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1.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184236

RESUMEN

Adjuvants can be used to potentiate the function of antibiotics whose efficacy has been reduced by acquired or intrinsic resistance. In the present study, we discovered that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) sensitize strains of group B Streptococcus (GBS) to trimethoprim (TMP), an antibiotic to which GBS is intrinsically resistant. Reductions in the MIC of TMP reached as high as 512-fold across a diverse panel of isolates. To better understand HMOs' mechanism of action, we characterized the metabolic response of GBS to HMO treatment using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS/MS) analysis. These data showed that when challenged by HMOs, GBS undergoes significant perturbations in metabolic pathways related to the biosynthesis and incorporation of macromolecules involved in membrane construction. This study represents reports the metabolic characterization of a cell that is perturbed by HMOs.IMPORTANCE Group B Streptococcus is an important human pathogen that causes serious infections during pregnancy which can lead to chorioamnionitis, funisitis, premature rupture of gestational membranes, preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, and death. GBS is evolving antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and the work presented in this paper provides evidence that prebiotics such as human milk oligosaccharides can act as adjuvants to restore the utility of antibiotics.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 6: 250, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781566

RESUMEN

Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are important enteric pathogens causing over 1 million foodborne illnesses in the U.S. annually. The widespread emergence of antibiotic resistance in NTS isolates has limited the availability of antibiotics that can be used for therapy. Since Michigan is not part of the FoodNet surveillance system, few studies have quantified antibiotic resistance frequencies and identified risk factors for NTS infections in the state. We obtained 198 clinical NTS isolates via active surveillance at four Michigan hospitals from 2011 to 2014 for classification of serovars and susceptibility to 24 antibiotics using broth microdilution. The 198 isolates belonged to 35 different serovars with Enteritidis (36.9%) predominating followed by Typhimurium (19.5%) and Newport (9.7%), though the proportion of each varied by year, residence, and season. The number of Enteritidis and Typhimurium cases was higher in the summer, while Enteritidis cases were significantly more common among urban vs. rural residents. A total of 30 (15.2%) NTS isolates were resistant to ≥1 antibiotic and 15 (7.5%) were resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes; a significantly greater proportion of Typhimurium isolates were resistant compared to Enteritidis isolates and an increasing trend in the frequency of tetracycline resistance and multidrug resistance was observed over the 4-year period. Resistant infections were associated with longer hospital stays as the mean stay was 5.9 days for patients with resistant isolates relative to 4.0 days for patients infected with susceptible isolates. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that infection with serovars other than Enteritidis [Odds ratio (OR): 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-11.82] as well as infection during the fall (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.22-7.60) were independently associated with resistance. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of surveillance, monitoring resistance frequencies, and identifying risk factors that can aid in the development of new prevention strategies.

3.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548323

RESUMEN

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that contributes to miscarriage, preterm birth, and serious neonatal infections. Studies have indicated that some multilocus sequence types (STs) of GBS are more likely to cause severe disease than others. We hypothesized that the ability of GBS to elicit varying host responses in maternal decidual tissue during pregnancy is an important factor regulating infection and disease severity. To address this hypothesis, we utilized an antibody microarray to compare changes in production and activation of host signaling proteins in decidualized telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (dT-HESCs) following infection with GBS strains from septic neonates or colonized mothers. GBS infection increased levels of total and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members such as p38 and JNK and induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation. Infection also altered the regulation of additional proteins that mediate cell death and inflammation in a strain-specific manner, which could be due to the observed variation in attachment to and invasion of the decidual stromal cells and ability to lyse red blood cells. Further analyses confirmed array results and revealed that p38 promotes programmed necrosis in dT-HESCs. Together, the observed signaling changes may contribute to deregulation of critical developmental signaling cascades and inflammatory responses following infection, both of which could trigger GBS-associated pregnancy complications.


