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1.
New Phytol ; 2021 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921419

RESUMEN

Sun-induced fluorescence in the far-red region (SIF) is increasingly used as a remote and proximal-sensing tool capable of tracking vegetation gross primary production (GPP). However, the use of SIF to probe changes in GPP is challenged during extreme climatic events, such as heatwaves. Here, we examined how the 2018 European heatwave (HW) affected the GPP-SIF relationship in evergreen broadleaved trees with a relatively invariant canopy structure. To do so, we combined canopy-scale SIF measurements, GPP estimated from an eddy covariance tower, and active pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence. The HW caused an inversion of the photosynthesis-fluorescence relationship at both the canopy and leaf scales. The highly nonlinear relationship was strongly shaped by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), that is, a dissipation mechanism to protect from the adverse effects of high light intensity. During the extreme heat stress, plants experienced a saturation of NPQ, causing a change in the allocation of energy dissipation pathways towards SIF. Our results show the complex modulation of the NPQ-SIF-GPP relationship at an extreme level of heat stress, which is not completely represented in state-of-the-art coupled radiative transfer and photosynthesis models.

2.
AoB Plants ; 13(1): plaa066, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510890

RESUMEN

Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) is a promising tool to estimate photosynthesis across scales; however, there has been limited research done at the leaf level to investigate the relationship between SIF and photosynthesis. To help bridge this gap, a LI-COR LI-6800 gas exchange instrument was modified with a visible-near-infrared (VIS-NIR) spectrometer to measure active and passive fluorescence simultaneously. The system was adapted by drilling a hole into the bottom plate of the leaf chamber and inserting a fibre-optic to measure passive steady-state fluorescence (F t , λ , analogous to SIF) from the abaxial surface of a leaf. This new modification can concurrently measure gas exchange, passive fluorescence and active fluorescence over the same leaf area and will allow researchers to measure leaf-level F t , λ in the field to validate tower-based and satellite measurements. To test the modified instrument, measurements were performed on leaves of well-watered and water-stressed walnut plants at three light levels and a constant air temperature. Measurements on these same plants were also conducted using a similarly modified Walz GFS-3000 gas exchange instrument to compare results. We found a positive linear correlation between F t , λ measurements from the modified LI-6800 and GFS-3000 instruments. We also report a positive linear relationship between F t , λ and normalized steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (F t /F o ) from the pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometer of the LI-6800 system. Accordingly, this modification will inform the link between spectrally resolved F t , λ and gas exchange-leading to improved interpretation of how remotely sensed SIF tracks changes in the light reactions of photosynthesis.

3.
New Phytol ; 229(5): 2586-2600, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118171

RESUMEN

Evergreen conifer forests are the most prevalent land cover type in North America. Seasonal changes in the color of evergreen forest canopies have been documented with near-surface remote sensing, but the physiological mechanisms underlying these changes, and the implications for photosynthetic uptake, have not been fully elucidated. Here, we integrate on-the-ground phenological observations, leaf-level physiological measurements, near surface hyperspectral remote sensing and digital camera imagery, tower-based CO2 flux measurements, and a predictive model to simulate seasonal canopy color dynamics. We show that seasonal changes in canopy color occur independently of new leaf production, but track changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, the photochemical reflectance index, and leaf pigmentation. We demonstrate that at winter-dormant sites, seasonal changes in canopy color can be used to predict the onset of canopy-level photosynthesis in spring, and its cessation in autumn. Finally, we parameterize a simple temperature-based model to predict the seasonal cycle of canopy greenness, and we show that the model successfully simulates interannual variation in the timing of changes in canopy color. These results provide mechanistic insight into the factors driving seasonal changes in evergreen canopy color and provide opportunities to monitor and model seasonal variation in photosynthetic activity using color-based vegetation indices.


