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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113835, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600421

RESUMEN

Mining of uranium for defense-related purposes has left a substantial legacy of pollution that threatens human and environmental health. Contaminated waters in the arid southwest are of particular concern, as water resource demand and water scarcity issues become more pronounced. The development of remediation strategies to treat uranium impacted waters will become increasingly vital to meet future water needs. Ion flotation is one technology with the potential to address legacy uranium contamination. The green biosurfactant rhamnolipid has been shown to bind uranium and act as an effective collector in ion flotation. In this study, uranium contaminated groundwater (∼440 µg L-1 U) from the Monument Valley processing site in northeast Arizona was used as a model solution to test the uranium removal efficacy of ion flotation with biosynthetic (bio-mRL) and three synthetic monorhamnolipids with varying hydrophobic chain lengths: Rha-C10-C10, Rha-C12-C12, and Rha-C14-C14. At the groundwater's native pH 8, and at an adjusted pH 7, no uranium was removed from solution by any collector. However, at pH 6.5 bio-mRL and Rha-C10-C10 removed 239.2 µg L-1 and 242.4 µg L-1 of uranium, respectively. By further decreasing the pH to 5.5, bio-mRL was able to reduce the uranium concentration to near or below the Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 30 µg L-1. For the Rha-C12-C12 and Rha-C14-C14 collector ligands, decreasing the pH to 7 or below reduced the foam stability and quantity, such that these collectors were not suitable for treating this groundwater. To contextualize the results, a geochemical analysis of the groundwater was conducted, and a consideration of uranium speciation is described. Based on this study, the efficacy of monorhamnolipid-based ion flotation in real world groundwater has been demonstrated with suitable solution conditions and collectors identified.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Uranio , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Minería , Uranio/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150006, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487902

RESUMEN

Soil contamination with trace metal(loid) elements (TME) is a global concern. This has focused interest on TME-tolerant plants, some of which can hyperaccumulate extraordinary amounts of TME into above-ground tissues, for potential treatment of these soils. However, intra-species variability in TME hyperaccumulation is not yet sufficiently understood to fully harness this potential. Particularly, little is known about the rhizosphere microbial communities associated with hyperaccumulating plants and whether or not they facilitate TME uptake. The aim of this study is to characterize the diversity and structure of Arabidopsis halleri rhizosphere-influenced and background (i.e., non-Arabidopsis) soil microbial communities in four plant populations with contrasting Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation traits, two each from contaminated and uncontaminated sites. Microbial community properties were assessed along with geographic location, climate, abiotic soil properties, and plant parameters to explain variation in Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation. Site type (TME-contaminated vs. uncontaminated) and location explained 44% of bacterial/archaeal and 28% of fungal community variability. A linear discriminant effect size (LEfSe) analysis identified a greater number of taxa defining rhizosphere microbial communities than associated background soils. Further, in TME-contaminated soils, the number of rhizosphere-defining taxa was 6-fold greater than in the background soils. In contrast, the corresponding ratio for uncontaminated sites, was 3 and 1.6 for bacteria/archaea and fungi, respectively. The variables analyzed explained 71% and 76% of the variance in Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation, respectively; however, each hyperaccumulation pattern was associated with different variables. A. halleri rhizosphere fungal richness and diversity associated most strongly with Zn hyperaccumulation, whereas soil Cd and Zn bioavailability had the strongest associations with Cd hyperaccumulation. Our results indicate strong associations between A. halleri TME hyperaccumulation and rhizosphere microbial community properties, a finding that needs to be further explored to optimize phytoremediation technology that is based on hyperaccumulation.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , Microbiota , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio , Rizosfera , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Zinc
3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 754698, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887842

RESUMEN

Microbial communities in incipient soil systems serve as the only biotic force shaping landscape evolution. However, the underlying ecological forces shaping microbial community structure and function are inadequately understood. We used amplicon sequencing to determine microbial taxonomic assembly and metagenome sequencing to evaluate microbial functional assembly in incipient basaltic soil subjected to precipitation. Community composition was stratified with soil depth in the pre-precipitation samples, with surficial communities maintaining their distinct structure and diversity after precipitation, while the deeper soil samples appeared to become more uniform. The structural community assembly remained deterministic in pre- and post-precipitation periods, with homogenous selection being dominant. Metagenome analysis revealed that carbon and nitrogen functional potential was assembled stochastically. Sub-populations putatively involved in the nitrogen cycle and carbon fixation experienced counteracting assembly pressures at the deepest depths, suggesting the communities may functionally assemble to respond to short-term environmental fluctuations and impact the landscape-scale response to perturbations. We propose that contrasting assembly forces impact microbial structure and potential function in an incipient landscape; in situ landscape characteristics (here homogenous parent material) drive community structure assembly, while short-term environmental fluctuations (here precipitation) shape environmental variations that are random in the soil depth profile and drive stochastic sub-population functional dynamics.

