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1.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205564

RESUMEN

: In patients with aortic stenosis, the presence of hypertension negatively affects the hemodynamic severity of the stenosis, and worsens adverse left ventricular remodeling. It accelerates the progression of the stenosis and is associated with worse prognosis. Proper management of hypertension is thus crucial but there are concerns about the safety and efficacy of antihypertensive medications as well as uncertainty about optimal blood pressure (BP) targets and their impact on left ventricular mass regression and survival benefits. In the present review, we discuss these issues based on the evidence available in the current literature. Focus is first directed on the consequences of a persistently elevated BP before and after surgical aortic valve replacement or transcutaneous valve implantation, and the clinical significance of an abnormal BP response during exercise in patients with significant aortic stenosis. Available data on use of antihypertensive drugs are then critically addressed, the conclusion being that calcium channel blockers may be associated with lower survival, and that diuretics may have disadvantages in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and smaller left ventricular cavity dimensions, ß-blockers may be well tolerated and a better choice for patients with concomitant coronary artery disease and arrhythmias. Renin--angiotensin system blockers improve survival given either before or after valve intervention. Emphasis is placed on the fact that evidence is not derived from randomized trials but only from observational studies. Finally, we discuss the optimal SBP level to reach in patients with aortic stenosis. Again, randomized trials are not available but observational evidence suggests that values between 130 and 139 mmHg systolic and 70-90 mmHg diastolic might represent the best option, and lower BP targets should probably be avoided.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193249

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study whether the effects of intensive glycemic control on major vascular outcomes (a composite of major macrovascular and major microvascular events), all-cause mortality, and severe hypoglycemia events differ among participants with different levels of 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at baseline. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied the effects of more intensive glycemic control in 11,071 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), without missing values, in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, using Cox models. RESULTS: During 5 years' follow-up, intensive glycemic control reduced major vascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90 [95% CI 0.83-0.98]), with the major driver being a reduction in the development of macroalbuminuria. There was no evidence of differences in the effect, regardless of baseline ASCVD risk or HbA1c level (P for interaction = 0.29 and 0.94, respectively). Similarly, the beneficial effects of intensive glycemic control on all-cause mortality were not significantly different across baseline ASCVD risk (P = 0.15) or HbA1c levels (P = 0.87). The risks of severe hypoglycemic events were higher in the intensive glycemic control group compared with the standard glycemic control group (HR 1.85 [1.41-2.42]), with no significant heterogeneity across subgroups defined by ASCVD risk or HbA1c at baseline (P = 0.09 and 0.18, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The major benefits for patients with T2D in ADVANCE did not substantially differ across levels of baseline ASCVD risk and HbA1c.

3.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170529

RESUMEN

Arterial hypertension represents the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor that is associated with cardiac remodeling. Hypertensive heart disease was defined by the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction, and it has been diagnosed by echocardiography in everyday clinical practice. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis is the underlying cause of hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling, and it could not be visualized with different echocardiographic methods. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and its methods such as late gadolinium enhancement, and T1 mapping provides qualitative and quantitative assessment of interstitial myocardial fibrosis in hypertensive patients. Furthermore, CMR can provide differentiation of LVH between hypertensive patients and cardiomyopathies (hypertrophic or Fabry disease). Timely diagnosis of cardiac impairment and early treatment is essential because regression of LVH could be achieved with adequate treatment. Diffuse cardiac fibrosis in hypertensive patients might be an underlying mechanism that explains the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population. Future longitudinal investigations are necessary to determine causal relationship between diffuse fibrosis and cardiovascular outcome in these patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding CMR techniques and their potential usage in patients with hypertensive heart disease.