Asunto(s)
Tracheophyta , Clima , Bosques , América del Norte , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta , Estaciones del Año
4.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 671-685, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052180

RESUMEN

Warming-induced nutrient enrichment in the Arctic may lead to shifts in leaf-level physiological properties and processes with potential consequences for plant community dynamics and ecosystem function. To explore the physiological responses of Arctic tundra vegetation to increasing nutrient availability, we examined how a set of leaf nutrient and physiological characteristics of eight plant species (representing four plant functional groups) respond to a gradient of experimental nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichment. Specifically, we examined a set of chlorophyll fluorescence measures related to photosynthetic efficiency, performance and stress, and two leaf nutrient traits (leaf %C and %N), across an experimental nutrient gradient at the Arctic Long Term Ecological Research site, located in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. In addition, we explicitly assessed the direct relationships between chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf %N. We found significant differences in physiological and nutrient traits between species and plant functional groups, and we found that species within one functional group (deciduous shrubs) have significantly greater leaf %N at high levels of nutrient addition. In addition, we found positive, saturating relationships between leaf %N and chlorophyll fluorescence measures across all species. Our results highlight species-specific differences in leaf nutrient traits and physiology in this ecosystem. In particular, the effects of a gradient of nutrient enrichment were most prominent in deciduous plant species, the plant functional group known to be increasing in relative abundance with warming in this ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Tundra , Alaska , Regiones Árticas , Nutrientes
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(44): 22393-22398, 2019 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611384

RESUMEN

Photosynthesis of the Amazon rainforest plays an important role in the regional and global carbon cycles, but, despite considerable in situ and space-based observations, it has been intensely debated whether there is a dry-season increase in greenness and photosynthesis of the moist tropical Amazonian forests. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which is emitted by chlorophyll, has a strong positive linear relationship with photosynthesis at the canopy scale. Recent advancements have allowed us to observe SIF globally with Earth observation satellites. Here we show that forest SIF did not decrease in the early dry season and increased substantially in the late dry season and early part of wet season, using SIF data from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), which has unprecedented spatial resolution and near-daily global coverage. Using in situ CO2 eddy flux data, we also show that cloud cover rarely affects photosynthesis at TROPOMI's midday overpass, a time when the forest canopy is most often light-saturated. The observed dry-season increases of forest SIF are not strongly affected by sun-sensor geometry, which was attributed as creating a pseudo dry-season green-up in the surface reflectance data. Our results provide strong evidence that greenness, SIF, and photosynthesis of the tropical Amazonian forest increase during the dry season.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/química , Bosque Lluvioso , Imágenes Satelitales/métodos , Estaciones del Año , Luz Solar , Absorción de Radiación , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila/efectos de la radiación , Fluorescencia , Fotosíntesis , Imágenes Satelitales/normas
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(24): 11640-11645, 2019 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138693

RESUMEN

Northern hemisphere evergreen forests assimilate a significant fraction of global atmospheric CO2 but monitoring large-scale changes in gross primary production (GPP) in these systems is challenging. Recent advances in remote sensing allow the detection of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) emission from vegetation, which has been empirically linked to GPP at large spatial scales. This is particularly important in evergreen forests, where traditional remote-sensing techniques and terrestrial biosphere models fail to reproduce the seasonality of GPP. Here, we examined the mechanistic relationship between SIF retrieved from a canopy spectrometer system and GPP at a winter-dormant conifer forest, which has little seasonal variation in canopy structure, needle chlorophyll content, and absorbed light. Both SIF and GPP track each other in a consistent, dynamic fashion in response to environmental conditions. SIF and GPP are well correlated (R 2 = 0.62-0.92) with an invariant slope over hourly to weekly timescales. Large seasonal variations in SIF yield capture changes in photoprotective pigments and photosystem II operating efficiency associated with winter acclimation, highlighting its unique ability to precisely track the seasonality of photosynthesis. Our results underscore the potential of new satellite-based SIF products (TROPOMI, OCO-2) as proxies for the timing and magnitude of GPP in evergreen forests at an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.