4.
ACS Sustain Chem Eng ; 9(35): 11616-11634, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777924

RESUMEN

Critical metals, identified from supply, demand, imports, and market factors, include rare earth elements (REE), platinum group metals, precious metals, and other valuable metals such as lithium, cobalt, nickel, and uranium. Extraction of metals from U.S. saline aqueous, emphasizing saline, sources is explored as an alternative to hardrock ore mining. Potential aqueous sources include seawater, desalination brines, oil-and-gas produced waters, geothermal aquifers, and acid mine drainage, among others. A feasibility assessment reveals opportunities for recovery of lithium, strontium, magnesium, and several REE from select sources, in quantities significant for U.S. manufacturing and for reduction of U.S. reliance on international supply chains. This is a conservative assessment given that water quality data are lacking for a significant number of critical metals in certain sources. The technology landscape for extraction and recovery of critical metals from aqueous sources is explored, identifying relevant processes along with knowledge gaps. Our analysis indicates that aqueous mining would result in much lower environmental impacts on water, air, and land than ore mining. Preliminary assessments of the economics and energy consumption of recovery show potential for recovery of critical metals.

5.
ISME J ; 15(3): 649-657, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051582

RESUMEN

The overwhelming taxonomic diversity and metabolic complexity of microorganisms can be simplified by a life-history classification; copiotrophs grow faster and rely on resource availability, whereas oligotrophs efficiently exploit resource at the expense of growth rate. Here, we hypothesize that community-level traits inferred from metagenomic data can distinguish copiotrophic and oligotrophic microbial communities. Moreover, we hypothesize that oligotrophic microbial communities harbor more unannotated genes. To test these hypotheses, we conducted metagenomic analyses of soil samples collected from copiotrophic vegetated areas and from oligotrophic bare ground devoid of vegetation in an arid-hyperarid region of the Sonoran Desert, Arizona, USA. Results supported our hypotheses, as we found that multiple ecologically informed life-history traits including average 16S ribosomal RNA gene copy number, codon usage bias in ribosomal genes and predicted maximum growth rate were higher for microbial communities in vegetated than bare soils, and that oligotrophic microbial communities in bare soils harbored a higher proportion of genes that are unavailable in public reference databases. Collectively, our work demonstrates that life-history traits can distill complex microbial communities into ecologically coherent units and highlights that oligotrophic microbial communities serve as a rich source of novel functions.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Microbiota , Metagenoma , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310716

RESUMEN

Increasing temperatures and drought in desert ecosystems are predicted to cause decreased vegetation density combined with barren ground expansion. It remains unclear how nutrient availability, microbial diversity, and the associated functional capacity vary between vegetated-canopy and gap soils. The specific aim of this study was to characterize canopy vs gap microsite effect on soil microbial diversity, the capacity of gap soils to serve as a canopy-soil microbial reservoir, nitrogen (N)-mineralization genetic potential (ureC gene abundance) and urease enzyme activity, and microbial-nutrient pool associations in four arid-hyperarid geolocations of the western Sonoran Desert, Arizona (USA). Microsite combined with geolocation explained 57% and 45.8% of the observed variation in bacterial/archaeal and fungal community composition, respectively. A core microbiome of amplicon sequence variants was shared between the canopy and gap soil communities; however, canopy-soils included abundant taxa that were not present in associated gap communities, thereby suggesting that these taxa cannot be sourced from the associated gap soils. Linear mixed-effects models showed that canopy-soils have significantly higher microbial richness, nutrient content, and organic N-mineralization genetic and functional capacity. Furthermore, ureC gene abundance was detected in all samples suggesting that ureC is a relevant indicator of N-mineralization in deserts. Additionally, novel phylogenetic associations were observed for ureC with the majority belonging to Actinobacteria and uncharacterized bacteria. Thus, key N-mineralization functional capacity is associated with a dominant desert phylum. Overall, these results suggest that lower microbial diversity and functional capacity in gap soils may impact ecosystem sustainability as aridity drives open-space expansion in deserts.

