Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 72
Filtrar
1.
Int J Drug Policy ; 95: 103252, 2021 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892281

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Addressing the burden of disease associated with substance use is a global priority, yet access to treatment is limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Peers, individuals with lived experience of substance use, may play an important role in expanding access to treatment, supporting outcomes, and reducing stigma. While peer-delivered services for substance use have been scaling up in high-income countries (HICs), less is known about their application in LMICs. This systematic review synthesizes the evidence of peer-delivered services for substance use in LMICs. METHODS: PsycINFO, Embase, Global Health, PubMed, and six region-specific databases were searched, and articles that described peer-delivered services for substance use and related outcomes in LMICs were included. Risk of bias was evaluated using tools appropriate for each study design. To provide a more stringent evaluation of structured interventions, a subset of articles was analyzed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) framework. RESULTS: The search yielded 6540 articles. These were narrowed down to 34 included articles. Articles spanned four continents, included quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and primarily targeted infectious disease risk behaviors. Ten articles were included in the EPOC sub-analysis. In the context of high risk of bias, some of these articles demonstrated positive impacts of the peer-delivered services, including reductions in risk behaviors and increases in infectious disease knowledge scores, while many others showed no significant difference in outcomes between peer intervention and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Peer-delivered services may be feasible for addressing substance use and reducing infectious disease risk behaviors in LMICs, where there are severe human resource shortages. Globally, peers' lived experience is valuable for engaging patients in substance use treatment and harm reduction services. Further research is needed to better characterize and quantify outcomes for peer-delivered services for substance use in LMICs.

2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914561

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Most research investigating reinforcement in alcohol use is from high-income countries. The current study sought to understand the association of different reinforcement types (alcohol-specific reward, environmental reward, behavioral activation) with multiple measures of alcohol use and cravings among individuals living with HIV in South Africa. METHOD: Baseline data were obtained from a substance use clinical trial in Cape Town (N = 65). Unhealthy alcohol use was measured using the biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth), Alcohol Use Identification Test (AUDIT-C), average number of drinks from the timeline follow back (TLFB), and self-reported cravings. Reinforcement was measured using the proportion of income spent on alcohol (alcohol-specific reward), both subscales of the Reward Probability Index (environmental reward), and the Behavioral Activation Depression Scale (activation). Poisson and linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Each percentage point increase in income spent on alcohol was significantly associated with PEth, RR = 1.004 [95% CI (1.001, 1.007)], which translates to a 13.6% increase in the relative risk of unhealthy alcohol use for the average person in the study. More alcohol-specific reward was significantly associated with higher scores on the AUDIT-C, higher average number of drinks on the TLFB, and more cravings. Higher activation was associated with lower scores on the AUDIT-C. Neither subscale of environmental reward was associated with model outcomes. CONCLUSION: Greater alcohol-specific reward and less behavioral activation were associated with more frequent and unhealthy alcohol use in this setting, but not environmental reward. Findings highlight how different reinforcement types potentially influence alcohol use in a low-resource global setting. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-30, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is a structural barrier to HIV care in peri-urban areas in South Africa (SA), where approximately 80% of households are moderately or severely food insecure.(1) For people with HIV (PWH), food insecurity is associated with poor ART adherence and survival rates. Yet, measurement of food insecurity among PWH remains a challenge. DESIGN: This study examines the factor structure of the 9-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS, isiXhosa-translated) among PWH in SA using a restrictive bifactor model. SETTING: Primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, a peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, SA. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=440) were PWH who received HIV care in Khayelitsha screening for a clinical trial. Most were categorized as severely (n=250, 56.82%) or moderately (n=107, 24.32%) food insecure in the past 30 days. RESULTS: Revised parallel analysis suggested a 3-factor structure, which was inadmissible. A 2-factor structure was examined but did not adequately fit the data. A 2-factor restrictive bifactor model was examined, such that all items loaded on a general factor (food insecurity) and all but two items loaded on one of two specific additional factors, which adequately fit the data (CFI=0.995, SRMR=0.019). The two specific factors identified were: anxiety/insufficient quality, and no food intake. Reliability was adequate (ω=.82). CONCLUSIONS: Results supported the use of a total score, and identified two specific factors of the HFIAS, which may be utilized in future research and intervention development. These findings help identify aspects of food insecurity that may drive relationships between the construct and important HIV-related variables.

