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J Voice ; 31(1): 124.e1-124.e10, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26852823


PURPOSE: The present study aimed to observe the effect of two types of tubes on vocal tract bidimensional and tridimensional images. METHODS: Ten participants with hyperfunctional dysphonia were included. Computerized tomography was performed during production of sustained [a:], followed by sustained phonation into a drinking straw, and then repetition of sustained [a:]. A similar procedure was performed with a stirring straw after 15 minutes of vocal rest. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from computerized tomography midsagittal and transversal images. Vocal tract total volume was also calculated. RESULTS: During tube phonation, increases were measured in the vertical length of the vocal tract, oropharyngeal area, hypopharyngeal area, outlet of the epilaryngeal tube, and inlet to the lower pharynx. Also, the larynx was lower, and more closure was noted between the velum and the nasal passage. CONCLUSION: Tube phonation causes an increased total vocal tract volume, mostly because of the increased cross-sectional areas in the pharyngeal region. This change is more prominent when the tube offers more airflow resistance (stirring straw) compared with less airflow resistance (drinking straw). Based on our data and previous studies, it seems that vocal tract changes are not dependent on the voice condition (vocally trained, untrained, or disordered voices), but on the exercise itself and the type of instructions given to subjects. Tube phonation is a good option to reach therapeutic goals (eg, wide pharynx and low larynx) without giving biomechanical instructions, but only asking patients to feel easy voice and vibratory sensations.

Disfonía/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfonía/terapia , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagen , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagen , Fonación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Entrenamiento de la Voz , Voz , Adulto , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Disfonía/fisiopatología , Diseño de Equipo , Femenino , Humanos , Laringoscopía , Laringe/fisiopatología , Masculino , Faringe/fisiopatología , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Vibración , Adulto Joven
J Voice ; 31(3): 385.e1-385.e10, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27769697


PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of water resistance therapy (WRT) in a long-term period of voice treatment in subjects diagnosed with voice disorders. METHODS: Twenty participants, with behavioral dysphonia, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: (1) voice treatment with WRT, and (2) voice treatment with tube phonation with the distal end in air (TPA). Before and after voice therapy, participants underwent aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and auditory-perceptual assessments. The Voice Handicap Index and self-assessment of resonant voice quality were also performed. The treatment included eight voice therapy sessions. For the WRT group, the exercises consisted of a sequence of five phonatory tasks performed with a drinking straw submerged 5 cm into water. For the TPA, the exercises consisted of the same phonatory tasks, and all of them were performed into the same straw but the distal end was in air. RESULTS: Wilcoxon test showed significant improvements for both groups for Voice Handicap Index (decrease), subglottic pressure (decrease), phonation threshold pressure (decrease), and self-perception of resonant voice quality (increase). Improvement in auditory-perceptual assessment was found only for the TPA group. No significant differences were found for any acoustic or electroglottographic variables. No significant differences were found between WRT and TPA groups for any variable. CONCLUSIONS: WRT and TPA may improve voice function and self-perceived voice quality in individuals with behavioral dysphonia. No differences between these therapy protocols should be expected.

Disfonía/terapia , Laringe/fisiopatología , Fonación , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje/métodos , Calidad de la Voz , Entrenamiento de la Voz , Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepción Auditiva , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Disfonía/diagnóstico , Disfonía/fisiopatología , Disfonía/psicología , Electrodiagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Juicio , Laringoscopía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recuperación de la Función , Autoimagen , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
J Voice ; 30(6): 759.e1-759.e10, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26526005


