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1.
Epilepsy Res ; 173: 106625, 2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819756

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: No data exist regarding the impact of the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This study aimed to stratify risk factors of SUDEP in relation to COVID-19 lockdown, among patients with epilepsy (PWE) in Cairo University epilepsy unit (CUEU). Therefore, we can detect risk factors and mitigate such factors in the second wave of the virus. METHODS: an observational, cross-sectional study carried on 340 Egyptian patients with active epilepsy. Individual risk identification and stratification was done by using The SUDEP and seizure Safety Checklist, after which sharing risk knowledge to PWE and their caregivers was undertaken. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 29.72 ± 12.12. The median of the static factors was 4 (IQR 3-5) whereas, the median of the modifiable factors was 2 (IQR 1-3). Epilepsy emergencies (serial seizures or status epilepticus) were reported in 24.1 % of patients, for which non-compliance was the commonest cause, followed by deferral of epilepsy surgery for patients with drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that use of anxiolytic medications, non-compliance, keeping patients with DRE on dual anti-seizure medications (ASMs), or adding third medication increased the odds of increased seizure frequency by 2.7, 3.5, 16.6 and 6.1 times, respectively. CONCLUSION: Some COVID-19 related issues had influenced the risk of seizure worsening including postponing epilepsy surgery for patients with DRE, non-compliance, and psychiatric comorbidities. Special attention should be paid to these issues to mitigate the risk of SUDEP.

2.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781167

RESUMEN

Objective: Myopia is considered one of the main causes of visual impairment with increased prevalence. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and characterize cognitive impairment in adult patients with bilateral myopia, in relation to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.Methods: Forty patients with bilateral myopia aged 18-40 years, and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in the study. For all subjects, cognitive functions were assessed by Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Paired Associate Learning test (PALT). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was done for all included patients and controls.Results: Among the myopic group, 15 patients had mild myopia, eight patients had moderate myopia, and 17 patients had high myopia. There were significant differences between patients and control groups in terms of cognitive performance and RNFL thickness. There was a significant correlation between the scores of cognitive tests and error of refraction and RNFL thickness.Conclusion: Adults with bilateral myopia have cognitive impairment, regarding information processing speed and episodic memory. Cognitive impairment is associated with retinal thinning and a higher degree of myopia.

3.
Pain Med ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544857

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Headache is considered one of the most frequent neurological manifestations of COVID-19. This work aimed to identify the relative frequency of COVID-19 related headache and to clarify the impact of clinical, laboratory findings of COVID-19 infection on headache occurrence and its response to analgesics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Recovered COVID-19 patients. SUBJECTS: 782 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory and imaging data were obtained from the hospital medical records. Regarding patients who developed COVID-19 related headache, a trained neurologist performed an analysis of headache and its response to analgesics. RESULTS: The relative frequency of COVID-19 related headache among our sample was 55.1% with 95% CI (0.516-0.586) for the estimated population prevalence. Female gender, malignancy, primary headache, fever, dehydration, lower levels of hemoglobin and platelets and higher levels of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and CRP were significantly associated with COVID-19 related headache. Multivariate analysis revealed that female gender, fever, dehydration, primary headache, high NLR, and decreased platelet count were independent predictors of headache occurrence. By evaluating headache response to analgesics, old age, diabetes, hypertension, primary headache, severe COVID-19, steroid intake, higher CRP and ferritin and lower hemoglobin levels were associated with poor response to analgesics. Multivariate analysis revealed that primary headache, steroids intake, moderate and severe COVID-19 were independent predictors of non-response to analgesics. DISCUSSION: Headache occurs in 55.1% of patients with COVID-19. Female gender, fever, dehydration, primary headache, high NLR, and decreased platelet count are considered independent predictors of COVID-19 related headache.

4.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-5, 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554696

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prior to illustration of the causative genetic mutation responsible for Sotos syndrome, diagnosis was based on clinical criteria. They include characteristic facial gestalt, developmental delay, and evidence of overgrowth, in addition to other minor features as cardiac &genitourinary congenital malformation, seizures, scoliosis, among other features. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) was not previously reported among Sotos patients. CASE SUMMARY: An eleven-years old boy, with developmental delay, characteristic facial & skeletal features presented to the emergency department with a two-hour episode of lapse of consciousness. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed fluctuating generalized spike-wave/poly-spike wave discharge <2.5 Hertz (Hz), lasting throughout the duration of recording. Intravenous (IV) levetiracetam was associated with clinical & EEG improvement & accordingly the patient was diagnosed as NCSE. The mother reported history of polyhydramnios, febrile seizure & developmental delay. Through clinical & radiological assessment revealed generalized hypotonia, low intelligence quotient (IQ), congenital ureteric stricture & pulmonary hypertension, prominent retro-cerebellar cistern, in addition to scoliosis & facial features suggestive of Sotos Syndrome. Six months after presentation, the patient remained seizure free on levetiracetam monotherapy. CONCLUSION: NCSE could occur in Sotos syndrome. In our case, the first reported case of NCSE in Sotos syndrome, the characteristic facial & skeletal findings initiated further work up with fulfillment of the criteria required for the clinical diagnosis of Sotos syndrome.

