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2.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(6): 468-480, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539285

RESUMEN

Children with ADHD and ASD may present differences in the affective-motivational processes. We systematically review the literature regarding temporal discounting in children up to 12 years with ADHD and ASD. Six articles were included, five studies with ADHD children (n = 231), one with ASD children (n = 21), all including typically developing children as controls (n = 210). Five studies (four with ADHD and one with ASD) found greater temporal reward discounting for clinical groups. Occurrence of ADHD appears to rush even more the decision-making process at this stage of development, but there is still a lack in the literature, especially evaluating individuals with ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Descuento por Demora , Recompensa , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 13: 137, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354442

RESUMEN

Introduction: In this study, we proposed to investigate the association between infatuation/passionate love and impulsivity in a context of potential high impulsivity: adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD) diagnosis compared with typically developing adolescents. Methods: Impulsivity was understood as an exploratory and a sensation seeking behavior, a trend to engage in novel and exciting activities, and was evaluated using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Eighty-one adolescents from 13-to-18 years old with and without ADHD diagnosis were compared regarding infatuation intensity, behavioral impulsivity, and social and educational profiles. Results: After correlation analysis, we found association between higher scores on the infatuation intensity with fewer years of formal education, heightened urgency and sensation seeking. On the other hand, using the generalized equation model, we showed that the association of passionate love with behavioral urgency and sensation seeking did not change in the presence of the ADHD diagnosis. Conclusion: The understanding of the relationship of impulsivity with infatuation might help to clarify why some population groups show an increased risk for many negative social outcomes.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 531, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459649

RESUMEN

Although impulsivity is suggested as a possible link to explain the association of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with an Eating Disorder (ED), there is little research on how clinical and cognitive/neuropsychological functioning might change when this comorbidity occurs. ADHD individuals are at a higher of developing ED and also obesity. Some research has described the impact of ADHD in clinical treatment-seeking samples of ED patients. Consequently, we investigated how ED impacted on clinical and cognitive variables of a community sample of treatment-naive ADHD individuals. Ninety college students arranged in three groups (ADHD+ED, ADHD only and Controls) were analyzed using semi-structured interviews for ADHD (K-SADS), the Iowa Gambling Task, the Conner's Continuous Performance Test, Digit and Visual span, as well as rating scales for anxiety (STAI), depression (BDI) and impulsivity (BIS-11), and binge eating (BES). We found that ADHD+ED individuals significantly differed from both groups, presenting with a higher body mass index; more hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms; higher binge eating scores; more omission errors on the Continuous Performance Test; disadvantageous choices on the Iowa Gambling Task. Also, we demonstrated through a moderation/mediation analysis that a greater level of binge eating mediated the increases in body mass index on our sample. There were no significant paths to explain binge-eating severity through changes on any of the neuropsychological tests used. The presence of an ED in normal weight in a community sample of ADHD individuals is associated with higher body mass index and a worse cognitive functioning.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203520, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192842

RESUMEN

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) can cause a wide range of cognitive deficits, but its underlying nature is still unknown. We investigated the correlation between cognitive performance and specific patterns of resting-state brain metabolism in a NF1 sample. Sixteen individuals diagnosed with NF1 underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging followed by a neuropsychological assessment. Principal component analysis was performed on 17 measures of cognitive function and a machine learning approach based on Gaussian Process Regression was used to individually predict the components that represented most of the variance in the neuropsychological data. The accuracy of the method was estimated using leave-one-out cross-validation and its significance through permutation testing. We found that only the first component could be accurately predicted from resting state metabolism (r = 0.926, p<0.001). Multiple and heterogeneous measures contribute to the first component, mainly WISC/WAIS Procedure and Verbal IQ, verbal memory and fluency. Considering the accurate prediction of measures of neuropsychological performance based on brain metabolism in NF1 patients, this suggests an underlying metabolic pattern that relates to cognitive performance in this group.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatosis 1/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Niño , Trastornos del Conocimiento/metabolismo , Femenino , Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18/metabolismo , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Neurofibromatosis 1/diagnóstico por imagen , Neurofibromatosis 1/metabolismo , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Análisis de Componente Principal , Adulto Joven
6.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204093, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235273