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phonation into tubes in air and tubes submerged in water on air pressure variables and vocal fold adduction in subjects with different voice conditions. METHODS: Forty-five participants representing four vocal conditions were included: (1) subjects diagnosed with normal voice and without voice training, (2) subjects with normal voice with voice training, (3) subjects with muscle tension dysphonia, and (4) subjects with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Participants phonated into different kinds of tubes (drinking straw, 5 mm in inner diameter; stirring straw, 2.7 mm in inner diameter; silicon tube, 10 mm in inner diameter) with the free end in air and in water. Aerodynamic, acoustic, and electroglottographic signals were captured simultaneously. Mean values of the following variables were considered: glottal contact quotient (CQ) measured by electroglottograph, fundamental frequency, subglottic pressure (Psub), oral pressure (Poral), and transglottal pressure. RESULTS: All exercises had a significant effect on Psub, Poral, transglottal pressure, and CQ (P < 0.05). Phonation into a 55-cm silicon tube submerged 10 cm in water and phonation into a stirring straw resulted in the highest values for CQ, Psub, and Poral compared with baseline (repetition of syllable [pa:]) for all vocal status. Poral and Psub correlated positively. CONCLUSION: During semioccluded exercises, most variables behaved in a similar way (same trend with a quite large individual variation) regardless of the vocal status of the participants.

Disfonía/terapia , Glotis/fisiopatología , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Parálisis de los Pliegues Vocales/terapia , Calidad de la Voz , Entrenamiento de la Voz , Acústica , Adulto , Presión del Aire , Resistencia de las Vías Respiratorias , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Disfonía/diagnóstico , Disfonía/fisiopatología , Electrodiagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Inmersión , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fonación , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Parálisis de los Pliegues Vocales/diagnóstico , Parálisis de los Pliegues Vocales/fisiopatología , Pliegues Vocales/fisiopatología , Agua , Adulto Joven
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 67(2): 68-75, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26394210


OBJECTIVE: To observe the possible differential effects of 8 different semi-occluded vocal tract exercises on glottal contact quotient (CQ) as a measure of vocal fold impact stress. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group with hyperfunctional dysphonia and a control group of vocally healthy subjects. The participants were recorded before, during and after the exercises. Electroglottographic samples were analyzed to obtain CQ. RESULTS: For the experimental group, all exercises, except lip trills and tongue trills, had an overall significant effect when conditions before, during and after the exercises were compared. The CQ presented differently across the 8 semi-occluded postures during exercise for both groups. For the experimental group, most exercises increased the CQ during practice. Only lip and tongue trills demonstrated lower CQ during exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Different semi-occluded exercises differentially affect vocal fold adduction. Lip and tongue trills produced the lowest CQ. Therefore, they may be recommended for decreasing glottal adduction. A straw submerged 10 cm below the water surface presented the greatest CQ. A shallower depth led to a lower CQ, while deeper submersion produced a higher CQ.

Disfonía/fisiopatología , Disfonía/terapia , Pliegues Vocales/fisiopatología , Entrenamiento de la Voz , Disfonía/diagnóstico , Humanos , Valores de Referencia , Calidad de la Voz
J Voice ; 29(1): 130.e21-8, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25179779


PURPOSE: The present study aimed to assess three different singing styles (pop, rock, and jazz) with laryngoscopic, acoustic, and perceptual analysis in healthy singers at different loudness levels. Special emphasis was given to the degree of anterior-posterior (A-P) laryngeal compression, medial laryngeal compression, vertical laryngeal position (VLP), and pharyngeal compression. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Twelve female trained singers with at least 5 years of voice training and absence of any voice pathology were included. Flexible and rigid laryngeal endoscopic examinations were performed. Voice recording was also carried out. Four blinded judges were asked to assess laryngoscopic and auditory perceptual variables using a visual analog scale. RESULTS: All laryngoscopic parameters showed significant differences for all singing styles. Rock showed the greatest degree for all of them. Overall A-P laryngeal compression scores demonstrated significantly higher values than overall medial compression and VLP. High loudness level produced the highest degree of A-P compression, medial compression, pharyngeal compression, and the lowest VLP for all singing styles. Additionally, rock demonstrated the highest values for alpha ratio (less steep spectral slope), L1-L0 ratio (more glottal adduction), and Leq (more vocal intensity). Statistically significant differences between the three loudness levels were also found for these acoustic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Rock singing seems to be the style with the highest degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activity in healthy singers. Although, supraglottic activity during singing could be labeled as hyperfunctional vocal behavior, it may not necessarily be harmful, but a strategy to avoid vocal fold damage.

Laringoscopía , Laringe/fisiología , Faringe/fisiología , Canto , Adulto , Percepción Auditiva , Femenino , Humanos , Música , Estudios Prospectivos , Acústica del Lenguaje