4.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 122: 108248, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509420

RESUMEN

Recovery coaches, trained peers with a history of substance use disorder (SUD) who are formally embedded in the health care team, may be a cost-effective approach to support outpatient management of SUD treatment. Although recovery coach programs are scaling nationwide, limited data exist to support their impact on costs or clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the integration of peer recovery coaches in general medical settings. Staff hired and trained nine recovery coaches as a part of a health system-wide effort to redesign SUD care. We examined reductions in acute care utilization and increases in outpatient treatment utilization among patients connected to a recovery coach. Additionally, we examined buprenorphine treatment engagement and opioid abstinence among a subset of patients who initiated buprenorphine prior to or within 30 days of their first recovery coach contact. We hypothesized recovery coach contact would strengthen outpatient SUD treatment and be associated with reductions in SUD severity and preventable acute care utilization. We included patients with an initial recovery coach contact between January 2015 and September 2017 in the main analyses (N = 1171). We assessed utilization outcomes via medical records over one year, comparing the six months before and after first recovery coach contact. We used chart review to extract toxicology results and buprenorphine treatment engagement for the subset of patients initiated on buprenorphine (n = 135). In the six months following recovery coach contact, there was a 44% decrease in patients hospitalized and a 9% decrease in patients with an ED visit. There was a 66% increase in outpatient utilization across primary care, community health center visits, mental health, and laboratory visits. Among patients who initiated buprenorphine, current recovery coach contact was associated with significantly increased odds of buprenorphine treatment engagement (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.49-2.39; p < 0.001) and opioid abstinence (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.02-1.70; p < 0.001). Recovery coaches may be an impactful and potentially cost-effective addition to an SUD care team, but future research is needed that uses a matched comparison condition.

5.
Subst Abus ; : 1-15, 2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270540

RESUMEN

Background: Low-income, racial/ethnic minority individuals face significant barriers in access to substance use (SU) treatment. Peer recovery coaches (PRCs), individuals with lived experience with substance use disorder (SUD), may be uniquely well suited to assist those encountering barriers to treatment. PRCs can also help reach those not engaged in treatment to promote harm reduction and support linkage-to-care when embedded in community rather than clinical settings. This study evaluated a community-based program in which a PRC facilitated linkage to and supported retention in SU treatment. Methods: Guided by the RE-AIM framework, we evaluated implementation of the intervention in a community resource center (CRC) serving homeless and low-income residents of Baltimore City. We examined the reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation of this PRC model. Results: Of 199 clients approached by or referred to the PRC, 39 were interested in addressing their SU. Of those interested in addressing SU, the PRC linked 64.1% (n = 25) to treatment and was able to follow up with 59.0% (n = 23) at prespecified time points after linkage (24-48 hours, 2 weeks, and 1 month). Fifty-two percent (n = 13) of clients linked to SU treatment remained in treatment at 30 days post-linkage. Of clients who did not remain in treatment, 77% (n = 10) continued contact with the PRC. Conclusions: Results indicate the utility of the CRC's approach in linking people to treatment for SU and addressing barriers to care through work with a PRC. Findings also highlight important barriers and facilitators to implementation of this model, including the need for adaptation based on individual goals and fluctuations in readiness for treatment.

6.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; : 108182, 2020 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160763

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and ongoing opioid epidemic are causing notable morbidity and mortality among low-income and minority populations. Peer recovery coaches (PRCs), people with lived experience of substance use and recovery, are uniquely positioned to support underserved, minority individuals who face the greatest barriers to care. This commentary combines research and clinical perspectives to describe the potential role of PRCs in reaching and supporting particularly vulnerable populations in the setting of substantial changes in the opioid use disorder (OUD) recovery landscape during COVID-19. During this time, PRCs can provide guidance from their own experience navigating changes to routines and social support systems, reduce social isolation, build trust and buy-in, and support engagement in care. Specific barriers include access to technology and underlying distrust of public and medical authorities. This article highlights the importance of expanding the reach of the PRC workforce as well as supporting their specific needs at this time to combat the intersecting devastation of two epidemics.