Asunto(s)
Fotosíntesis/fisiología , Ciclo del Carbono/fisiología , Clorofila/fisiología , Clima , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Fluorescencia , Bosques , Complejo de Proteína del Fotosistema II/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Luz Solar
7.
Geophys Res Lett ; 45(19): 10456-10463, 2018 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104094

RESUMEN

In recent years, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) retrieved from space borne spectrometers has been extensively used as a proxy for terrestrial photosynthesis at relatively sparse temporal and spatial scales. The near-infrared band of the recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) features the required spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio to retrieve SIF in a spectral range devoid of atmospheric absorption features. We find that initial TROPOMI spectra meet high expectations for a substantially improved spatio-temporal resolution (up to 7 km × 3.5 km pixels with daily revisit), representing a step change in SIF remote sensing capabilities. However, interpretation requires caution, as the broad range of viewing-illumination geometries covered by TROPOMI's 2600 km wide swath needs to be taken into account. A first inter-sensor comparison with OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) SIF shows excellent agreement, underscoring the high quality of TROPOMI's SIF retrievals and the notable radiometric performance of the instrument. Plain Language Summary: Photosynthesis is the most essential process for life on Earth, but gradually changing environmental conditions such as increasing concentrations of atmospheric trace gases, rising temperatures or reduced water availability could adversely affect the photosynthetic productivity. The recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is designed to monitor atmospheric trace gases and air pollutants with an unprecedented resolution in space and time, while its radiometric performance also permits us to see a weak electromagnetic signal emitted by photosynthetically active vegetation - solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). Mounting evidence suggests that SIF observations from satellite instruments augment our abilities to track the photosynthetic performance and carbon uptake of terrestrial vegetation. In this study, we present the first TROPOMI SIF retrievals, largely outperforming previous and existing capabilities for a spatial continuous monitoring of SIF from space.

8.
New Phytol ; 215(4): 1594-1608, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664542

RESUMEN

Recent advances in the retrieval of Chl fluorescence from space using passive methods (solar-induced Chl fluorescence, SIF) promise improved mapping of plant photosynthesis globally. However, unresolved issues related to the spatial, spectral, and temporal dynamics of vegetation fluorescence complicate our ability to interpret SIF measurements. We developed an instrument to measure leaf-level gas exchange simultaneously with pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) and spectrally resolved fluorescence over the same field of view - allowing us to investigate the relationships between active and passive fluorescence with photosynthesis. Strongly correlated, slope-dependent relationships were observed between measured spectra across all wavelengths (Fλ , 670-850 nm) and PAM fluorescence parameters under a range of actinic light intensities (steady-state fluorescence yields, Ft ) and saturation pulses (maximal fluorescence yields, Fm ). Our results suggest that this method can accurately reproduce the full Chl emission spectra - capturing the spectral dynamics associated with changes in the yields of fluorescence, photochemical (ΦPSII), and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). We discuss how this method may establish a link between photosynthetic capacity and the mechanistic drivers of wavelength-specific fluorescence emission during changes in environmental conditions (light, temperature, humidity). Our emphasis is on future research directions linking spectral fluorescence to photosynthesis, ΦPSII, and NPQ.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/análisis , Fotosíntesis , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Fotosíntesis/efectos de la radiación , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de la radiación , Suelo/química , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia , Terminología como Asunto
9.
Ecol Evol ; 7(7): 2449-2460, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405308