RESUMEN

The present study introduces the Extreme Climate Event Database (EXCEED), a picture database intended to induce emotionally salient stimuli reactions in the context of natural hazards associated with global climate change and related extreme events. The creation of the database was motivated by the need to better understand the impact that the increase in natural disasters worldwide has on human emotional reactions. This new database consists of 150 pictures divided into three categories: two negative categories that depict images of floods and droughts, and a neutral category composed of inanimate objects. Affective ratings were obtained using online survey software from 50 healthy Brazilian volunteers who rated the pictures according to valence and arousal, which are two fundamental dimensions used to describe emotional experiences. Valence refers to the appraisal of pleasantness conveyed by a stimulus, and arousal involves internal emotional activation induced by a stimulus. Data from picture rating, sex difference in affective ratings and psychometric properties of the database are presented here. Together, the data validate the use of EXCEED in research related to natural hazards and human reactions.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Bases de Datos como Asunto , Sequías , Inundaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
7.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 45(2): 27-32, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903055

RESUMEN

Abstract Background: Children and adolescents are considered a population at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a traumatic event. The Children's Revised Impact Scale (CRIES-8) is a self-report scale with 8 items that investigates avoidance and intrusion behaviors related to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Objective: The study consisted of translation and transcultural adaptation of CRIES-8 to Brazilian Portuguese and evaluation of its psychometric properties. Methods: A sample of 235 Brazilian children and adolescents exposed to natural hazards (drought or flood) and non-exposed children participated in the study. The methodological procedure for translation and cultural adaptation were in accordance with the principles described by ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. We also evaluated test reliability and validity based on test content, the relations to other variables, and internal structure. Results: The procedures lead to a final Portuguese version proofread and cultural-adapted. Empirical evidence supports CRIES-8's division in two latent constructs (Intrusion and Avoidance), as well convergence correlations with other measures of child mental health and high reliability. Discussion: A Brazilian-Portuguese version of CRIES-8 is an important tool for a better screening of PTSD among youth who face traumatic events, being a potential informative instrument to identify children at risk.

8.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 45(2): 33-37, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903056

RESUMEN

Abstract Background: Semantic memory is a cultural influenced cognitive domain that is responsible for our knowledge about words and the world. Semantic Memory Battery (BAMS) is a new battery that evaluate semantic memory based on a compendium of tasks, including verbal fluency, naming, conceptualization, categorization, general questions, and word definitions, and was designed to consider cultural aspects. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the BAMS psychometrics structure comprising classical and modern analysis, and also evaluate a clinical subdivision of the battery. Methods: 114 Brazilian cognitively healthy older adults BAMS performance provided data for psychometric analysis using validity tests, item response theory analysis and confirmatory factor analysis for goodness-of-fit measures. Results: BAMS results revealed good validity and good-fit measures in each subtest, total score (X2 = 20.684, p = 0.110) and a hierarchical structure with clinical subdivision of the battery (X2 = 20.089, p = 0.093). Discussion: BAMS is a new compendium of tasks that evaluate distinct aspects of semantic memory and can clinically consider the impact of executive function. This battery evaluates verbal fluency, naming, conceptualization, categorization, general knowledge and word definitions. The BAMS has clinical importance once semantic memory is mostly influenced by culture and language, and there is an absence of broadly semantic memory tests in our scenario, especially with older adults that can have a pathological aging condition that affects primarily or secondarily this domain.

9.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 76(2): 89-92, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489962

RESUMEN

The present study evaluated the association between episodic memory, executive function and processing speed in a sample with different age ranges. We tested the hypothesis that processing speed, executive function and memory are more strongly associated during childhood and old age. We evaluated 571 participants, aged six to 92 years, divided into four age groups: children/adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults and older adults. Correlation analyses suggested that the shared variance between the processing speed and memory is strong in childhood but weak across other age ranges. Executive function, however, had a stronger association both in childhood and in old age, when compared with the intermediate stages. We conclude that the effects of processing speed and executive function on memory are not stable across human development. These functions may be compensatory mechanisms for memory functioning in childhood and old age.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida/fisiología , Memoria Episódica , Memoria Espacial/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 31, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487542

