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1.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(1): e048, ene.-mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254400

RESUMEN

En los últimos años, se ha incrementado el porcentaje de colocación de implantes dentales y, con ello, también la mayor presencia de eventos adversos, por lo que las complicaciones no son infrecuentes. La gran mayoría de recomendaciones para la reducción de complicaciones asociadas con la colocación de implantes dentales están analizadas desde el punto de vista de sus causas directas, juzgando la técnica o al individuo, pero no al sistema en conjunto, cuando este constituye la etiología real de las complicaciones. Recientemente, se ha empezado a considerar más importante la inclusión de los factores humanos y la conciencia de la situación en la comprensión de las complicaciones en implantología oral. Esto ha permitido analizar de manera global tanto al individuo como a su entorno, y aportar soluciones basadas en la prevención. Sin embargo, el conocimiento y la utilización de estos aspectos en implantología oral están aún en vías de popularización, por lo que el objetivo del presente artículo es difundir el enfoque de los factores humanos y la conciencia de la situación en la prevención de complicaciones y en la reducción de riesgos en los procedimientos de colocación de implantes dentales. (AU)


In recent years, the percentage of dental implant placement has increased, and the presence of adverse events and complications are not uncommon. The vast majority of recommendations for reducing complications associated with dental implant placement are analyzed from the point of view of their direct causes, evaluating the technique and/or the individual, but not the system as a whole, being this the actual etiology of complications. The inclusion of human factors and situation awareness has recently gained increasing importance in oral implantology complications and has allowed global analysis of both the individual and the environment, providing solutions based on prevention. However, knowledge and use of these aspects in oral implantology are still in the process of popularization, and therefore, the objective of this article was to describe the human factors involved and situation awareness for preventing complications and reducing the risks associated with dental implant placement procedures. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Implantes Dentales , Medición de Riesgo , Prevención de Accidentes
2.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 33(3): 432-445, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955762

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review the historical and current periodontal phenotype classifications evaluating methods and characteristics. Moreover, to identify and classify the methods based on periodontal phenotype components. OVERVIEW: Several gingival morphology studies have been frequently associated with different terms used causing confusion among the readers. In 2017, the World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions recommended to adopt the term "periodontal phenotype". This term comprises two terms, gingival phenotype (gingival thickness and keratinized tissue width) and bone morphotype (buccal bone plate thickness). Furthermore, gingival morphology has been categorized on "thin-scalloped", "thick-scalloped" and "thick-flat" considering the periodontal biotype. However, by definition, the term phenotype is preferred over biotype. Periodontal phenotype can be evaluated through clinical or radiographic assessments and may be divided into invasive/non-invasive (for gingival thickness), static/functional (for keratinized tissue width), and bi/tridimensional (for buccal bone plate thickness) methods. CONCLUSIONS: "Thin-scalloped," "thick-scalloped," and "thick-flat" periodontal biotypes were identified. These three periodontal biotypes have been considered in the World Workshop but the term periodontal phenotype is recommended. Periodontal phenotype is the combination of the gingival phenotype and the bone morphotype. There are specific methods for periodontal phenotype evaluation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The term periodontal phenotype is currently recommended for future investigations about gingival phenotype and bone morphotype. "Thin-scalloped," "thick-scalloped," and "thick-flat" periodontal phenotypes can be evaluated through specific methods for gingival thickness, keratinized tissue width, and buccal bone plate thickness evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Encía , Fenotipo
3.
Int Orthod ; 18(2): 258-265, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014428

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images can be useful for estimating cervical vertebrae maturity (CVM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of cephalograms derived from CBCT versus lateral cephalograms (LC) to estimate the CVM in a Peruvian population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample evaluated consisted of 40 cephalograms derived from CBCT and 40 LC images from individuals aged 10-19 years. One trained and calibrated observer (Kappa scores≥0.90) interpreted the CBCT and LC images twice. Intra-observer reliability of each maturation stage on CBCT sagittal slices and LC images were analysed using the weighted kappa statistics (α=0.05). Comparison of CVM stages between CBCT slices and LC images were analysed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, p<0.05. RESULTS: The weighted kappa test showed almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the CVM stages using the CBCT sagittal slices (0.873). Considering the LC images, the weighted kappa test showed almost perfect intra-observer agreement too (0.937). In both intra-observer agreement, the difference was limited to one maturation stage of the CVM method. The first and second intra-observer agreement for the CVM stages between the CBCT sagittal slices and LC images were almost perfect (0.937 and 0.874). High correlation values at the first (0.975) and second (0.976) intra-observer agreement for the CVM stages between CBCT sagittal slices and LC images were also found. CONCLUSION: CBCT is a reliable method for CVM assessment and can be used as an alternative method for this purpose. The orthodontists might use the CBCT scans as a valuable tool for CVM method estimation.