Asunto(s)
Decidua/inmunología , Proteínas Quinasas JNK Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/inmunología , Streptococcus agalactiae/inmunología , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Decidua/citología , Decidua/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/inmunología , Macrófagos/inmunología , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/microbiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/patología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/clasificación
4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222910, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536604

RESUMEN

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes preterm birth and neonatal disease. Although GBS is known to exhibit vast diversity in virulence across strains, the mechanisms of GBS-associated pathogenesis are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that GBS strains of different genotypes would vary in their ability to elicit host inflammatory responses, and that strains associated with neonatal disease would induce different cytokine profiles than those associated with colonization. Using a multiplexed, antibody-based protein detection array, we found that production of a discrete number of inflammatory mediators by THP-1 macrophage-like cells was universally induced in response to challenge with each of five genetically distinct GBS isolates, while other responses appeared to be strain-specific. Key array responses were validated by ELISA using the initial five strains as well as ten additional strains with distinct genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Interestingly, IL-6 was significantly elevated following infection with neonatal infection-associated sequence type (ST)-17 strains and among strains possessing capsule (cps) type III. Significant differences in production of IL1-ß, IL-10 and MCP-2 were also identified across STs and cps types. These data support our hypothesis and suggest that unique host innate immune responses reflect strain-specific differences in virulence across GBS isolates. Such data might inform the development of improved diagnostic or prognostic strategies against invasive GBS infections.

5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2019 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350563

RESUMEN

The influence that bacterial adaptation (or niche partitioning) within species has on gene spillover and transmission among bacteria populations occupying different niches is not well understood. Streptococcus agalactiae is an important bacterial pathogen that has a taxonomically diverse host range making it an excellent model system to study these processes. Here we analyze a global set of 901 genome sequences from nine diverse host species to advance our understanding of these processes. Bayesian clustering analysis delineated twelve major populations that closely aligned with niches. Comparative genomics revealed extensive gene gain/loss among populations and a large pan-genome of 9,527 genes, which remained open and was strongly partitioned among niches. As a result, the biochemical characteristics of eleven populations were highly distinctive (significantly enriched). Positive selection was detected and biochemical characteristics of the dispensable genes under selection were enriched in ten populations. Despite the strong gene partitioning, phylogenomics detected gene spillover. In particular, tetracycline resistance (which likely evolved in the human-associated population) from humans to bovine, canines, seals, and fish, demonstrating how a gene selected in one host can ultimately be transmitted into another, and biased transmission from humans to bovines was confirmed with a Bayesian migration analysis. Our findings show high bacterial genome plasticity acting in balance with selection pressure from distinct functional requirements of niches that is associated with an extensive and highly partitioned dispensable genome, likely facilitating continued and expansive adaptation.

6.
J Biophotonics ; 12(9): e201800449, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162821

RESUMEN

Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a major cause of chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. This study evaluates Raman spectroscopy (RS) to identify spectral characteristics of infection and differentiate GBS from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus during ex vivo infection of human fetal membrane tissues. Unique spectral features were identified from colonies grown on agar and infected fetal membrane tissues. Multinomial logistic regression analysis accurately identified GBS infected tissues with 100.0% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. Together, these findings support further investigation into the use of RS as an emerging microbiologic diagnostic tool and intrapartum screening test for GBS carriage.

7.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 81(3): e13075, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582878

RESUMEN

PROBLEM: During pregnancy, Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can infect fetal membranes to cause chorioamnionitis, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Macrophages are the primary resident phagocyte in extraplacental membranes. Protein kinase D (PKD) was recently implicated in mediating pro-inflammatory macrophage responses to GBS outside of the reproductive system. This work aimed to characterize the human placental macrophage inflammatory response to GBS and address the extent to which PKD mediates such effects. METHOD: Primary human placental macrophages were infected with GBS in the presence or absence of a specific, small molecule PKD inhibitor, CRT 0066101. Macrophage phenotypes were characterized by evaluating gene expression, cytokine release, assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and NFκB activation. RESULTS: GBS evoked a strong inflammatory phenotype characterized by the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6 (P ≤ 0.05), NLRP3 inflammasome assembly (P ≤ 0.0005), and NFκB activation (P ≤ 0.05). Pharmacological inhibition of PKD suppressed these responses, newly implicating a role for PKD in mediating immune responses of primary human placental macrophages to GBS. CONCLUSION: PKD plays a critical role in mediating placental macrophage inflammatory activation in response to GBS infection.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2786, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515142