7.
Geochim Cosmochim Acta ; 286: 306-323, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071297

RESUMEN

Particulate and dissolved metal(loid) release from mine tailings is of concern in (semi-) arid environments where tailings can remain barren of vegetation for decades and, therefore, become highly susceptible to dispersion by wind and water. Erosive weathering of metalliferous tailings can lead to arsenic contamination of adjacent ecosystems and increased risk to public health. Management via phytostabilization with the establishment of a vegetative cap using organic amendments to enhance plant growth has been employed to reduce both physical erosion and leaching. However, prior research suggests that addition of organic matter into the oxic weathering zone of sulfide tailings has the potential to promote the mobilization of arsenate. Therefore, the objective of the current work was to assess the impacts of phytostabilization on the molecular-scale mechanisms controlling arsenic speciation and lability. These impacts, which remain poorly understood, limit our ability to mitigate environmental and human health risks. Here we report on subsurface biogeochemical transformations of arsenic and iron from a three-year phytostabilization field study conducted at a Superfund site in Arizona, USA. Legacy pyritic tailings at this site contain up to 3 g kg-1 arsenic originating from arsenopyrite that has undergone oxidation to form arsenate-ferrihydrite complexes in the top 1 m. Tailings were amended in the top 20 cm with 100, 150, or 200 g kg-1 (300-600 T ha-1) of composted organic matter and seeded with native halotolerant plant species. Treatments and an unamended control received irrigation of 360 ± 30 mm y-1 in addition to 250 ± 160 mm y-1 of precipitation. Cores to 1 m depth were collected annually for three years and sectioned into 20 cm increments for analysis by synchrotron iron and arsenic X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with quantitative wet chemical and mass balance methods. Results revealed that > 80% of arsenic exists in ammonium oxalate-extractable and non-extractable phases, including dominantly ferrihydrite and jarosite. Arsenic release during arsenopyrite oxidation resulted in both downward translocation and As(V) attenuation by stable Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxide and Fe(III) (hydroxy)sulfate minerals over time, highlighting the need for sampling at multiple depths and time points for accurate interpretation of arsenic speciation, lability, and translocation in weathering profiles. Less than 1% of total arsenic was highly-labile, i.e. water-extractable, from all treatments, depths, and years, and more than 99% of arsenate released by arsenopyrite weathering was attenuated by association with secondary minerals. Although downward translocation of both arsenic and iron was detected during phytostabilization by temporal enrichment analysis, a similar trend was measured for the uncomposted control, indicating that organic amendment associated with phytostabilization practices did not significantly increase arsenic mobilization over non-amended controls.

8.
J Surfactants Deterg ; 23(4): 715-724, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305390

RESUMEN

In 2014, almost 16 million tons of surfactants were used globally for cleaning and industrial applications. As a result, massive quantities disperse into environmental compartments every day. There is great market interest in developing highly biodegradable, less-toxic, and renewable alternatives to currently used petroleum-based surfactants. Glycolipid surfactants, composed of a sugar head-group and lipid tail, are effective surfactants and emulsifiers with a high tolerance to electrolytes and are easily tailored to address specific needs. The green synthesis and surfactant characteristics of a suite of cellobiosides and melibiosides were recently described. The biodegradability and toxicity of 1°-alkyl-O-cellobiosides, 2°-alkyl-O-cellobiosides, and 1°-alkyl-O-melibiosides with straight-chain alkyl tails of 8, 10, and 12 are reported in this study. Biodegradability was assessed by quantifying mineralization (CO2 evolution). All of the glycosides were inherently biodegradable and most were readily biodegradable according to OECD and EPA definitions. The Microtox acute toxicity assay showed both chain length and head group had significant effects on toxicity, but most of the molecules were practically non-toxic according to EPA definitions with EC50 values > 100 mg L-1. Cytotoxicity to human lung (H1299) and keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT) was measured by xCELLigence and MTS assays. Cytotoxicity values were comparable to similar glycosides previously reported. IC50 values were determined but, in general, exceeded surfactant concentrations that are found in the environment. These data demonstrate the promising nature of these molecules as green alternatives to petrochemical surfactants.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15006, 2019 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628373