RESUMEN

Rapid environmental change at high latitudes is predicted to greatly alter the diversity, structure, and function of plant communities, resulting in changes in the pools and fluxes of nutrients. In Arctic tundra, increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability accompanying warming is known to impact plant diversity and ecosystem function; however, to date, most studies examining Arctic nutrient enrichment focus on the impact of relatively large (>25x estimated naturally occurring N enrichment) doses of nutrients on plant community composition and net primary productivity. To understand the impacts of Arctic nutrient enrichment, we examined plant community composition and the capacity for ecosystem function (net ecosystem exchange, ecosystem respiration, and gross primary production) across a gradient of experimental N and P addition expected to more closely approximate warming-induced fertilization. In addition, we compared our measured ecosystem CO 2 flux data to a widely used Arctic ecosystem exchange model to investigate the ability to predict the capacity for CO 2 exchange with nutrient addition. We observed declines in abundance-weighted plant diversity at low levels of nutrient enrichment, but species richness and the capacity for ecosystem carbon uptake did not change until the highest level of fertilization. When we compared our measured data to the model, we found that the model explained roughly 30%-50% of the variance in the observed data, depending on the flux variable, and the relationship weakened at high levels of enrichment. Our results suggest that while a relatively small amount of nutrient enrichment impacts plant diversity, only relatively large levels of fertilization-over an order of magnitude or more than warming-induced rates-significantly alter the capacity for tundra CO 2 exchange. Overall, our findings highlight the value of measuring and modeling the impacts of a nutrient enrichment gradient, as warming-related nutrient availability may impact ecosystems differently than single-level fertilization experiments.

10.
Oecologia ; 182(1): 85-97, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27193900

RESUMEN

As the Arctic warms, tundra vegetation is becoming taller and more structurally complex, as tall deciduous shrubs become increasingly dominant. Emerging studies reveal that shrubs exhibit photosynthetic resource partitioning, akin to forests, that may need accounting for in the "big leaf" net ecosystem exchange models. We conducted a lab experiment on sun and shade leaves from S. pulchra shrubs to determine the influence of both constitutive (slowly changing bulk carotenoid and chlorophyll pools) and facultative (rapidly changing xanthophyll cycle) pigment pools on a suite of spectral vegetation indices, to devise a rapid means of estimating within canopy resource partitioning. We found that: (1) the PRI of dark-adapted shade leaves (PRIo) was double that of sun leaves, and that PRIo was sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in both xanthophyll cycle pool size (V + A + Z) (r (2) = 0.59) and Chla/b (r (2) = 0.64); (2) A corrected PRI (difference between dark and illuminated leaves, ΔPRI) was more sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in changes to the epoxidation state of their xanthophyll cycle pigments (dEPS) (r (2) = 0.78, RMSE = 0.007) compared to the uncorrected PRI of illuminated leaves (PRI) (r (2) = 0.34, RMSE = 0.02); and (3) the SR680 index was correlated with each of (V + A + Z), lutein, bulk carotenoids, (V + A + Z)/(Chla + b), and Chla/b (r (2) range = 0.52-0.69). We suggest that ΔPRI be employed as a proxy for facultative pigment dynamics, and the SR680 for the estimation of constitutive pigment pools. We contribute the first Arctic-specific information on disentangling PRI-pigment relationships, and offer insight into how spectral indices can assess resource partitioning within shrub tundra canopies.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/metabolismo , Tundra , Regiones Árticas , Fotosíntesis , Pigmentación , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
11.
New Phytol ; 201(1): 344-356, 2014 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24032717

RESUMEN

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data allow spatially explicit (x, y, z) laser return intensities to be recorded throughout a plant canopy, which could considerably improve our understanding of how physiological processes vary in three-dimensional space. However, the utility of TLS data for the quantification of plant physiological properties remains largely unexplored. Here, we test whether the laser return intensity of green (532-nm) TLS correlates with changes in the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and photoprotective non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and compare the ability of TLS to quantify these parameters with the passively measured photochemical reflectance index (PRI). We exposed leaves from five plant species to increasing light intensities to induce NPQ and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin (V) to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z). At each light intensity, the green laser return intensity (GLRI), narrowband spectral reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and xanthophyll cycle pigment composition were recorded. Strong relationships between both predictor variables (GLRI, PRI) and both explanatory variables (NPQ, xanthophyll cycle de-epoxidation) were observed. GLRI holds promise to provide detailed (mm) information about plant physiological status to improve our understanding of the patterns and mechanisms driving foliar photoprotection. We discuss the potential for scaling these laboratory data to three-dimensional canopy space.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/metabolismo , Luz , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Plantas , Rayos Láser , Proteínas del Complejo del Centro de Reacción Fotosintética/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Xantófilas/metabolismo
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