4.
J Hypertens ; 38(4): 563-564, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132428
5.
J Hypertens ; 38(4): 565-572, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132429

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The microneurographic technique has shown that sympathetic overactivity may characterize patients with the metabolic syndrome. However, technical and methodological limitations of the studies prevented to draw definite conclusions. The present meta-analysis evaluated 16 microneurographic studies including 650 individuals, 444 metabolic syndrome patients and 206 healthy controls, respectively. The analysis was primarily based on muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (MSNA) quantified by microneurography in metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Assessment was extended to the relationships of MSNA with an indirect neuroadrenergic marker, such as heart rate (HR), anthropometric variables, as BMI, waist-hip ratio and metabolic profile. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome individuals displayed MSNA values (means ±â€ŠSEM) significantly greater than controls (58.6 ±â€Š4.8 versus 41.6 ±â€Š4.1 bursts/100 heart beats, P < 0.01). This result was independent on the concomitant presence of sleep apnea and drug treatment. MSNA was directly and significantly related to clinic SBP (r = 0.91, P < 0.01) but not to BMI (r = 0.17, P = NS), whereas no significant relationship was found between MSNA and metabolic variables included in the definition of metabolic syndrome. No significant correlation was found between MSNA and HR. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence that metabolic syndrome is characterized by a marked increase (about 30%) in MSNA. They also show that among the variables included in metabolic syndrome definition and related to the sympathetic overdrive blood pressure appears to be the most important one, at variance from what described in obesity in which metabolic and anthropometric factors play a major role. Finally in metabolic syndrome HR does not appear to represent a faithful mirror of the occurring sympathetic activation.

6.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141971
7.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073535

RESUMEN

: Sexual health is an integral part of overall health, and an active and healthy sexual life is an essential aspect of a good life quality. Cardiovascular disease and sexual health share common risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and smoking) and common mediating mechanisms (endothelial dysfunction, subclinical inflammation, and atherosclerosis). This generated a shift of thinking about the pathophysiology and subsequently the management of sexual dysfunction. The introduction of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors revolutionized the management of sexual dysfunction in men. This article will focus on erectile dysfunction and its association with arterial hypertension. This update of the position paper was created by the Working Group on Sexual Dysfunction and Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension. This working group has been very active during the last years in promoting the familiarization of hypertension specialists and related physicians with erectile dysfunction, through numerous lectures in national and international meetings, a position paper, newsletters, guidelines, and a book specifically addressing erectile dysfunction in hypertensive patients. It was noted that erectile dysfunction precedes the development of coronary artery disease. The artery size hypothesis has been proposed as a potential explanation for this observation. This hypothesis seeks to explain the differing manifestation of the same vascular condition, based on the size of the vessels. Clinical presentations of the atherosclerotic and/or endothelium disease in the penile arteries might precede the corresponding manifestations from larger arteries. Treated hypertensive patients are more likely to have sexual dysfunction compared with untreated ones, suggesting a detrimental role of antihypertensive treatment on erectile function. The occurrence of erectile dysfunction seems to be related to undesirable effects of antihypertensive drugs on the penile tissue. Available information points toward divergent effects of antihypertensive drugs on erectile function, with diuretics and beta-blockers possessing the worst profile and angiotensin receptor blockers and nebivolol the best profile.

8.
J Hypertens ; 38(3): 375-376, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028512
9.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016774

RESUMEN

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is the most common sleep-breathing disorder, which is associated with increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. OSA increases risk of resistant arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and stroke. Studies showed the significant relationship between OSA and cardiac remodeling. The majority of investigations were focused on the left ventricle and its hypertrophy and function. Fewer studies investigated right ventricular structure and function revealing deteriorated diastolic and systolic function. Data regarding left and right ventricular mechanics in OSA patients are scarce and controversial. The results of the studies that were focused on the influence of continuous positive airway pressure and weight reduction on cardiac remodeling revealed favorable effect on left and right ventricular structure and function. Recently published analyses confirmed positive effect of treatment on cardiac mechanics. Deterioration of left and right ventricular mechanics occurs before functional and structural cardiac impairments in the cascade of cardiac remodeling and therefore the assessment of left and right ventricular strain may represent a cornerstone in detection of subtle cardiac changes that develop significantly before other, often irreversible, alterations. Considering the fact that left and right ventricular strains have important predictive value in wide range of cardiovascular diseases, one should consider the evaluation of left and right ventricular strains in the routine echocardiographic assessment at all stages of disease-from diagnosis, during follow-up and evaluation of therapeutic effects. The main aim of this review is to provide the current overview of cardiac mechanics in OSA patients before and after (during) therapy, as well as mechanisms that could be responsible for cardiac changes.

