract infections (6%). No deaths were reported. At week 24, 86.8% of the patients achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <50 copies/mL and the mean CD4 cell count increased from 350.2 (SD, 239.73) at baseline to 494.6 (SD, 261.40) with an average increase of 143.2 (SD, 226.14) cells. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of DTG based regimen in treatment naïve HIV-1 patients in Indian population and support use of DTG as first-line treatment regimen.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261529, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for the development of severe COVID-19 disease and death have been widely reported across several studies. Knowledge about the determinants of severe disease and mortality in the Indian context can guide early clinical management. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case control study across nine sites in India to identify the determinants of severe and critical COVID-19 disease. FINDINGS: We identified age above 60 years, duration before admission >5 days, chronic kidney disease, leucocytosis, prothrombin time > 14 sec, serum ferritin >250 ng/mL, d-dimer >0.5 ng/mL, pro-calcitonin >0.15 µg/L, fibrin degradation products >5 µg/mL, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase >150 U/L, interleukin-6 >25 pg/mL, NLR ≥3, and deranged liver function, renal function and serum electrolytes as significant factors associated with severe COVID-19 disease. INTERPRETATION: We have identified a set of parameters that can help in characterising severe COVID-19 cases in India. These parameters are part of routinely available investigations within Indian hospital settings, both public and private. Study findings have the potential to inform clinical management protocols and identify patients at high risk of severe outcomes at an early stage.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , Hospitalización , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Hospitales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Interleucina-6/sangre , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polipéptido alfa Relacionado con Calcitonina/sangre , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2349-2359, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087089

RESUMEN

During September-December 2020, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study across India to evaluate epidemiology and outcomes among cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Among 287 mucormycosis patients, 187 (65.2%) had CAM; CAM prevalence was 0.27% among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We noted a 2.1-fold rise in mucormycosis during the study period compared with September-December 2019. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying disease among CAM and non-CAM patients. COVID-19 was the only underlying disease in 32.6% of CAM patients. COVID-19-related hypoxemia and improper glucocorticoid use independently were associated with CAM. The mucormycosis case-fatality rate at 12 weeks was 45.7% but was similar for CAM and non-CAM patients. Age, rhino-orbital-cerebral involvement, and intensive care unit admission were associated with increased mortality rates; sequential antifungal drug treatment improved mucormycosis survival. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increases in mucormycosis in India, partly from inappropriate glucocorticoid use.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 62(7): 567-70, 2014 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25672027

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Many tuberculosis (TB) patients have resistance patterns intermediate between multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR). We defined MDR+ as resistance to rifampin (RMP), isoniazid (INH) and at least one more drug other than fluoroquinolone (FQ) and second-line injectable agent (IA); and Pre-XDR as MDR with additional resistance to either FQ or IA. Such patients too, have compromised treatment options that require various combinations of second line drugs (SLD). The aim of our study was to assess the clinical outcome of patients having such resistance patterns, managed on the basis of prior drug exposure and drug susceptibility testing (DST). METHODOLOGY: 52 consecutive patients were studied. Treatment regimen was devised as per DST and predominantly consisted of a second-line injectable agent (IA), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and clofazimine. Additionally, cycloserine, linezolid, co-amoxiclav and clarithromycin were used to complete a regimen of four to five drugs. Clinical and radiological outcome was evaluated at follow-up and at the end of treatment. RESULTS: 49/52 (94%) patients had good outcome. However, 34 different regimens had to be used, as options for individual patients were limited. CONCLUSION: Management on the basis of prior drug exposure and individualised DST led to good clinical outcomes. No single regimen emerged as having a wide applicability. This study supports the clinical relevance of DST of oral second line drugs.


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Países en Desarrollo , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Tuberculosis Extensivamente Resistente a Drogas/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , India , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efectos de los fármacos , Medicina de Precisión , Estudios Retrospectivos
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