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1.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2019 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659026

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in TP53 are found in the majority of high grade serous ovarian cancers, leading to gain of function or loss of function of its protein product, p53, involved in oncogenesis. There have been conflicting reports as to the impact of the type of these on prognosis. We aim to further elucidate this relationship in our cohort of patients. METHODS: 229 patients with high grade serous ovarian cancer underwent tumor profiling through an institutional molecular screening program with targeted next generation sequencing. TP53 mutations were classified using methods previously described in the literature. Immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue was used to assess for TP53 mutation. Using divisive hierarchal clustering, we generated patient clusters with similar clinicopathologic characteristics to investigate differences in outcomes. RESULTS: Six different classification schemes of TP53 mutations were studied. These did not show an association with first platinum-free interval or overall survival. Next generation sequencing reliably predicted mutation in 80% of cases, similar to the proportion detected by immunohistochemistry. Divisive hierarchical clustering generated four main clusters, with cluster 3 having a significantly worse prognosis (p<0.0001; log-rank test). This cluster had a higher concentration of gain of function mutations and these patients were less likely to have undergone optimal debulking surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Different classifications of TP53 mutations did not show an impact on outcomes in this study. Immunohistochemistry was a good predictor for TP53 mutation. Cluster analysis showed that a subgroup of patients with gain of function mutations (cluster 3) had a worse prognosis.

2.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 17(8): 927-943, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641048

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common and the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies. Currently, there exists no effective screening tool for OC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 18-23 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that refine gene expression. MiRNAs have been found to be aberrantly expressed in OC tumor tissue as well as detectable in biological fluids such as the blood, urine, and ascites and have been proposed as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for OC. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the application of miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in OC. It describes the various tissues allowing for the analysis of miRNAs such as tumor tissue, blood, ascites and urine. It also highlights the potential of miRNAs as a therapy in other cancers and how these therapies may be applied to ovarian cancer. Expert opinion: The study of miRNAs is an innovative and promising field for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Methodological issues surrounding their detection and application therapeutically remain, such as the study of various OC histotypes within the same cohort, the choice of 'normal tissue' for comparison and the difficulties surrounding the choice of a normalization miRNA.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/análisis , MicroARNs/análisis , Neoplasias Ováricas/diagnóstico , Medicina de Precisión , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , Biomarcadores de Tumor/orina , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , MicroARNs/antagonistas & inhibidores , MicroARNs/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Ováricas/genética , Neoplasias Ováricas/terapia , Pronóstico
3.
Br J Cancer ; 116(1): 103-108, 2017 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used antihypertensives. Recently, these drugs have been associated with a protective effect against pancreatic cancer, but data on this putative association remain limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether the use of ACEIs and/or ARBs is associated with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study, using a nested case-control analysis within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink population. The cohort consisted of all patients newly treated with antihypertensive drugs between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2009, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. Cases were patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer, which were matched with up to 10 controls on age, sex, calendar year of cohort entry, and duration of follow-up. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pancreatic cancer incidence associated with ever use of ACEIs and ARBs. A secondary analysis was conducted to assess whether the incidence of pancreatic cancer varied with cumulative duration of use of these drugs. RESULTS: A cohort of 547 566 was assembled. During 3 040 332 person-years of follow-up, a total of 866 patients were newly diagnosed with pancreatic cancer (rate: 3/10 000 per year) and matched to 8636 controls. Overall, when compared with other antihypertensive drugs, the use of ACEIs was not associated with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer overall (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.17) or according to cumulative duration of use. The use of ARBs was not associated with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer overall (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.75-1.15), whereas a cumulative duration of use of 1-3 years was associated with a 38% decrease (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41-0.94), which returned to the null after >3 years of use (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.74-1.46). CONCLUSIONS: The use of ARBs and ACEIs was not associated with an overall decreased risk of pancreatic cancer when compared with patients using other antihypertensive drugs. Additional research is needed to determine whether ARBs may confer a short-term protective effect.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiología , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efectos de los fármacos , Anciano , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diuréticos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 4: 48, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23626575

RESUMEN

Cancer and cancer therapy-related cognitive impairment (formerly known as chemobrain or chemo-fog) are often described in the literature. In the past, studies have failed to prove the existence of cancer therapy-related cognitive dysfunction. However, more recently, prospective trials have shown that patients undergoing chemotherapy do display impairment in specific cognitive domains. Aging confers an increased risk of developing cancer, as well as cognitive impairment. The Geriatric Oncology clinic of the Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital in Montreal was founded in 2006 to address the unique needs of older cancer patients. We will describe two cases of cancer therapy-related cognitive impairment from our Geriatric Oncology clinic. The first case is that of a 75 year old male diagnosed with stage III non-small cell lung carcinoma who complained of forgetfulness since starting carboplatin-paclitaxel. The second case is that of a 65 year old female diagnosed with stage I, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy followed by adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil chemotherapy, radiation therapy and was on exemestane when she was evaluated. We will also briefly review the literature of cancer therapy-related cognitive impairment.

5.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 269(2): 289-94, 2007 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17263841

RESUMEN

The low G+C gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis harbours two highly similar conjugative elements: an integrative and conjugative element called sex factor and the pRS01 plasmid. Originally, it was believed that the host range of the sex factor was limited to L. lactis subspecies. Here, it is reported that pTRK28 cointegrates of a spectinomycin-marked L. lactis sex factor and of the pRS01 conjugative plasmid can be transferred from L. lactis to Enterococcus faecalis. These results demonstrate the conjugative transfer of these elements to other bacterial species. Furthermore, it is reported that Ll.LtrB, a mobile group II intron carried by both elements, can invade its recognition site upon pRS01 conjugative transfer to E. faecalis.


Asunto(s)
Conjugación Genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Factor F/genética , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Plásmidos/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Elementos Transponibles de ADN/genética , Intrones/genética
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