10.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038027

RESUMEN

AIMS: We estimated the rate of renal artery adverse events following renal denervation with the most commonly applied radiofrequency catheter system based on a comprehensive review of published reports. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed 50 published renal denervation (RDN) trials reporting on procedural safety including 5,769 subjects with 10,249 patient-years of follow up. Twenty-six patients with renal artery stenosis or dissection (0.45%) were identified of which 24 patients (0.41%) required renal artery stenting. The primary meta-analysis of all reports indicated an 0.20% pooled annual incidence rate of stent implantation (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.29% per year). Additional sensitivity analyses yielded consistent pooled estimates (range: 0.17% to 0.42% per year). Median time from RDN procedure to all renal intervention was 5.5 months (range: 0 to 33 months) and 79% of all events occurred within 1 year of the procedure. A separate review of 14 clinical trials reporting on prospective follow up imaging using either magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography or angiography following RDN in 511 total subjects identified just one new significant stenosis (0.20%) after a median of 11 months post procedure (1 to 36 months). CONCLUSIONS: Renal artery re-intervention following renal denervation with the most commonly applied RF renal denervation system (Symplicity™) is rare. Most events were identified within 1 year.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955495

RESUMEN

Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as normal office blood pressure (BP) and elevated ambulatory BP (ABP) or home BP or both. This study assessed the association of MH (ie, isolated home, isolated ABP and dual MH) with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The present analysis of the PAMELA study included 1087 untreated and treated participants with normal office BP and a measurable LV mass (LVM). A total of 193 individuals (17.7%) had any MH (ie, normal office BP, elevated ABP or home BP or both), 48 had dual MH (25%), 62 isolated ambulatory MH (32%), and 83 isolated home MH (43%). Average LVM indexed to body surface area was superimposable in the three MH phenotypes (being the largest difference between groups <3 g/m2 ) and significantly higher than in true normotensives. This was also for the LVH prevalence that varied across the MH subgroups in a narrow range (from 8.3% to 10.8%). In conclusion, individuals from the general population with isolated MH, in which either home or ABP was elevated, exhibited an increased risk of LVH similar to that entailed by dual MH. Our findings add the notion both home and ABP measurements are useful to more accurately assess the risk of LVH associated with MH in the community.

12.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977573

RESUMEN

AIM: Information regarding the association of hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) with extreme dipping pattern is scanty and not univocal. We sought to assess the clinical correlates of this blood pressure (BP) phenotype and its relationship with cardiac HMOD in the general population belonging to Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study. METHODS: The present analysis included all participants with good-quality ABPM recordings with reliable echocardiography at entry. RESULTS: A total of 792 out of 1597 patients (49.6%) exhibited an extreme dipping pattern (155 had a night-time reduction in both SBP and DBP at least 20% compared with daytime values and 637 a night-time reduction in DBP at least 20%); 34.2% were dippers and 16.2% nondippers. Left ventricular mass (LVM) indexed to height and LV hypertrophy (LVH) prevalence rates increased progressively from diastolic extreme dipping (14%), dipper (17%), systolic/diastolic extreme dipping (21%) to nondipper group (27%). However, after adjusting for confounders, statistical differences in both LVMI and LVH rates among the four groups disappeared. Similar results were obtained for LVM indexed to body surface area and absolute/indexed left atrial diameter. CONCLUSION: Extreme dipping pattern is a BP phenotype highly frequent in the general population largely consisting of middle-aged individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease. In this population, the extreme dipping pattern is not associated with an increased risk of cardiac HMOD, which suggests that the mechanisms invoked for the potential adverse cardiovascular effects of this condition (i.e. nocturnal hypoxemia, low-grade myocardial inflammation, coronary hypoperfusion, sympathetic activation at early morning, etc.) are not operative.

13.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977574

RESUMEN

: High-normal blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, however the cost-benefit ratio of the use of antihypertensive treatment in these patients is not yet clear. Some dietary components and natural products seems to be able to significantly lower BP without significant side effects. The aim of this position document is to highlight which of these products have the most clinically significant antihypertensive action and wheter they could be suggested to patients with high-normal BP. Among foods, beetroot juice has the most covincing evidence of antihypertensive effect. Antioxidant-rich beverages (teas, coffee) could be considered. Among nutrients, magnesium, potassium and vitamin C supplements could improve BP. Among nonnutrient-nutraceuticals, soy isoflavones could be suggested in perimenopausal women, resveratrol in insulin-resistant patients, melatonin in study participants with night hypertension. In any case, the nutracutical approach has never to substitute the drug treatment, when needed.