5.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-5, 2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fasting is the basis for the ketogenic diet, and intermittent fasting is emerging as a treatment for epilepsy. There are no available data about the role of Islamic fasting on seizure control. This study aims to assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on the frequency of different seizure types. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study on Muslim patients with active epilepsy intending to fast during Ramadan in the year 2019, with an average of 16 fasting hours per day. Seizure frequency for each seizure type was followed over three months, one month before (Shaaban), during Ramadan and one month after (Shawwal), after ensuring drug compliance. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty one Muslim patients with active epilepsy with median age of 33 years were included (some patients had more than one type of seizure). In Ramadan, 86 out of 224 patients with focal seizures, 17 out of 38 patients with myoclonic seizures and 6 out of 10 patients with absence seizures showed ≥ 50% reduction. In Shawaal, such improvement continued to include 83, 13 and 4 patients with focal, myoclonic and absence seizures. Focal and myoclonic seizures were significantly improved in the months of Ramadan and Shawaal compared to Shaaban. However, absence seizures were significantly improved only in Ramadan compared with Shaaban. The frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures did not significantly differ between the three months. DISCUSSION: Ramadan fasting may have an improving effect, as well as a post-fasting effect, on active focal, myoclonic and absence seizures.

6.
Cephalalgia ; 40(13): 1422-1431, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146038

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of headache attributed to COVID-19 infection and predictors of its severity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 172 individuals who had headache due to COVID-19 infection. A detailed analysis of such headache was done through a face-to-face interview. Patients with any other form of secondary headache were excluded. Labs, including lymphocytic count, C-reactive protein, D-dimer and ferritin and chest imaging, were made available. RESULTS: THE: majority of our patients had a diffuse headache (52.9%). It was pressing in 40.7%, with median intensity of 7 (assessed by visual analogue scale) and median frequency of 7 days/week. Patients with preexisting primary headache (52.9%) had significantly more frequent COVID-19 related headache than those without (47.1%) (p = 0.001). Dehydrated patients (64.5%) had more frequent COVID-19 related headache than those who were not dehydrated (35.5%) (p = 0.029). Patients with fever (69.8%) had significantly higher frequency and intensity of COVID-19 related headache compared to those without fever (30.2%) (p = 0.003, 0.012). Patients with comorbidities (19.8%) had significantly higher frequency and intensity of headache than those without comorbidities (80.2%) (p = 0.006, 0.003). After multiple linear regression, primary headache disorders, dehydration and comorbidities were considered predictors of frequency of COVID-19 related headache. Meanwhile, fever and dehydration were predictors of pain intensity. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers of COVID-19 patients need to be aware of frequency and intensity predictors of COVID-19 related headache: Primary headache disorders, fever, dehydration, and comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Cefalea/epidemiología , Cefalea/virología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
7.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 759-767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884277

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency of international concern and has affected management plans of many autoimmune disorders. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies are pivotal in the management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), potentially placing patients at an increased risk of contracting infections such as COVID-19. The optimal management strategy of NMOSD during the COVID-19 era remains unclear. Here, however, we examined the evidence of NMOSD disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) use during the present period and highlighted different scenarios including treatment of relapses as well as initiation and maintenance of DMTs in order to optimize care of NMOSD patients in the COVID-19 era.

8.
Seizure ; 80: 67-70, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540640

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Ramadan fasting represents a challenge for both Muslim patients with epilepsy (MPWE) as well as their treating neurologists who aim to minimize the risk of fasting-related seizures. Several factors may contribute to the risk of fasting-related seizures such as the half-life of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), seizure control before Ramadan, and sleep fragmentation. The aim of this work was to investigate these factors. METHODS: An observational prospective study included all MPWE who completed Ramadan fasting in 2019, about 16 h per day for 30 days. They were assessed regarding seizure control, AEDs, and sleep alterations using The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: The study included 430 MPWE. The majority of patients (75.58%) completed Ramadan fasting without breakthrough seizures. Patients achieved successful Ramadan fasting were significantly younger, had shorter disease duration, longer periods of seizure freedom before Ramadan, more efficient and longer sleep hours. There was no significant difference between patients receiving monotherapy regimens with short versus intermediate long t½. Maximum seizure freedom before Ramadan and sleep hours were identified as independent predictors of successful Ramadan fasting, using multivariate analysis. Every extra week of being seizure free before Ramadan and every extra hour of sleep was associated with an increase in the probability of successful Ramadan fasting by 10% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Neurologists should guide their MPWE who wish to fast Ramadan about the risks and precautions. Proper seizure control and ensuring adequate sleep duration can increase the probability of a successful Ramadan fasting.