7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 216: 108322, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010712

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: South Africa has the largest number of people living with HIV in the world. Concurrently, problematic alcohol and other drug use (AOD) is prevalent in the country and associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. Further, the high rates of stigma surrounding HIV and AOD contribute to poor HIV outcomes. Yet, how HIV stigma and AOD stigma together may affect HIV care has not been extensively studied in this context. Thus, we explored HIV and AOD providers' and patients' experiences of HIV and AOD stigma. METHODS: We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with patients living with HIV who were struggling with HIV medication adherence and problematic AOD use (n = 19), and providers involved in HIV or AOD treatment (n = 11) in Cape Town, South Africa to assess how HIV and AOD stigmas manifest and relate to HIV care. FINDINGS: Two main themes around the intersection of HIV and AOD and their related stigmas were identified: (1) how patients use AOD to cope with HIV stigma; and (2) enacted/ anticipated AOD stigma from HIV care providers, which acts as a barrier to HIV care. CONCLUSIONS: Intersecting HIV and AOD stigmas exist at multiple levels and increase barriers to HIV care in this setting. Accordingly, it is important that future interventions address both these stigmas at multiple levels.

9.
Soc Sci Med ; 266: 113424, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065498

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: "Thinking too much" is a cultural idiom of distress identified across sub-Saharan Africa, including among people living with HIV (PLWH), which is associated with depression, substance use, and HIV medication nonadherence. Despite the relevance of mindfulness training to address thinking too much, improve HIV-related outcomes, and reduce substance use, efforts to adapt mindfulness training for this context and underserved populations more broadly have been limited. OBJECTIVE: We explored in this context: (a) the experience of thinking too much among PLWH struggling with adherence and substance use; (b) the appropriateness of mindfulness training to address thinking too much; and (c) potential barriers and facilitators to implementing mindfulness training. METHOD: We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients (n = 19) and providers (n = 11) at two clinics in a peri-urban area of Cape Town. Guided by the ADAPT-ITT model, we included an experiential mindfulness practice and participants shared their observations and descriptions of the intervention in the local language (isiXhosa). RESULTS: Participants found mindfulness relevant, culturally salient, and appropriate for refocusing the mind. Findings provide unique language offered by participants to tailor mindfulness training in the future (e.g., "hearing your veins," "cooling of the mind"). Participants identified potential implementation barriers, including lack of privacy, and facilitators to guide future adaptations. CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to adapt and increase access to mindfulness training in resource-limited settings globally, while also maintaining treatment integrity and fidelity.

11.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 779-784, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728896

RESUMEN

Few studies have examined neuroimmune pathways that could contribute to impulsivity in people living with HIV who use substances. Eighty-four methamphetamine-using, sexual minority men with an undetectable HIV viral load were administered the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity. We examined the associations between kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio with BART scores using multiple linear regression. A higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio was independently associated with greater BART scores (beta = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.05-1.23; p = 0.034). The phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio was not significantly associated with BART scores. Findings support the need for further research to elucidate the neuroimmune mechanisms linking tryptophan degradation with impulsivity to catalyze the development novel pharmacologic treatments for people living with HIV who use methamphetamine.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607502

RESUMEN

Background: Substance use is prevalent in South Africa and associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes, yet, it is largely unaddressed in HIV care. Implementing an evidence-based, task-shared intervention for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and substance use integrated into HIV care may be a feasible and effective way to improve HIV treatment outcomes and reduce substance use in this population. Methods: Guided by the RE-AIM framework, a randomized, hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation trial (n = 60) is being used to evaluate a peer-delivered intervention that integrates evidence-based intervention components, including Life-Steps (problem solving and motivational skills for HIV medication adherence), behavioral activation to increase alternative, substance-free rewarding activities in one's environment, and relapse prevention skills, including mindfulness. The comparison condition is enhanced standard of care, which includes facilitating a referral to a local substance use treatment clinic (Matrix). Participants are followed for a period of 6 months. Implementation outcomes are defined by Proctor's model for implementation and include mixed methods evaluations of feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Primary patient-level effectiveness outcomes are ART adherence (Wisepill) and substance use (WHO-ASSIST and urinalysis); viral load is an exploratory outcome. Discussion: Results of this trial will provide important evidence as to whether peer delivery of an integrated intervention for ART adherence and substance use is feasible, acceptable, and effective. Implementation outcomes will provide important insight into using peers as an implementation strategy to extend task sharing models for behavioral health in resource-limited settings globally. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03529409. Trial registered on May 18, 2018.