Asunto(s)
Vértebras Cervicales/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Radiografía Dental , Adolescente , Determinación de la Edad por el Esqueleto , Cefalometría/métodos , Niño , Femenino , Cabeza/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Masculino , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
4.
J Prosthet Dent ; 123(3): 427-433, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307803

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: After implant rehabilitation, clinicians may need to remove a restoration because of technical and biological complications. For cement-retained implant-supported prostheses (ISPs), the retrievability process may damage the components of the prosthesis, the intaglio surface of the implant, or the abutment screw. To avoid that, the screw access hole (SAH) of the dental implant abutment (DIA) should be registered. Although several clinical reports and dental techniques have been proposed, a review of existing techniques is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this scoping review was to evaluate the different techniques described for retrievability and for registering the SAH of cement-retained ISPs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search of English language dental literature in the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SciELO databases was conducted from 1980 to December 2017 with appropriate keywords and phrases. A hand search of relevant dental journals was also completed, and exclusion criteria were applied after full-text evaluation. RESULTS: The electronic and hand search revealed 325 articles. However, 252 publications were discarded after duplicates were removed. After reading the title and abstracts, 15 studies were excluded, and the full text of 64 publications was screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Forty studies were selected and included for final evaluation. The evaluation revealed 6 techniques for retrievability and 9 techniques for registering the position of the SAH, divided into 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Cement-retained ISPs can be effectively retrieved by using interim cements and possibly by using a combined cement- and screw-retained design. Vacuum guides with guiding sleeves and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) guide templates are possible effective 3D techniques for registering the screw access channel (SAC) location and angulation.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Retención de Prótesis Dentales , Tornillos Óseos , Cementos Dentales , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado
5.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(8): 868-873, 2020 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568607

RESUMEN

AIM: To compare fracture resistance between the cement-retained (CR), screw-retained (SR), and combined cement- and screw-retained (CCSR) metal-ceramic (MC) implant-supported molar restorations and the fracture mode after vertical loading simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty MC molar restorations were fabricated on thirty tilted dental implants that were repositioned using prefabricated or universal castable long abutments (UCLA) with 15° of angulation divided into three groups of ten specimens each. Group C: CR, group S: SR, and group CS: cement- and screw-retained. The crowns in group CS were adhesively bonded extraorally, and composite resin was used to fill the screw access holes (SAHs) in groups S and CS. Subsequently, all the specimens were tested for fracture resistance. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation of the fracture mode was also performed. Mean values of fracture loads were calculated and compared in Newtons (N) using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (p < 0.05) for each group. RESULTS: Mean fracture load values were 2718.00 ± 266.25 N for group C, 2125.10 ± 293.82 N for group S, and 2508.00 ± 153.59 N for group CS. Significant differences were found between group S and the other groups on fracture load values. However, no significant differences were found between groups C and CS (p = 0.154). The failures were at MC framework interfaces on mesiolingual cusps. CONCLUSIONS: Cement and CCSR MC molar restorations showed comparable fracture resistance using abutments with 15° of angulation. However, SR design showed significantly the lowest values of resistance. Screw access hole did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of cemented MC molar restorations. All the specimens exhibited mixed adhesive fractures at the mesiolingual cusps. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Combined cement- and screw-retained restorations (CCSRRs) incorporate the simplicity of the cement method and the retrievability of the screw method, offering good resistance, allowing the removal of the excess of cement before clinical placement of the restoration, and providing another alternative for dental implant rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Aleaciones de Cerámica y Metal , Tornillos Óseos , Cerámica , Coronas , Pilares Dentales , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Diente Molar
6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(8): 829-834, 2020 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568600