RESUMEN

Ecosystem-bedrock interactions power the biogeochemical cycles of Earth's shallow crust, supporting life, stimulating substrate transformation, and spurring evolutionary innovation. While oxidative processes have dominated half of terrestrial history, the relative contribution of the biosphere and its chemical fingerprints on Earth's developing regolith are still poorly constrained. Here, we report results from a two-year incipient weathering experiment. We found that the mass release and compartmentalization of major elements during weathering of granite, rhyolite, schist and basalt was rock-specific and regulated by ecosystem components. A tight interplay between physiological needs of different biota, mineral dissolution rates, and substrate nutrient availability resulted in intricate elemental distribution patterns. Biota accelerated CO2 mineralization over abiotic controls as ecosystem complexity increased, and significantly modified the stoichiometry of mobilized elements. Microbial and fungal components inhibited element leaching (23.4% and 7%), while plants increased leaching and biomass retention by 63.4%. All biota left comparable biosignatures in the dissolved weathering products. Nevertheless, the magnitude and allocation of weathered fractions under abiotic and biotic treatments provide quantitative evidence for the role of major biosphere components in the evolution of upper continental crust, presenting critical information for large-scale biogeochemical models and for the search for stable in situ biosignatures beyond Earth.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1211, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275251

RESUMEN

Challenges to the reclamation of pyritic mine tailings arise from in situ acid generation that severely constrains the growth of natural revegetation. While acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities are well-studied under highly acidic conditions, fewer studies document the dynamics of microbial communities that generate acid from pyritic material under less acidic conditions that can allow establishment and support of plant growth. This research characterizes the taxonomic composition dynamics of microbial communities present during a 6-year compost-assisted phytostabilization field study in extremely acidic pyritic mine tailings. A complementary microcosm experiment was performed to identify successional community populations that enable the acidification process across a pH gradient. Taxonomic profiles of the microbial populations in both the field study and microcosms reveal shifts in microbial communities that play pivotal roles in facilitating acidification during the transition between moderately and highly acidic conditions. The potential co-occurrence of organoheterotrophic and lithoautotrophic energy metabolisms during acid generation suggests the importance of both groups in facilitating acidification. Taken together, this research suggests that key microbial populations associated with pH transitions could be used as bioindicators for either sustained future plant growth or for acid generation conditions that inhibit further plant growth.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1209, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214146

RESUMEN

Phytostabilized highly acidic, pyritic mine tailings are susceptible to re-acidification over time despite initial addition of neutralizing amendments. Studies examining plant-associated microbial dynamics during re-acidification of phytostabilized regions are sparse. To address this, we characterized the rhizosphere and bulk bacterial communities of buffalo grass used in the phytostabilization of metalliferous, pyritic mine tailings undergoing re-acidification at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund Site in Dewey-Humboldt, AZ. Plant-associated substrates representing a broad pH range (2.35-7.76) were sampled to (1) compare the microbial diversity and community composition of rhizosphere and bulk compartments across a pH gradient, and (2) characterize how re-acidification affects the abundance and activity of the most abundant plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; including N2-fixing) versus acid-generating bacteria (AGB; including Fe-cycling/S-oxidizing). Results indicated that a shift in microbial diversity and community composition occurred at around pH 4. At higher pH (>4) the species richness and community composition of the rhizosphere and bulk compartments were similar, and PGPB, such as Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Devosia, Phyllobacterium, Sinorhizobium, and Hyphomicrobium, were present and active in both compartments with minimal presence of AGB. In comparison, at lower pH (<4) the rhizosphere had a significantly higher number of species than the bulk (p < 0.05) and the compartments had significantly different community composition (unweighted UniFrac; PERMANOVA, p < 0.05). Whereas some PGPB persisted in the rhizosphere at lower pH, including Arthrobacter and Devosia, they were absent from the bulk. Meanwhile, AGB dominated in both compartments; the most abundant were the Fe-oxidizer Leptospirillum and Fe-reducers Acidibacter and Acidiphilium, and the most active was the Fe-reducer Aciditerrimonas. This predominance of AGB at lower pH, and even their minimal presence at higher pH, contributes to acidifying conditions and poses a significant threat to sustainable plant establishment. These findings have implications for phytostabilization field site management and suggest re-application of compost or an alternate buffering material may be required in regions susceptible to re-acidification to maintain a beneficial bacterial community conducive to long-term plant establishment.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(5): 2441-2449, 2019 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707569