9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 103(Pt A): 106840, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864942

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly incriminated for vitamin D deficiency in children with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine 25(OH) vitamin D status among children and adolescents with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) who had never received AEDs and its relation to seizure frequency and epilepsy duration. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on 42 recently diagnosed patients with GGE, aged ≤18 years and 40 age- and gender-matched controls. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was performed for all participants. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was significantly lower in patients (median = 22 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) = 16.6-28.6) compared with controls (median = 58.4 ng/ml, IQR = 53-68), (P-value < 0.001). Patients with ≥4 seizures per month had a significantly lower level of serum 25(OH) vitamin D (median = 17.7 ng/ml, IQR = 16-24) than patients with lower seizure frequency (median = 28.3 ng/ml, IQR = 24.2-40.2), (P-value = 0.004). Also, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between the duration of epilepsy and serum 25(OH) vitamin D level (r = -0.309, P-value = 0.046). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that serum 25(OH) vitamin D level with a cutoff value of 23.9 distinguished patients with low seizure frequency (five or less per year) from patients with higher seizure frequency with a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 74%, respectively (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.798). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is found in treatment-naive children with epilepsy and adolescents with GGE, and it is associated with higher seizure frequency, longer disease duration, and younger age at onset.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia Generalizada/sangre , Epilepsia Generalizada/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Vitamina D/sangre , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacología , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Egipto/epidemiología , Electroencefalografía/efectos de los fármacos , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina D/farmacología , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/tratamiento farmacológico
10.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106686, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760201

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: There is a lack of data concerning the performance of the outcome prediction scores in patients with status epilepticus (SE) in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive performances of the status epilepticus severity score (STESS) and the epidemiology-based mortality score in status epilepticus (EMSE) and adaptation of such scoring system to be compatible with the nature of society. METHOD: This is a prospective study, conducted in Egypt from the period of January 2017 to June 2018. The main outcome measure was survival versus death, on hospital discharge. The cutoff point with the best sensitivity and specificity to predict mortality was determined through a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Among the 144 patients with SE with a mean age of 39.3 ±â€¯19.5 years recruited into the study, 38 patients (26.3%) died in the hospital with the survival of 99 patients while 7 patients (4.9%) were referred to other centers with an unknown outcome. Although EMSE had a bit larger area under the curve (AUC) (0.846) than STESS-3 (AUC 0.824), STESS-3 had the best performance as in-hospital death prediction score as it has a higher negative predictive value (94.6%) than that of EMSE (90.9%) in order not to miss high-risk patients. CONCLUSION: In the Egyptian population, STESS and EMSE are useful tools in predicting mortality outcome of SE. The STESS performed significantly better than EMSEE combinations as a mortality prediction score.


Asunto(s)
Alta del Paciente/normas , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/mortalidad , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente/tendencias , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estado Epiléptico/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
11.
Int J Neurosci ; 130(6): 631-634, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813337

RESUMEN

Purpose/Aim: Acquired neuromyotonia or Isaacs syndrome is a type of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability of autoimmune origin. It may occur as an isolated, paraneoplastic or accompanied with some autoimmune diseases. This report describes acquired neuromyotonia in a child with a new reported association with vitamin D deficiency. Case report: A 9-year-old child, in whom the diagnosis of acquired neuromyotonia was made by clinical and typical electromyographic findings. All paraneoplastic and autoimmune workup was normal, except for a vitamin D deficiency state. A dramatic improvement was recorded on both clinical and electrophysiological base after vitamin D replacement. Conclusion: An in-depth future analysis of vitamin D status in patients with neuromyotonia will help to establish whether the association of neuromyotonia with vitamin D deficiency is casual or whether these two conditions may be causally related.

12.
Neurol Res ; 41(7): 644-651, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025605

RESUMEN

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and genetic factors among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Fifty patients of definite MS were included. Physical disability was assessed by expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Cognitive functions were assessed by using the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS). For each eye, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to track thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC), respecting the previous history of optic neuritis (ON). All patients were genotyped for glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Results: A statistically significant negative correlation was found between scores of EDSS and each of neuropsychological tests scores and thickness of both RNFL and GCC. The predictor for progressive disability assessed by EDSS was Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) (P = 0.021), that is dependent on the educational level of the patients (P = 0.016). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between scores of all neuropsychological tests and the thickness of both RNFL and GCC. Eighty-three percent of MS patients with CC genotype reported previous attacks of ON with significant thinning in RNFL and GCC despite their higher cognitive performance in comparison to other genotypes. Discussion: Deficit in information processing speed measured by SDMT is a predictor of early progressive disability in MS patients. Thinning of RNFL and GCC is a potential biomarker for cognitive and physical disability in MS. The CC genotype of glutamate NMDAR gene has a divergent effect on visual and cognitive functions.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Esclerosis Múltiple/genética , Esclerosis Múltiple/psicología , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Egipto , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Múltiple/complicaciones , Esclerosis Múltiple/patología , Fibras Nerviosas/patología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Neuritis Óptica/complicaciones , Neuritis Óptica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/patología , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Adulto Joven
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