RESUMEN

Macrophages play an important role in defending the host against infections by engulfing pathogens and containing them inside the phagosome, which consists of a harsh microbicidal environment. However, many pathogens have developed mechanisms to survive inside macrophages despite this challenge. Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in neonates, is one such pathogen that survives inside macrophages by withstanding phagosomal stress. Although a few key intracellular survival factors have been identified, the mechanisms by which GBS detoxifies the phagosome are poorly defined. Transcriptional analysis during survival inside macrophages revealed strong upregulation of a putative NADH peroxidase (npx) at 1 and 24 h post-infection. A deletion mutant of npx (Δnpx) was more susceptible to killing by a complex in vitro model of multiple phagosomal biochemical/oxidant stressors or by hydrogen peroxide alone. Moreover, compared to an isogenic wild type GBS strain, the Δnpx strain demonstrated impaired survival inside human macrophages and a reduced capacity to blunt macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It is therefore likely that Npx plays a role in survival against ROS production in the macrophage. A more thorough understanding of how GBS evades the immune system through survival inside macrophages will aid in development of new therapeutic measures.

9.
Pathog Immun ; 3(1): 63-71, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930990

RESUMEN

Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated Gram-positive coccus that is an important cause of infections in adults with chronic medical conditions, pregnant women, and neonates. GBS causes a range of clinical syndromes, from asymptomatic colonization to deep-seated invasive and highly lethal infections. Macrophages are important sentinels of innate immunity, protecting host tissues from infection when bacteria advance beyond cutaneous or mucosal barriers. We hypothesized that the capacity for macrophages to phagocytose unopsonized GBS would vary across distinct clinical strains, and such differences would reflect serotype diversity. Methods: A high-throughput screen using the phorbol ester-differentiated THP-1 macrophage-like human cell line was used to quantify phagocytosis of a diverse group of 35 different human clinical isolates of GBS representing a wide variety of capsular serotypes. Validation studies were conducted using human primary phagocytes. Results: Phagocytosis of GBS differed widely across clinical isolates but this was not related to capsular serotype, genetic sequence type, pilus type, or clinical source of the GBS isolate (colonizing or invasive strain). Conclusions: Structural and/or biochemical differences among diverse GBS strains are reflected in a diverse capacity for macrophages to ingest them through non-opsonic phagocytosis. Mechanisms explaining these differences are not clear.

10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 264: 8-15, 2018 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080423

RESUMEN

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens, which can cause serious illnesses, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. To study the epidemiology of STEC in finishing pigs and examine the potential risks they pose for human STEC infections, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study in three finishing sites. Six cohorts of pigs (2 cohorts/site, 20 pigs/cohort) were randomly selected, and fecal samples (n=898) were collected every two weeks through their finishing period. Eighty-two pigs (68.3%) shed STEC at least once, and the proportion of STEC-positive pigs varied across sites (50-97.5%) and cohorts (15-100%). Clinically important serotypes, O157:H7 (stx2c, eae) and O26:H11 (stx1a, eae), were recovered from two pigs at sites C and A, respectively. The most common serotype isolated was O59:H21 (stx2e), which was particularly prevalent in site B as it was recovered from all STEC positive pigs (n=39). Each cohort showed different patterns of STEC shedding, which were associated with the prevalent serotype. The median shedding duration of STEC in pigs was 28days, consistent with our prior study. However, among pigs shedding O59:H21 at least once, pigs in cohort B2 had a significantly longer shedding duration of 42days (P<0.05) compared to other cohorts. Stx2e was the most commonly observed stx variant in finishing pigs (93.9%), in accordance with the previous studies. Stx2e has been reported to be significantly associated with edema disease in pigs, however, the pathogenicity in humans warrants further investigations. Nonetheless, our findings affirm that pigs are an important reservoir for human STEC infections, and that the circulating serotypes in a cohort and site management factors may significantly affect the prevalence of STEC. Molecular characterization of STEC isolates and epidemiological studies to identify risk factors for shedding in pigs are strongly warranted to further address the significance to public health and to develop mitigation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Adhesinas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/clasificación , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/genética , Sus scrofa/microbiología , Animales , Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Heces/microbiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Serogrupo , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/aislamiento & purificación , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/patogenicidad , Porcinos
11.
J Infect Dis ; 217(6): 983-987, 2018 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244079