RESUMEN

The current considerations about completed suicides and suicide attempts in different cultures call the attention of professionals to this serious public health problem. Integrative approaches have shown that the confluence of multiple biological and social factors modulate various psychopathologies and dysfunctional behaviors, such as suicidal behavior. Considering the level of intermediate analysis, personality traits and cognitive functioning are also of great importance for understanding the suicide phenomenon. About cognitive factors, we can group them into cognitive schemas of reality interpretation and underlying cognitive processes. On the other hand, different types of primary cognitive alterations are related to suicidal behavior, especially those resulting from changes in frontostriatal circuits. Among such cognitive mechanisms can be highlighted the attentional bias for environmental cues related to suicide, impulsive behavior, verbal fluency deficits, non-adaptive decision-making, and reduced planning skills. Attentional bias consists in the effect of thoughts and emotions, frequently not conscious, about the perception of environmental stimuli. Suicidal ideation and hopelessness can make the patient unable to find alternative solutions to their problems other than suicide, biasing their attention to environmental cues related to such behavior. Recent research efforts are directed to assess the possible use of attention bias as a therapeutic target in patients presenting suicide behavior. The relationship between impulsivity and suicide has been largely investigated over the last decades, and there is still controversy about the theme. Although there is strong evidence linking impulsivity to suicide attempts. Effective interventions address to reduce impulsivity in clinical populations at higher risk for suicide could help in the prevention. Deficits in problem-solving ability also seem to be distorted in patients who attempt suicide. Understanding cognitive changes in patients who attempt suicide open an important perspective in the approach of patients with mental disorders. Identifying cognitive deficits in these patients, along with personality traits, depressive symptoms, and suicidal cognitive schemas may indicate to the psychiatrist the need for emergency care. Behavioral and cognitive interventions have been associated with reductions in suicide ideation, as well as suicide attempts in different populations.

11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(2): 89-92, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888348

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the association between episodic memory, executive function and processing speed in a sample with different age ranges. We tested the hypothesis that processing speed, executive function and memory are more strongly associated during childhood and old age. We evaluated 571 participants, aged six to 92 years, divided into four age groups: children/adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults and older adults. Correlation analyses suggested that the shared variance between the processing speed and memory is strong in childhood but weak across other age ranges. Executive function, however, had a stronger association both in childhood and in old age, when compared with the intermediate stages. We conclude that the effects of processing speed and executive function on memory are not stable across human development. These functions may be compensatory mechanisms for memory functioning in childhood and old age.


RESUMO O presente estudo avalia a associação entre velocidade de processamento, funções executivas e memória em uma amostra de diferentes faixas etárias. O estudo testa a hipótese de que a velocidade de processamento, as funções executivas e a memória apresentam associação mais forte na infância e na velhice. Avaliamos 571 participantes, com idade entre seis e 92 anos, divididos em quatro grupos etários: crianças/adolescentes, adultos jovens, adultos de meia-idade e idosos. Análises de correlação sugerem que a variância compartilhada entre velocidade de processamento e memória é forte na infância e fraca nas demais idades. Já as funções executivas apresentaram associação forte com a memória tanto na infância quanto na velhice, quando comparadas aos estágios intermediários. Concluímos que os efeitos da atenção sobre a memória variam em função da idade do participante. Essas funções podem ser mecanismos compensatórios para a memória ao longo do desenvolvimento.

12.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 29: e2911, 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-893615

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT An athlete's motivation is deemed one of the most important elements to achieve success in sports career. The aim of this study was to compare the motivation level of football athletes with long playtime (LPT) and short playtime (SPT) in a competition. The study assessed 112 federated athletes (18.58±1.06 years old) participating in Minas Gerais's Under-20 Football Championship (2015), by means of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). The athletes' playtime (PT) in the championship's qualifying rounds was registered through the analysis of 48 official referee report forms. The athletes were grouped according to their PT - SPT ≤25% (≤184 minutes) and LPT ≥75% (≥513 minutes). Results showed that those with LPT presented higher levels of self-determination and higher scores of intrinsic motivation compared to SPT athletes (p<0.05), and SPT athletes seemed less motivated in said competition (p<0.05). In conclusion, LPT athletes in official matches scored higher in self-determination and intrinsic motivation levels. On the other hand, those with SPT in official games showed higher demotivation compared to the former.