13.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 14: 40, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514304

RESUMEN

Due to severe shortages of specialist mental health personnel in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), psychological therapies are increasingly being delivered by non-specialist health workers (NSHWs). Previous reviews have investigated the effectiveness of NSHW-delivered psychological therapies, including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), in LMIC settings. This systematic review aims to synthesise findings on the implementation outcomes of NSHW-delivered CBT interventions addressing common mental disorders and substance-use disorders in LMICs. Four databases were searched, yielding 3211 records, 18 of which met all inclusion criteria. We extracted and synthesised qualitative and quantitative data across eight implementation outcomes: acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, implementation cost, penetration and sustainability. Findings suggest that delivery of CBT-based interventions by NSHWs can be acceptable, appropriate and feasible in LMIC settings. However, more research is needed to better evaluate these and other under-reported implementation outcomes.

14.
Cogn Behav Pract ; 27(1): 84-92, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153343

RESUMEN

HIV is prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, and depression frequently co-occurs. Depression is one of the most important predictors of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Little has been done to develop integrated interventions that are feasible and appropriate for task-shifting to nonspecialists that seek to address both depression and barriers to ART adherence in Sub-Saharan Africa. This case series describes an integrated intervention for depression and ART adherence delivered by a lay adherence counselor and supervised by a local psychologist. The 6-session intervention was based on problem-solving therapy for depression and for barriers to adherence (PST-AD), with stepped care for those whose depression did not recover with PST-AD. Primary outcomes were acceptability and depression. Acceptability was measured by participant attendance to the 6 sessions. Three case studies illustrate the structured intervention, solutions identified to adherence barriers and to problems underlying low mood, and changes seen in the clients' psychological symptoms. Acceptability of the intervention was high and common mental disorder symptoms scores measured using the SRQ-8 decreased overall. An integrated intervention for depression and adherence to ART appeared feasible in this low-income setting. An RCT of the intervention versus an appropriate comparison condition is needed to evaluate clinical and cost-effectiveness.

15.
AIDS Behav ; 24(9): 2680-2690, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162093

RESUMEN

South Africa (SA) has the most people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) globally and prevalent alcohol use. Beliefs that mixing alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lead to adverse reactions may promote ART nonadherence. Healthcare providers (n = 11) and patients (n = 19) recruited from primary HIV and substance use care in SA described their messages, beliefs, and behaviors around simultaneous use of alcohol and ART. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis: (1) most providers indicated a message shift to reflect harm reduction principles: PLWH should manage alcohol use but not let it interfere with taking ART; however, (2) patients recalled conflicting messages from their providers and some displayed interactive toxicity beliefs and behaviors. Despite progress demonstrated by 2016 national adherence guidelines and shifted provider messaging, interactive toxicity beliefs remain a barrier to ART adherence. Results have implications for the adaptation of adherence counseling to minimize the impact of alcohol use on HIV treatment.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Personal de Salud/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Adulto , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228084, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004328

RESUMEN

Low-income, racial/ethnic minority groups have disproportionately high rates of problematic substance use yet face barriers in accessing evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Peer recovery coaches (PRCs), individuals with lived experience with problematic substance use, may provide an effective approach to reaching these individuals. Traditionally PRCs have focused on bridging to other types of care rather than delivering EBIs themselves. The aim of this study was to assess perceptions of the appropriateness of a PRC-delivered adapted behavioral activation (BA) intervention to reduce problematic substance use for individuals not engaged in care. This study was conducted at a community resource center in Baltimore, Maryland serving low-income and homeless clients who have high rates of problematic substance use yet also face barriers to accessing care. Guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework, we conducted semi-structured key informant interviews with clients (n = 30) with past or present problematic substance use, and a focus group with community providers, including staff at the community resource center (n = 5) and PRCs (n = 6) from the community. Thirty percent (n = 9) of clients interviewed reported past problematic substance use and 70% (n = 21) met criteria for current use, most commonly cocaine and opioids. Clients, center staff, and PRCs shared that PRC-delivered BA could be acceptable and appropriate with suggested adaptations, including adding peer-delivered case-management and linkage to care alongside BA, and tailoring BA to include activities that are accessible and feasible in the community. These findings will inform the adaptation of PRC-delivered BA to address problematic substance use in this setting.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Medicina Comunitaria/métodos , Área sin Atención Médica , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Adulto , Baltimore , Manejo de Caso , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Personas sin Hogar , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Grupo Paritario , Pobreza
17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(2): e14200, 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012114