14.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990900

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Recent randomized controlled trials have confirmed the ability of renal denervation to lower blood pressure (BP) in patients, resistant to the BP-lowering effect of multiple antihypertensive drug administration. Evidence is limited, however, in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and haemodialysis, a condition in which a persistent BP elevation, despite administration of many antihypertensive drugs, is common. Aim of the present study was to test the BP-lowering efficacy of renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension and ESRD on haemodialysis. BP was measured repeatedly in the office and over the 24 h over 1-year follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted from February 2017 to January 2018 at the Policlinico di Monza, Monza, Italy. We included 24 men and women aged at least 20 years (mean 55 ±â€Š16) who had ESRD, were on haemodialysis since about 6 years and exhibited resistant hypertension, that is, elevated office and ambulatory BP values, despite multidrug antihypertensive treatment (n = 5.4 ±â€Š1). We excluded patients with renal artery stenosis, malignancy, and a probable life expectancy less than 1 year. Twelve patients were included in the renal denervation and 12 in the medical treatment (control) group. All patients underwent office and 24 h ambulatory BP measurements at baseline, at 1, 6 and 12 months during the follow-up. In the renal denervation group, baseline office and 24 h mean SBP were 180 ±â€Š112 and 175 ±â€Š11 mmHg, respectively, the corresponding values in the control group being 181 ±â€Š19 and 181 ±â€Š20 mmHg. Most of the other baseline characteristics were also similar between groups, including the mean number of administered antihypertensive drugs at baseline. SBP showed an early and persistent reduction after renal denervation (office SBP: 165 ±â€Š13; 150 ±â€Š7 and 149 ±â€Š11mmHg; 24 h SBP 163 ±â€Š20, 148 ±â€Š10 and 149 ±â€Š17 mmHg after 1, 6 and 12 months, respectively). The BP-lowering effect was almost always present and statistically significant during both the day and night. DBP changes followed a similar pattern whereas heart rate never showed any significant change. No significant periprocedural complication of renal denervation was seen. The mean number of administered drugs did not show any significant BP change during the study. CONCLUSION: In ESRD patients under long-term haemodialysis in whom BP was markedly elevated, despite administration of many antihypertensive drugs, renal denervation lowered both ambulatory and office BP. The reduction persisted over a 1-year follow-up.

15.
J Hypertens ; 38(2): 183-184, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913944
16.
J Hypertens ; 38(3): 527-535, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693535

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy and safety of nebivolol in patients with hypertension is well established, but its effect in Asian patients with essential hypertension in the real world has not been studied. METHODS: Adult South Korean patients with essential hypertension, with or without comorbidities, were enrolled to participate in this prospective, single-arm, open, observational study; 3011 patients received nebivolol either as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Changes in SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) at 12 and 24 weeks were evaluated. Subgroup analysis for BP changes in newly diagnosed (de novo) patients and those receiving other antihypertensives at study entry were also conducted. RESULTS: Nebivolol significantly decreased mean SBP and DBP at 12 and 24 weeks compared with baseline (P < 0.0001). A significant reduction in HR was also observed at 12 and 24 weeks (P < 0.0001). The reductions of SBP and DBP were notably greater when nebivolol was used as monotherapy in de novo patients (P < 0.0001) and as add-on therapy to existing antihypertensives (angiotensin II receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium channel blockers; P < 0.0001). Majority of the reported adverse events were mild; the most common adverse events were dizziness (1.3%), headache (1.0%) and dyspnea (0.9%). CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations associated with observational studies, this real-world study in Asian patients with essential hypertension with and without comorbidities, demonstrated the efficacy and safety of once daily nebivolol, either as monotherapy or add-on therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03847350.SDC Callout: Video Abstract, http://links.lww.com/HJH/B172.