RESUMEN

AIM: To compare the vertical marginal discrepancy of retrievable cement/screw-retained design (RCSRD) and cement-retained (CR) implant-supported single metal copings cemented on implant abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single metal copings were fabricated for 20 4.5 × 10 mm titanium dental implants. Two groups of 10 implants each were randomly allocated. One group received RCSRD metal copings and the other group received CR metal copings. Both types of restorations were fabricated on solid abutments with 5.5 mm of diameter. The copings were cemented with resin cement. After the cementation procedure, cement excess was carefully removed in both groups. Inspections of coping-abutment vertical marginal discrepancy were measured using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) under 800× magnification. The independent sample Student's t test was used to detect differences between groups (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The RCSRD implant-supported metal coping group (57.80 ± 2.34 µm) showed statistically better vertical marginal discrepancy than the CR implant-supported metal coping group (64.40 ± 2.23 µm) (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The RCSRD implant-supported metal copings offer less vertical marginal discrepancy than the CR copings group. This new technique would decrease the marginal discrepancy with less bacterial filtration and biomechanical problems. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Retrievable cement/screw-retained design is another alternative technique for dental implant rehabilitation that combines the advantages of CR and SR prostheses. The hybrid design offers less vertical marginal discrepancy for better control of bacterial filtration and biomechanical problems.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Adaptación Marginal Dental , Tornillos Óseos , Cementación , Coronas , Pilares Dentales , Cementos Dentales , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Humanos
7.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(7): 851-856, 2019 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Atrophic anterior maxilla rehabilitation can be a challenging procedure due to multiple factors that influence clinical decision making. After a prolonged loss of teeth, the residual bone often impedes the use of standard implant placement protocols and additional procedures are needed. AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the multidisciplinary approach for the diagnosis and treatment of a 50-year-old woman with prolonged use of a removable maxillary partial denture. CASE DESCRIPTION: This article presents a full-mouth-phased rehabilitation of an atrophic anterior maxilla with three surgical stages. First, onlay autogenous chin bone grafting was used to return the lost tissue. After the consolidation, dental implants were placed in a second stage. A few months later, a connective tissue graft was used to improve the keratinized mucosa width. In the mentioned stages, leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) was used to improve healing and promote tissue regeneration. Finally, prosthetic gingival restoration was used in the anterior region as an alternative to overcome the limitations of hard- and soft-tissue grafting. CONCLUSION: The use of autogenous grafts obtained from the chin in combination with xenograft and then covered with an absorbable collagen membrane represents a predictable procedure for the rehabilitation of the long-term partial maxillary edentulism. Prosthetic gingival restoration is an alternative technique to overcome the limitations of hard- and soft-tissue grafting. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The treatment of a patient with high and width alveolar bone loss needs a multidisciplinary approach. Autogenous grafts obtained from the chin in combination with xenograft and then covered with an absorbable collagen membrane represent an effective procedure. Also, prosthetic gingival restoration can be used as an alternative technique to overcome the limitations of hard- and soft-tissue grafting.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Trasplante Óseo , Mentón , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Femenino , Humanos , Maxilar , Persona de Mediana Edad
8.
Prog Orthod ; 20(1): 38, 2019 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591660

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the midpalatal suture maturation stages in adolescents and young adults using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: The sample comprised 200 CBCT scans of individuals aged 10 to 25 years old (95 males and 105 females) divided into three groups, adolescents (n = 48), post-adolescents (n = 52), and young adults (n = 100). The Planmeca ProMax 3D software was used for the midpalatal suture maturation stage evaluation according to Angieleri's method, using cross-sectional axial slice. Two previously calibrated examiners analyzed the images and classified according to five different maturation stages. A, B, and C stages were considered with open midpalatal suture, and D and E were considered without open midpalatal suture. Association tests were performed using chi-square test also, and a binary logistic regression was evaluated (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The possibility to find open midpalatal suture in individuals of 10 to 15 years old was 70.8%, in subject aged 16 to 20 and 21 to 25 years old was 21.2% and 17%, respectively. Furthermore, this possibility in individuals older than 16 years was greater in males than in females. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility to find open midpalatal suture in post-adolescents and young adults is greater than the orthodontists considered years ago. Furthermore, men are more likely to find midpalatal suture opening. These implications might be considered by the orthodontists when maxillary expansion is required. Besides, the ossification of the middle palatal suture is very variable, and therefore, the use of CBCT might be recommended to clarify this possibility.


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Suturas Craneales , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxilar , Técnica de Expansión Palatina , Suturas , Adulto Joven
9.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 37(2): 162-166, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249180

RESUMEN

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two dental brushing techniques in relation to the lift lip method to control oral hygiene. Methodology: This controlled and randomized field trial included 40 preschool children aged 24-59 months, divided into four groups: Group A (modified bass without lift the lip), Group B (modified bass with lift the lip), Group C (horizontal technique with lift the lip), and Group D (horizontal technique without lift the lip). The dental plaque accumulation was recorded through the O'Leary index. In addition, to perform hygiene control, the plaque index was performed in the initial evaluation at 7 and 14 days. Results: ANOVA and Friedman test were applied to compare oral hygiene in each group. Finally, Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare groups at 7 and 14 days. The children with the modified Bass associated to the lift the lip had significantly more plaque removed at 7 (P = 0.041) and 14 days (P = 0.027) than other techniques. Conclusions: The modified Bass related to the lift-the-lip technique was the most effective for plaque removal in preschool children at 7 and 14 days.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Preescolar , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Labio , Higiene Bucal , Cepillado Dental
10.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003815