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need to develop effective, feasible, and scalable interventions for poor adherence and depression in persons living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a nurse-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) among persons living with HIV who are failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: This study is a 2-arm randomized controlled trial of CBT-AD integrated into the HIV primary care setting in South Africa. A total of 160 participants who did not achieve viral suppression from their first-line ART and have a unipolar depressive mood disorder will be randomized to receive either 8 sessions of CBT-AD or enhanced treatment as usual. Participants will be assessed for major depressive disorder using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 months. The primary outcomes are depression on the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D; as assessed by a blinded assessor) at the 4-month assessment and changes in ART adherence (assessed via real-time, electronic monitoring with Wisepill) between baseline and the 4-month assessment. Secondary outcomes are HIV viral load and CD4 cell count at the 12-month assessment as well as ART adherence (Wisepill) and depression (HAM-D) over follow-up (4-, 8-, and 12-month assessments). RESULTS: The trial commenced in August 2015 and recruitment began in July 2016. Enrollment was completed in June 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study will inform whether an existing intervention (CBT-AD) can be effectively administered in LMIC by nurses with training and ongoing supervision. This will present unique opportunities to further explore the scale-up of a behavioral intervention to enhance ART adherence among persons living with HIV with major depression in a high-prevalence setting, to move toward achieving The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 goals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClincialTrials.gov NCT02696824; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02696824. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/14200.

18.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 47(4): 497-500, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823100

RESUMEN

Use of lay health workers for the treatment of common mental disorders is an expanding, yet still underutilized, opportunity for closing the behavioral health treatment gap globally. In this commentary, we describe how "mutual capacity building," an equal exchange of ideas between low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs) to promote shared learning, could promote the development and scale-up of therapies using lay health workers. We propose ways that task sharing models for behavioral health can inform and be supported by bidirectional learning across HICs and LMICs.

19.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 57(1): 107-118, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670529

RESUMEN

South Africa has the largest HIV/AIDS burden globally. In South Africa, substance use is prevalent and interferes with HIV treatment adherence and viral suppression, and yet it is not routinely treated in HIV care. More research is needed to adapt scalable, evidence-based therapies for substance use for integration into HIV care in South Africa. Behavioral activation (BA), originally developed as an efficacious therapy for depression, has been feasibly used to treat depression in low- and middle-income countries and substance use in high-income settings. Yet, to date, there is limited research on using BA for substance use in low- and middle-income countries. Guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework, this study sought to adapt BA therapy for substance use in HIV care in South Africa. We conducted semistructured individual interviews among patients (n = 19) with moderate/severe substance use and detectable viral load, and HIV care providers and substance use treatment therapists (n = 11) across roles and disciplines at 2 clinic sites in a peri-urban area of Cape Town. We assessed patient and provider/therapist views on the appropriateness of the BA therapy model and sought feedback on isiXhosa-translated BA therapy components. Participants identified the central role of boredom in contributing to substance use and saw the BA therapy model as highly appropriate. Participants identified church and religious practices, sports, and yard/housework as relevant substance-free activities. These findings will inform adaptations to BA therapy for substance use and HIV medication adherence in this setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(5): 443-451, 2019 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567551

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is common among people living with HIV and particularly harmful during pregnancy. However, objective data on alcohol use in pregnant women living with HIV (WLWH) are lacking. In areas with high levels of alcohol use generally, such as South Africa and Uganda, these data are needed to inform interventions. METHODS: Pregnant and nonpregnant, antiretroviral therapy-naive WLWH were recruited from outpatient clinics in South Africa and Uganda. Women provided self-report data on previous three-month alcohol use and potential mental health correlates of alcohol use (depression and stigma). Blood samples were used to measure phosphatidylethanol (PEth), an objective biomarker of recent alcohol intake. We analyzed any alcohol use (ie, any self-reported use or PEth-positive [≥8 ng/mL]) and under-reporting of alcohol use (ie, no self-reported use with concurrent PEth-positive). RESULTS: Among pregnant WLWH (n = 163, median age was 26 [interquartile range: 23-29], median gestational age was 20 weeks [interquartile range: 16-26]), 40% were using alcohol and 16% under-reported alcohol use. Neither any alcohol use nor under-reporting of alcohol use differed significantly between pregnant and nonpregnant women or by country (P > 0.05). Greater depression (but not greater stigma) was significantly associated with any alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: [1.01 to 1.99]; P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use was prevalent and under-reported among pregnant WLWH in South Africa and Uganda, similar to nonpregnant participants, and associated with depression. General health care and antenatal clinic settings present opportunities to provide integrated alcohol-based counseling and depression treatment.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/sangre , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Glicerofosfolípidos/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Mujeres Embarazadas , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Estigma Social , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...