17.
Hypertens Res ; 43(3): 213-219, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666711

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate right ventricular (RV) deformation in recently diagnosed untreated hypertensive patients with different 24-h blood pressure (BP) patterns (dipping, nondipping, extreme dipping and reverse dipping). This cross-sectional study involved 190 untreated hypertensive patients who underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and a detailed two-dimensional echocardiographic examination, including the assessment of layer-specific strain. We found that 24-h and daytime BP values did not differ between the four groups. Nighttime BP significantly and gradually increased from extreme dippers across dippers and nondippers to reverse dippers. RV structure and systolic and diastolic function did not significantly differ among the four groups. However, RV global and RV free wall longitudinal strains were significantly lower in nondippers and reverse dippers than in dippers and extreme dippers. The endocardial and epicardial RV longitudinal strains of the whole RV and free wall RV were the lowest in reverse dippers and highest in extreme dippers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that only reverse dipping patterns were associated with reduced RV global longitudinal strain [OR 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5-8.2)], independent of age, sex, 24-h systolic BP, LV mass index, RV wall thickness and E/e't. Similarly, the reverse dipping pattern was associated with reduced RV free wall longitudinal strain, independently of the mentioned parameters [OR 3.8 (95% CI: 1.8-8.5)]. In conclusion, in the hypertensive population, the reverse dipping BP pattern had an adverse effect on RV deformation. RV remodeling progressively deteriorated from extreme dippers to reverse dippers, but only the reverse dipping BP pattern was independently associated with the reduction in RV longitudinal strain.

18.
J Hypertens ; 38(3): 553-556, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764585

RESUMEN

: A 64-year-old man, whose medical history was significant only for locally advanced squamocellular carcinoma of the right palatine tonsil treated with extended neck radiotherapy 9 years before, was evaluated for traumatic cerebral haemorrhage secondary to syncope after a postural change. The selective angiographic study of cerebral vessels was negative. No heart arrhythmias were recorded at ECG monitoring. The 24-h ABPM revealed sudden pressor and depressor episodes during day-time and a reverse dipper pattern during night-time. Noninvasive autonomic nervous system function testing showed supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension caused by afferent baroreflex failure. According to literature, even if only few cases are described, neck irradiation can be assumed to be the major cause of baroreflex failure. No treatment is currently approved. The patient was treated with a selective beta-blocker (bisoprolol) administered at bedtime. Repeated ABPM after 1 month of therapy showed absence of sudden pressor and depressor episodes and no dipper pattern during night-time.

19.
J Hypertens ; 38(3): 377-386, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764586

RESUMEN

: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased over the past few decades. T2D has a strong genetic propensity that becomes overt when a patient is exposed to a typical Western lifestyle, gain weight and becomes obese, whereas weight loss protects from the development of T2D. Except of lifestyle modifications, the choice of the appropriate treatment is essential in the management of patients with T2D and appears critical for the obese population with T2D. The new pharmacological approach for the treatment of T2D, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, seems to be effective not only in the management of T2D but also for weight loss, reduction of blood pressure and improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 analogues reduced cardiovascular risk, prevented cardiovascular disease and mortality, thereby playing an important role in the treatment of obese patients with hypertension and T2D.

20.
J Hypertens ; 38(2): 282-288, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503137

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate left ventricular (LV) mechanics in the recently diagnosed hypertensive patients with different 24-h blood pressure (BP) patterns (dipping, nondipping, extreme dipping and reverse dipping). METHODS: The current cross-sectional study included 209 hypertensive patients who underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and comprehensive two-dimensional echocardiographic examination including multilayer strain analysis. RESULTS: There was no difference in 24-h and daytime BP values between four groups. Night-time BP significantly and gradually increased from extreme dippers, across dippers and nondippers, to reverse dippers. LV global longitudinal and circumferential strains were greater in dippers and extreme dippers than in nondippers and reverse dippers. This was also found for endocardial and epicardial LV longitudinal and circumferential strains. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nondipping and reverse dipping patterns were associated with reduced LV longitudinal strain [odds ratio (OR) 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-5.61) and OR 2.50 (95% CI: 1.31-6.82), respectively] independently of age, sex, 24-h SBP, LV mass index and E/è. Only the reverse dipping BP pattern was independently of clinical and echocardiographic parameters related with reduced LV circumferential strain [OR 1.90 (95% CI: 1.10-4.80)]. CONCLUSION: Nondipping and reverse dipping BP patterns had stronger impact on LV mechanics compared with patients with dipping and extreme dipping BP patterns in hypertensive population. LV functional and mechanical remodeling deteriorated from extreme dippers and dippers, to nondippers and reverse dippers.

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