RESUMO A motivação do atleta é considerada um dos elementos mais importantes para obter sucesso na carreira esportiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o nível de motivação de atletas de futebol com alto tempo jogado (ATJ) e baixo tempo jogado (BTJ) em uma competição. Foram avaliados 112 atletas federados (18,58±1,06 anos de idade) participantes do Campeonato Mineiro de futebol sub-20 (2015). Foi utilizada a Escala de Motivação no Esporte (SMS). O tempo jogado (TJ) pelos atletas na fase classificatória do campeonato foi registrado por meio da análise das 48 súmulas oficiais. Os atletas foram agrupados de acordo com o TJ, sendo BTJ ≤25% (≤184 minutos) e ATJ ≥75% (≥513 minutos). Os resultados evidenciaram que os atletas com ATJ apresentaram maiores índices de autodeterminação e maiores níveis de motivação intrínseca, em comparação aos atletas com BTJ (p<0,05), bem como atletas com BTJ se mostraram mais desmotivados nesta competição (p<0,05). Conclui-se que os atletas com ATJ em partidas oficiais apresentam maiores índices de autodeterminação e maiores níveis de motivação intrínseca. Por outro lado, atletas com BTJ em partidas oficiais apresentam uma desmotivação maior quando comparados com os atletas com ATJ.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Atletas , Motivación , Fútbol
13.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 63(7): 590-599, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977084

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Translate, transcultural adaptation and application to Brazilian Portuguese of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale as a cognitive screening instrument. METHOD: We applied the back translation added with pretest and bilingual methods. The sample was composed by 95 elderly individuals and their caregivers. Thirty-two (32) participants were diagnosed as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, 33 as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 30 were considered as cognitively normal individuals. RESULTS: There were only little changes on the scale. The Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.89. The scores were 72.9 for control group, followed by MCI (65.1) and by AD (55.9), with a p-value < 0.001. The ROC curve value was 0.89. We considered a cut point of 72 and we observed a sensibility of 86.2%, specificity of 70%, positive predictive value of 86.2%, negative predictive value of 70%, positive likelihood ratio of 2.9 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.2. CONCLUSION: ADCS-ADL scale presents satisfactory psychometric properties to discriminate between MCI, AD and normal cognition.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/fisiopatología , Brasil , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Trastornos del Conocimiento/fisiopatología , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Traducciones
14.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 39(3): 173-179, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876361

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In the assessment of older adults with very low formal education, typical tests of selective attention and inhibitory control are biased by reading abilities. In this sense, we aim to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Five Digits Test (FDT), a numerical Stroop paradigm, in older adults without cognitive disorders, with mild cognitive impairment, and with dementia. METHODS: We assessed 211 Brazilian older adults with low formal education using the FDT and other cognitive measures. Construct validity and reliability were assessed by correlations and internal consistency. RESULTS: The FDT test had weak correlations with crystalized intelligence tests and moderate-high correlations with fluid intelligence measures and tests of global cognitive status and executive functions. The split-half coefficient of reliability showed high internal consistency (>0.900). CONCLUSION: Together, the results suggest that the FDT is a valid and reliable measure for the assessment of processing speed and executive functions in older adults with low formal education.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Atención , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Función Ejecutiva , Inhibición Psicológica , Test de Stroop , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Inteligencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividad Motora , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
15.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 173-179, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-904583

RESUMEN

Abstract Introduction In the assessment of older adults with very low formal education, typical tests of selective attention and inhibitory control are biased by reading abilities. In this sense, we aim to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Five Digits Test (FDT), a numerical Stroop paradigm, in older adults without cognitive disorders, with mild cognitive impairment, and with dementia. Methods We assessed 211 Brazilian older adults with low formal education using the FDT and other cognitive measures. Construct validity and reliability were assessed by correlations and internal consistency. Results The FDT test had weak correlations with crystalized intelligence tests and moderate-high correlations with fluid intelligence measures and tests of global cognitive status and executive functions. The split-half coefficient of reliability showed high internal consistency (>0.900). Conclusion Together, the results suggest that the FDT is a valid and reliable measure for the assessment of processing speed and executive functions in older adults with low formal education.