RESUMEN

This study shows thallium (Tl) concentrations in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) tissue are more than an order of magnitude higher (3830 µg/kg) than that of the substrate (100 µg/kg) and are strongly influenced by the underlying mineralogy; i.e., Tl bioaccessibility depends on the mineral structure: K-feldspar > Mn nodule > hendricksite mica. The majority of Tl for all substrates is contained in edible parts of the plant, i.e., leaves (41% of total Tl, on average) ≥ flower stems (34%) > seed pods (11%) ≈ stems (10%) > flowers (3%). We also show that Tl isotope fractionation induced by B. juncea is substantial, at nearly 10 ε205Tl units, and generates systematic plant-specific patterns. Progressive plant growth strongly fractionates Tl isotopes, discriminating against 205Tl as the plant matures. Thus, 205Tl values are systematically higher in the early formed stem (ε205Tlavg = +2.5) than in plant elements formed later (ε205Tlavg = -2.5 to +0.1), which demonstrates the large degree of translocation and the associated effects during plant growth. This study establishes the potential of Tl isotopes as a new tool for understanding heavy metal (re)distribution during anthropogenic and geologic processes and the utility of such information in environmental and health-related planning and in phytomining or bioprospecting.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Isótopos , Planta de la Mostaza , Talio
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 364: 600-607, 2019 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390580

RESUMEN

Synthetic monorhamnolipids differ from biologically produced material because they are produced as single congeners, depending on the ß-hydroxyalkanoic acid used during synthesis. Each congener is produced as one of four possible diastereomers resulting from two chiral centers at the carbinols of the lipid tails [(R,R), (R,S), (S,R) and (S,S)]. We compare the biodegradability (CO2 respirometry), acute toxicity (Microtox assay), embryo toxicity (Zebrafish assay), and cytotoxicity (xCELLigence and MTS assays) of synthetic rhamnosyl-ß-hydroxydecanoyl-ß-hydroxydecanoate (Rha-C10-C10) monorhamnolipids against biosynthesized monorhamnolipid mixtures (bio-mRL). All Rha-C10-C10 diastereomers and bio-mRL were inherently biodegradable ranging from 34 to 92% mineralized. The Microtox assay showed all Rha-C10-C10 diastereomers and bio-mRL are slightly toxic according to the US EPA ecotoxicity categories with 5 min EC50 values ranging from 39.6 to 87.5 µM. The zebrafish assay showed that of 22 developmental endpoints tested, only mortality was observed at 120 h post fertilization; all Rha-C10-C10 diastereomers and bio-mRL caused significant mortality at 640 µM, except the Rha-C10-C10 (R,R) which showed no developmental effects. xCELLigence and MTS showed IC50 values ranging from 103.4 to 191.1 µM for human lung cell line H1299 after 72 h exposure. These data provide key information regarding Rha-C10-C10 diastereomers that is pertinent when considering potential applications.


Asunto(s)
Glucolípidos/toxicidad , Tensoactivos/toxicidad , Animales , Biodegradación Ambiental , Línea Celular , Embrión no Mamífero , Desarrollo Embrionario/efectos de los fármacos , Glucolípidos/química , Glucolípidos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediciones Luminiscentes , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Tensoactivos/química , Tensoactivos/metabolismo , Vibrionaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Vibrionaceae/metabolismo , Pez Cebra
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(10): 5851-5858, 2018 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701964

RESUMEN

Environmental and health risk concerns relating to airborne particles from mining operations have focused primarily on smelting activities. However, there are only three active copper smelters and less than a dozen smelters for other metals compared to an estimated 500000 abandoned and unreclaimed hard rock mine tailings in the US that have the potential to generate dust. The problem can also extend to modern tailings impoundments, which may take decades to build and remain barren for the duration before subsequent reclamation. We examined the impact of vegetation cover and irrigation on dust emissions and metal(loid) transport from mine tailings during a phytoremediation field trial at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund (IKMHSS) site. Measurements of horizontal dust flux following phytoremediation reveals that vegetated plots with 16% and 32% canopy cover enabled an average dust deposition of 371.7 and 606.1 g m-2 y-1, respectively, in comparison to the control treatment which emitted dust at an average rate of 2323 g m-2 y-1. Horizontal dust flux and dust emissions from the vegetated field plots are comparable to emission rates in undisturbed grasslands. Further, phytoremediation was effective at reducing the concentration of fine particulates, including PM1, PM2.5, and PM4, which represent the airborne particulates with the greatest health risks and the greatest potential for long-distance transport. This study demonstrates that phytoremediation can substantially decrease dust emissions as well as the transport of windblown contaminants from mine tailings.


