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1.
Cell Rep ; 28(3): 759-772.e10, 2019 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315053

RESUMEN

Mechanisms coordinating pancreatic ß cell metabolism with insulin secretion are essential for glucose homeostasis. One key mechanism of ß cell nutrient sensing uses the mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) cycle. In this cycle, mtGTP synthesized by succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) is hydrolyzed via mitochondrial PEPCK (PEPCK-M) to make phosphoenolpyruvate, a high-energy metabolite that integrates TCA cycling and anaplerosis with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Several strategies, including xenotopic overexpression of yeast mitochondrial GTP/GDP exchanger (GGC1) and human ATP and GTP-specific SCS isoforms, demonstrated the importance of the mtGTP cycle. These studies confirmed that mtGTP triggers and amplifies normal GSIS and rescues defects in GSIS both in vitro and in vivo. Increased mtGTP synthesis enhanced calcium oscillations during GSIS. mtGTP also augmented mitochondrial mass, increased insulin granule number, and membrane proximity without triggering de-differentiation or metabolic fragility. These data highlight the importance of the mtGTP signal in nutrient sensing, insulin secretion, mitochondrial maintenance, and ß cell health.

2.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 526-528, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733621

RESUMEN

In the version of this article originally published, the VPC and VCS flux data shown in Fig. 6e,f were inadvertently duplicated from Fig. 5j,k. The correct data are now shown in Fig. 6e,f. In these corrected data, VPC flux in response to chronic oral metformin treatment was still significantly decreased (Fig. 6e), and there was still no impact of metformin on VCS flux (Fig. 6f). Therefore, the text describing these data remains the same and this correction does not change the conclusion of this study.

3.
Nat Med ; 24(9): 1384-1394, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038219

RESUMEN

Metformin, the universal first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, exerts its therapeutic glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the primary molecular mechanism of this biguanide remains unclear, though it has been suggested to act, at least partially, by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. Here we show that clinically relevant concentrations of plasma metformin achieved by acute intravenous, acute intraportal or chronic oral administration in awake normal and diabetic rats inhibit gluconeogenesis from lactate and glycerol but not from pyruvate and alanine, implicating an increased cytosolic redox state in mediating metformin's antihyperglycemic effect. All of these effects occurred independently of complex I inhibition, evidenced by unaltered hepatic energy charge and citrate synthase flux. Normalizing the cytosolic redox state by infusion of methylene blue or substrates that contribute to gluconeogenesis independently of the cytosolic redox state abrogated metformin-mediated inhibition of gluconeogenesis in vivo. Additionally, in mice expressing constitutively active acetyl-CoA carboxylase, metformin acutely decreased hepatic glucose production and increased the hepatic cytosolic redox state without altering hepatic triglyceride content or gluconeogenic enzyme expression. These studies demonstrate that metformin, at clinically relevant plasma concentrations, inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis in a redox-dependent manner independently of reductions in citrate synthase flux, hepatic nucleotide concentrations, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, or gluconeogenic enzyme protein expression.


Asunto(s)
Gluconeogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Metformina/farmacología , Acetil-CoA Carboxilasa/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinasa/metabolismo , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dihidroxiacetona/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metformina/administración & dosificación , Ratones , Oxidación-Reducción , Fosforilación/efectos de los fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina
4.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 14: 24, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270856

RESUMEN

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rapidly increasing, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Resistance training (RT) promotes health benefits through increased skeletal muscle mass and qualitative adaptations, such as enhanced glucose transport and mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In particular, mitochondrial adaptations triggered by RT provide evidence for this type of exercise as a feasible lifestyle recommendation to combat T2D, a disease typically characterized by altered muscle mitochondrial function. Recently, the synergistic and antagonistic effects of combined training and Metformin use have come into question and warrant more in-depth prospective investigations. In the future, clinical intervention studies should elucidate the mechanisms driving RT-mitigated mitochondrial adaptations in muscle and their link to improvements in glycemic control, cholesterol metabolism and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with T2D.

5.
J Clin Invest ; 126(11): 4361-4371, 2016 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27760050

RESUMEN

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether NAFLD plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2D is uncertain. One proposed mechanism linking NAFLD to hepatic insulin resistance involves diacylglycerol-mediated (DAG-mediated) activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) and the consequent inhibition of insulin receptor (INSR) kinase activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PKCε inhibition of INSR kinase activity is unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify the phosphorylation site Thr1160 as a PKCε substrate in the functionally critical INSR kinase activation loop. We hypothesized that Thr1160 phosphorylation impairs INSR kinase activity by destabilizing the active configuration of the INSR kinase, and our results confirmed this prediction by demonstrating severely impaired INSR kinase activity in phosphomimetic T1160E mutants. Conversely, the INSR T1160A mutant was not inhibited by PKCε in vitro. Furthermore, mice with a threonine-to-alanine mutation at the homologous residue Thr1150 (InsrT1150A mice) were protected from high fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. InsrT1150A mice also displayed increased insulin signaling, suppression of hepatic glucose production, and increased hepatic glycogen synthesis compared with WT controls during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. These data reveal a critical pathophysiological role for INSR Thr1160 phosphorylation and provide further mechanistic links between PKCε and INSR in mediating NAFLD-induced hepatic insulin resistance.


Asunto(s)
Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Resistencia a la Insulina , Hígado/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patología , Grasas de la Dieta/farmacología , Glucógeno/biosíntesis , Glucógeno/genética , Hígado/patología , Ratones , Ratones Mutantes , Mutación Missense , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/inducido químicamente , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/genética , Fosforilación , Proteína Quinasa C-epsilon/genética , Proteína Quinasa C-epsilon/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(24): E3423-30, 2016 06 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27247419

RESUMEN

A key sensor of cellular energy status, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), interacts allosterically with AMP to maintain an active state. When active, AMPK triggers a metabolic switch, decreasing the activity of anabolic pathways and enhancing catabolic processes such as lipid oxidation to restore the energy balance. Unlike oxidative tissues, in which AMP is generated from adenylate kinase during states of high energy demand, the ornithine cycle enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is a principle site of AMP generation in the liver. Here we show that ASS regulates hepatic AMPK, revealing a central role for ureagenesis flux in the regulation of metabolism via AMPK. Treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with amino acids increased gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis and, despite nutrient excess, induced both AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic ASS1 expression in vivo decreased liver AMPK activation, phosphorylation of ACC, and plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Taken together these studies demonstrate that increased amino acid flux can activate AMPK through increased AMP generated by ASS, thus providing a novel link between protein catabolism, ureagenesis, and hepatic lipid metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Argininosuccinato Sintasa/biosíntesis , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Hígado/metabolismo , Urea/metabolismo , Animales , Activación Enzimática , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
7.
Nature ; 510(7506): 542-6, 2014 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24847880

RESUMEN

Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, and inhibition of endogenous glucose production. These findings were replicated in whole-body mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin's blood glucose lowering effects and provide a new therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Gluconeogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Glicerolfosfato Deshidrogenasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Metformina/farmacología , Mitocondrias/enzimología , Animales , Glucemia/análisis , Glucemia/biosíntesis , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glicerolfosfato Deshidrogenasa/deficiencia , Glicerolfosfato Deshidrogenasa/genética , Glicerolfosfato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreción de Insulina , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Noqueados , Oxidación-Reducción/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
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