Resumo Introdução Na avaliação de idosos com educação formal muito baixa, os testes típicos de atenção seletiva e controle inibitório são enviesados devido à dependência de habilidades básicas de leitura. Nesse sentido, pretende-se avaliar as características psicométricas do Teste dos Cinco Dígitos (Five Digits Test, FDT), teste de paradigma Stroop-numérico, em idosos sem transtornos cognitivos, em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo e em pacientes com demência. Métodos Foram avaliados 211 idosos brasileiros com baixa escolarização formal por meio do FDT e outras medidas cognitivas. Analisamos a validade de construto e a confiabilidade por correlações e consistência interna. Resultados O FDT apresentou correlações fracas com testes de inteligência cristalizada e correlações de moderadas ou fortes com medidas de inteligência fluida, medidas cognitivas globais e testes de funções executivas. O teste apresentou consistência interna elevada (>0.900). Conclusão Em conjunto, os resultados sugerem que o FDT é uma medida válida e confiável para a avaliação da velocidade de processamento e funções executivas em idosos com baixa escolaridade.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Atención , Función Ejecutiva , Test de Stroop , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Inhibición Psicológica , Brasil , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Escolaridad , Inteligencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividad Motora
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(7): 590-599, July 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-896382

RESUMEN

Summary Objective: Translate, transcultural adaptation and application to Brazilian Portuguese of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale as a cognitive screening instrument. Method: We applied the back translation added with pretest and bilingual methods. The sample was composed by 95 elderly individuals and their caregivers. Thirty-two (32) participants were diagnosed as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, 33 as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 30 were considered as cognitively normal individuals. Results: There were only little changes on the scale. The Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.89. The scores were 72.9 for control group, followed by MCI (65.1) and by AD (55.9), with a p-value < 0.001. The ROC curve value was 0.89. We considered a cut point of 72 and we observed a sensibility of 86.2%, specificity of 70%, positive predictive value of 86.2%, negative predictive value of 70%, positive likelihood ratio of 2.9 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.2. Conclusion: ADCS-ADL scale presents satisfactory psychometric properties to discriminate between MCI, AD and normal cognition.


Resumo Objetivo: Tradução, adaptação transcultural para o português brasileiro e aplicação da escala Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) como instrumento de triagem cognitiva. Método: Retrotradução associada ao método bilíngue e de pré-teste. A amostra foi constituída por 95 idosos e seus respectivos acompanhantes, sendo 30 controles, 32 portadores de comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) e 33 portadores de demência de Alzheimer (DA) em fase inicial. Resultados: Um pequeno número de modificações ocorreu na escala. O coeficiente alpha de Cronbach foi 0,89. O grupo controle pontuou 72,9, seguido pelo CCL (65,1) e pelo DA (55,9), valor p<0,001. A curva ROC demonstrou valor de 0,89. Com o ponto de corte de 72, observamos sensibilidade de 86,2%, especificidade de 70%, valor preditivo positivo de 86,2%, valor preditivo negativo de 70%, razão de verossimilhança positiva de 2,9 e razão de verossimilhança negativa de 0,2. Conclusão: A escala ADCS-ADL apresenta propriedades psicométricas satisfatórias para discriminar entre DA, CCL e cognição normal.

17.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 44(3): 63-66, May-June 2017. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903025

RESUMEN

Abstract Background Passionate love involves physiological, emotional, and cognitive features that greatly changes behavior. This phenomenon seems universal or near universal. Even other animal species choose partners. An intense state of passionate love is associated with activity in dopamine pathways of the brain 'reward system', and recently has been regarded as a 'natural addiction'. Instruments or tools to evaluate romantic love during childhood is still scarce. Objective To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Juvenile Love Scale (JLS) for use in the Brazilian context targeted for adolescents between 14 and 18 years old. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of JLS followed international recommendations, and its content validity was analyzed by a panel of experts in different areas of knowledge. Results The final version of the JLS for use in the Brazilian context showed high content validity (> 90%). Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first scale for measuring romantic or passionate love in adolescents adapted to the Brazilian context. This instrument is a significant contribution to the study of the dimensions of love, as well as to understand the impact of love on the psychiatric phenomena that pervade life in this stage of development.