Asunto(s)
Polvo , Minería , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cobre , Metales
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 618: 357-368, 2018 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132003

RESUMEN

Direct revegetation, or phytostabilization, is a containment strategy for contaminant metals associated with mine tailings in semiarid regions. The weathering of sulfide ore-derived tailings frequently drives acidification that inhibits plant establishment resulting in materials prone to wind and water dispersal. The specific objective of this study was to associate pyritic mine waste acidification, characterized through pore-water chemistry analysis, with dynamic changes in microbial community diversity and phylogenetic composition, and to evaluate the influence of different treatment strategies on the control of acidification dynamics. Samples were collected from a highly instrumented one-year mesocosm study that included the following treatments: 1) unamended tailings control; 2) tailings amended with 15% compost; and 3) the 15% compost-amended tailings planted with Atriplex lentiformis. Tailings samples were collected at 0, 3, 6 and 12months and pore water chemistry was monitored as an indicator of acidification and weathering processes. Results confirmed that the acidification process for pyritic mine tailings is associated with a temporal progression of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes from pH sensitive Thiobacillus and Thiomonas to communities dominated by Leptospirillum and Ferroplasma. Pore-water chemistry indicated that weathering rates were highest when Leptospirillum was most abundant. The planted treatment was most successful in disrupting the successional evolution of the Fe/S-oxidizing community. Plant establishment stimulated growth of plant-growth-promoting heterotrophic phylotypes and controlled the proliferation of lithoautotrophic Fe/S-oxidizers. The results suggest the potential for eco-engineering a microbial inoculum to stimulate plant establishment and inhibit proliferation of the most efficient Fe/S-oxidizing phylotypes.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos/análisis , Atriplex/microbiología , Minería , Microbiología del Suelo , Archaea/clasificación , Bacterias/clasificación , Biodegradación Ambiental , Hierro/metabolismo , Filogenia , Bacterias Reductoras del Azufre
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(3): 1156-1164, 2018 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241010

RESUMEN

Phytostabilization is a cost-effective long-term bioremediation technique for the immobilization of metalliferous mine tailings. However, the biogeochemical processes affecting metal(loid) molecular stabilization and mobility in the root zone remain poorly resolved. The roots of Prosopis juliflora grown for up to 36 months in compost-amended pyritic mine tailings from a federal Superfund site were investigated by microscale and bulk synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and multiple energy micro-X-ray fluorescence imaging to determine iron, arsenic, and sulfur speciation, abundance, and spatial distribution. Whereas ferrihydrite-bound As(V) species predominated in the initial bulk mine tailings, the rhizosphere speciation of arsenic was distinctly different. Root-associated As(V) was immobilized on the root epidermis bound to ferric sulfate precipitates and within root vacuoles as trivalent As(III)-(SR)3 tris-thiolate complexes. Molar Fe-to-As ratios of root epidermis tissue were two times higher than the 15% compost-amended bulk tailings growth medium. Rhizoplane-associated ferric sulfate phases that showed a high capacity to scavenge As(V) were dissimilar from the bulk-tailings mineralogy as shown by XAS and X-ray diffraction, indicating a root-surface mechanism for their formation or accumulation.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Prosopis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Metales , Rizosfera
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 340: 171-178, 2017 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715740

RESUMEN

Rare earth elements (REE) are vital for modern technologies and considered critical materials. This study investigated monorhamnolipid biosurfactant interactions with REE as the basis for REE recovery technology. Conditional stability constants (log ß), measured using a resin-based ion exchange method, are reported for 16 REE and metals. These results were combined with existing data for 10 other metals to assess comparative strength and determinants of binding. The stability constants could be divided into three groups: weakly, moderately, and strongly bound. The REE were all in the strongly bound group (UO22+, Eu3+, Nd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, La3+, Cu2+, Al3+, Pb2+, Y3+, Pr3+, and Lu3+) with log ß ranging from 9.82 to 8.20. The elements Cd2+, In3+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Hg2+, and Ca2+ were moderately bound with log ß=7.17-4.10. Finally, Sr2+, Co2+, Ni2+, UO22+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, Rb+, and K+ were weakly bound with log ß=3.95-0.96. Two log ß values are reported for the uranyl ion due to two distinct binding regions. A mixed metals study and associated selectivity coefficients confirmed monorhamnolipids preferentially remove metals with large log ß values over those with smaller values. Preferential complexation by monorhamnolipids may constitute a green pathway for recovery of REE from alternative, non-traditional sources.