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia de las perforaciones corticales en regeneración ósea guiada (ROG) mediante resultados de histomorfometría obtenidos de estudios humanos y animales. Revisión de la literatura actual: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de estudios en humanos y animales en bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO y Google Scholar desde 1980 hasta mayo del 2017. Se utilizó la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: ((decortication of bone) OR (bone decortication) OR (alveolar decortication) OR (decortication) OR (decortications) OR (cortical perforation of bone) OR (cortical bone perforation) OR (cortical perforation) OR (cortical perforations) OR (intramarrow penetration) OR (marrow penetration)) AND ((guided bone regeneration) OR (guided bone augmentation) OR (bone augmentation) OR (osseous repair) OR (graft integration)). Discusión y conclusión: Se identificaron 65 artículos y sólo se seleccionaron 8. Cuatro estudios en animales mostraron influencia estadísticamente significativa al realizar perforaciones corticales. En 3 estudios en animales y en un estudio en humanos esta diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. Sin embargo, al realizar perforaciones existió mayor número de vasos sanguíneos y mayor formación ósea sin reacciones inflamatorias resaltantes ni impactos negativos. Las perforaciones corticales muestran beneficios en etapas tempranas de cicatrización influyendo significativamente en la angiogénesis incrementando la cantidad de hueso neoformado.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influence of cortical perforations on guided bone regeneration (ROG) by histomorphometry results obtained from human and animal studies. Review of current literature: An electronic search of trials in humans and animals with histomorphometric evaluations was carried out in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Google Scholar databases from 1980 to May 2017. The following search strategy was used: ((decortication of bone) OR (bone decortication) OR (alveolar decortication) OR (decortication) OR (decortications) OR (cortical perforation of bone) OR (cortical bone perforation) OR (cortical perforation) OR (cortical perforations) OR (intramarrow penetration) OR (marrow penetration)) AND ((guided bone regeneration) OR (guided bone augmentation) OR (bone augmentation) OR (osseous repair) OR (graft integration)). Discussion and conclusion: Sixty five articles were identified and only 8 were selected. Four studies in animals showed statistically significant influence when performing cortical perforations. In 3 studies in animals and in 1 human study this difference was not statistically significant. However, when drilling, a greater number of blood vessels and a greater bone formation without inflammatory reactions or negative impacts were recorded. Cortical perforations show benefits in early stages of healing, influencing significantly in the angiogenesis, increasing the amount of neoformed bone.

11.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 5(2): 744-751, jul.-dic. 2017. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-999142

RESUMEN

Las perforaciones corticales, penetraciones intramedulares o decorticaciones se realizan a menudo como parte del procedimiento de regeneración ósea guiada (ROG). Su sustento biológico se basa en que mejorarían la angiogénesis y proporcionarían una vía hacia el hueso esponjoso rico en vasos sanguíneos. También se consideran como un "noxious stimuli" (estímulo nocivo) que iniciaría el fenómeno regional acelerado con una respuesta local exuberante facilitando la cicatrización ósea normal. Además, mejorarían la unión o enlace físico entre el injerto óseo y el lecho receptor asegurando estabilidad y fusión de los bloques óseos. Sin embargo, se nos presentan algunas interrogantes relacionadas a su fundamento, a los términos que las describen, a los tamaños, a su cantidad y disposición, al instrumental adecuado para realizarlas y al confort del paciente. (AU)


Cortical perforations, intramedullary penetrations or decortications are often performed as part of the guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedure. Their biological basis is that they would improve angiogenesis, providing a pathway to the medullar bone rich of blood vessels. In addition, cortical perforations would be consider as a "noxious stimuli" that initiate the accelerated regional phenomenon with an exuberant local response facilitating normal bone healing. Moreover, they would improve the physical bonding between the bone graft and the recipient bed ensuring stability and fusion of the bone blocks. However, there are some questions related to its foundation, terms to describe them, their sizes, quantity and disposition, the appropriate instruments to perform them and the comfort of the patient. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cicatrización de Heridas/fisiología , Regeneración Ósea/fisiología , Neovascularización Patológica
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