18.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 31(2): 459-470, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079460

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Working memory is a fundamental cognitive function and is predictive of outcomes and achievement in a wide range of domains from an early age. The focus of this study was to develop a computerized Brazilian version of the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT) for preschoolers and to provide initial normative and validation data for this task. METHODS: The sample of the present study was composed of 248 children aged 3 (n = 41), 4 (n = 88) and 5 (n = 119) years from 13 private and public schools in Belo Horizonte. Children were evaluated with the SOPT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS), a measure of intelligence, and their parents completed the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. A subsample of parents of 184 children also filled the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11/2-5 years (CBCL 11/2-5), a measure of psychopathology. RESULTS: A multiple regression analysis found chronological age, intelligence, and SES to be predictive of performance on the SOPT. Furthermore, five-year olds performed better than three- and four-year olds in the task. A difference between children in private and public kindergartens also emerged. Additionally, SOPT performance was negatively correlated with Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total psychopathological problems, as well as to several other psychopathological measures as accessed by the CBCL, although the correlations were small. CONCLUSION: Taken together, this study provides initial normative and validation data for the SOPT, but further validation studies are needed.


Asunto(s)
Memoria a Corto Plazo , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Envejecimiento/psicología , Brasil , Preescolar , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Pruebas de Inteligencia , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Padres , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 8: 299, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403397

RESUMEN

Problems in inhibitory control are regarded in Psychology as a key problem associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They, however, might not be primary deficits, but instead a consequence of inattention. At least two components have been identified and dissociated in studies in regards to inhibitory control: interference suppression, responsible for controlling interference by resisting irrelevant or misleading information, and response inhibition, referring to withholding a response or overriding an ongoing behavior. Poor error awareness and self-monitoring undermine an individual's ability to inhibit inadequate responses and change course of action. In non-social contexts, an individual depends on his own cognition to regulate his mistakes. In social contexts, however, there are many social cues that should help that individual to perceive his mistakes and inhibit inadequate responses. The processes involved in perceiving and interpreting those social cues are arguably part of a self-protection system (SPS). Individuals with ADHD not only present impulsive behaviors in social contexts, but also have difficulty perceiving their inadequate responses and overriding ongoing actions toward more appropriate ones. In this paper, we discuss that those difficulties are arguably a consequence of an impaired SPS, due to visual attention deficits and subsequent failure in perceiving and recognizing accurately negative emotions in facial expressions, especially anger. We discuss evidence that children with ADHD exhibit problems in a series of components involved in the activation of that system and advocate that the inability to identify the anger expressed by others, and thus, not experiencing the fear response that should follow, is, ultimately, what prevents them from inhibiting the ongoing inappropriate behavior, since a potential threat is not registered. Getting involved in high-risk situations, such as reckless driving, could also be a consequence of not registering a threat and thus, not experiencing fear.

20.
Psychiatry Res ; 246: 650-655, 2016 Dec 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27836240

RESUMEN

The biological underpinnings of sex-related differences in decision-making are still under-explored. The COMT gene is related to sexual dimorphism and with different choices made under uncertainty, albeit no study has specifically investigated a moderation effect of sex on the association between the COMT gene and the performance on decision-making paradigms. In this study, we investigated the influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance depending on sex in a healthy adult sample. Participants were 192 healthy adults (84 men and 108 women). The first 40 choices in the IGT were considered decisions under ambiguity and the last 60 choices decisions under risk. To test our moderation hypothesis we used a separate regressions approach. The results revealed a sex-dependent effect of COMT Va l158Met polymorphism on decision-making as measured by the IGT. Val/Val women showed the best performance in the last trials of the IGT. Therefore, the COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be considered a genetic marker underlying sex differences in decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Catecol O-Metiltransferasa/genética , Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Caracteres Sexuales , Incertidumbre , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo Genético , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
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