Asunto(s)
Glucolípidos/química , Metales de Tierras Raras/química , Tensoactivos/química , Glucolípidos/metabolismo , Tecnología Química Verde , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Reciclaje/métodos , Tensoactivos/metabolismo
19.
Langmuir ; 33(30): 7412-7424, 2017 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737038

RESUMEN

The evolution of solution aggregates of the anionic form of the native monorhamnolipid (mRL) mixture produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 is explored at pH 8.0 using both experimental and computational approaches. Experiments utilizing surface tension measurements, dynamic light scattering, and both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveal solution aggregation properties. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations on self-assemblies of the most abundant monorhamnolipid molecule, l-rhamnosyl-ß-hydroxydecanoyl-ß-hydroxydecanoate (Rha-C10-C10), in its anionic state explore the formation of aggregates and the role of hydrogen bonding, substantiating the experimental results. At pH 8.0, at concentrations above the critical aggregation concentration of 201 µM but below ∼7.5 mM, small premicelles exist in solution; above ∼7.5 mM, micelles with hydrodynamic radii of ∼2.5 nm dominate, although two discrete populations of larger lamellar aggregates (hydrodynamic radii of ∼10 and 90 nm) are also present in solution in much smaller number densities. The critical aggregation number for the micelles is determined to be ∼26 monomers/micelle using fluorescence quenching measurements, with micelles gradually increasing in size with monorhamnolipid concentration. Molecular dynamics simulations on systems with between 10 and 100 molecules of Rha-C10-C10 indicate the presence of stable premicelles of seven monomers with the most prevalent micelle being ∼25 monomers and relatively spherical. A range of slightly larger micelles of comparable stability can also exist that become increasing elliptical with increasing monomer number. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is shown to play a significant role in stabilization of these aggregates. In total, the computational results are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

20.
mSystems ; 2(3)2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593197

RESUMEN

Global deserts occupy one-third of the Earth's surface and contribute significantly to organic carbon storage, a process at risk in dryland ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to climate-driven ecosystem degradation. The forces controlling desert ecosystem degradation rates are poorly understood, particularly with respect to the relevance of the arid-soil microbiome. Here we document correlations between increasing aridity and soil bacterial and archaeal microbiome composition along arid to hyperarid transects traversing the Atacama Desert, Chile. A meta-analysis reveals that Atacama soil microbiomes exhibit a gradient in composition, are distinct from a broad cross-section of nondesert soils, and yet are similar to three deserts from different continents. Community richness and diversity were significantly positively correlated with soil relative humidity (SoilRH). Phylogenetic composition was strongly correlated with SoilRH, temperature, and electrical conductivity. The strongest and most significant correlations between SoilRH and phylum relative abundance were observed for Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Euryarchaeota (Spearman's rank correlation [rs] = >0.81; false-discovery rate [q] = ≤0.005), characterized by 10- to 300-fold decreases in the relative abundance of each taxon. In addition, network analysis revealed a deterioration in the density of significant associations between taxa along the arid to hyperarid gradient, a pattern that may compromise the resilience of hyperarid communities because they lack properties associated with communities that are more integrated. In summary, results suggest that arid-soil microbiome stability is sensitive to aridity as demonstrated by decreased community connectivity associated with the transition from the arid class to the hyperarid class and the significant correlations observed between soilRH and both diversity and the relative abundances of key microbial phyla typically dominant in global soils. IMPORTANCE We identify key environmental and geochemical factors that shape the arid soil microbiome along aridity and vegetation gradients spanning over 300 km of the Atacama Desert, Chile. Decreasing average soil relative humidity and increasing temperature explain significant reductions in the diversity and connectivity of these desert soil microbial communities and lead to significant reductions in the abundance of key taxa typically associated with fertile soils. This finding is important because it suggests that predicted climate change-driven increases in aridity may compromise the capacity of the arid-soil microbiome to sustain necessary nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration functions as well as vegetative cover in desert ecosystems, which comprise one-third of the terrestrial biomes on Earth.

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