RESUMEN

Group B streptococci (GBS) are Gram-positive bacteria that are a leading cause of neonatal infections. Most invasive isolates are ß-hemolytic, and hemolytic activity is critical for GBS virulence. Although nonhemolytic GBS strains are occasionally isolated, they are often thought to be virulence attenuated. In this study, we show that a nonhemolytic GBS strain (GB37) isolated from a septic neonate exhibits hypervirulence. Substitution of tryptophan to leucine (W297L) in the sensor histidine kinase CovS results in constitutive kinase signaling, leading to decreased hemolysis and increased activity of the GBS hyaluronidase, HylB. These results describe how nonpigmented and nonhemolytic GBS strains can exhibit hypervirulence.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidad , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , Proteínas Bacterianas/química , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Histidina Quinasa/química , Histidina Quinasa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidasa/metabolismo , Recién Nacido , Leucina , Ratones , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/patología , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Triptófano , Virulencia
12.
Genome Announc ; 5(44)2017 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097467

RESUMEN

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can be carried by various animals. The swine STEC population is partially composed of host-specific strains that are often not well characterized. In this work, the genome sequences of a number of swine STEC strains are presented.

13.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 30(4): 973-989, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814408

RESUMEN

Although a normal member of the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiota, group B Streptococcus (GBS) can also occasionally be the cause of highly invasive neonatal disease and is an emerging pathogen in both elderly and immunocompromised adults. Neonatal GBS infections are typically transmitted from mother to baby either in utero or during passage through the birth canal and can lead to pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis within the first few months of life. Compared to the adult immune system, the neonatal immune system has a number of deficiencies, making neonates more susceptible to infection. Recognition of GBS by the host immune system triggers an inflammatory response to clear the pathogen. However, GBS has developed several mechanisms to evade the host immune response. A comprehensive understanding of this interplay between GBS and the host immune system will aid in the development of new preventative measures and therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/inmunología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Streptococcus agalactiae/inmunología
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(9): 1609-1611, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820370
15.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 818, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28536568

RESUMEN

Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans, is a foodborne pathogen that can reside in chickens, pigs, and cattle. Because resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are commonly used to treat human infections, has emerged in C. jejuni, it is imperative to continously monitor resistance patterns and examine the genetic variation in strains from human infections and animal reservoirs. Our previous study of C. jejuni from human campylobacteriosis cases showed a significantly higher rate of tetracycline resistance compared to national trends, and identified multilocus sequence type (ST)-982 and a history of cattle contact to be associated with tetracycline resistance. To further investigate these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and examine the genetic diversity of C. jejuni recovered from 214 cattle at three Michigan herds. Overall, the prevalence of C. jejuni was 69.2% (range: 58.6-83.8%) for the three farms, and 83.7% (n = 113) of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance to only tetracycline predominated among the cattle isolates (n = 89; 65.9%) with most resistant strains belonging to ST-459 (96.5%) or ST-982 (86.4%). Among the 22 STs identified, STs 459 and 982 were more prevalent in one feedlot, which reported the use of chlortetracycline in feed upon arrival of a new herd. PCR-based fingerprinting demonstrated that the ST-982 isolates from cattle and humans had identical banding patterns, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission. Resistance to macrolides (1.5%) and ciprofloxacin (16.3%) was also observed; 14 of the 22 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates represented ST-1244. Together, these findings demonstrate a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. jejuni in cattle and identify associations with specific genotypes. Continuous monitoring and identification of risk factors for resistance emergence are imperative to develop novel methods aimed at decreasing pathogen persistence in food animal reservoirs and the frequency of resistant infections in humans.

16.
Microb Ecol ; 74(2): 496-506, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293696

RESUMEN

The intestinal microbiota has important functions that contribute to host health. The compositional dynamics of microbial communities are affected by many factors, including diet and presence of pathogens. In contrast to humans and domestic mammals, the composition and seasonal dynamics of intestinal microbiota of wildlife species remain comparatively understudied. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important wildlife species that inhabits agricultural ecosystems and is known to be a reservoir of enteric pathogens. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge of white-tailed deer intestinal microbiota diversity and taxonomic composition. This study's first objective was to characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota of 66 fecal samples from white-tailed deer collected during two sampling periods (March and June) using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Associations between community diversity and composition and factors including season, sex, host genetic relatedness, and spatial location were quantified. Results revealed that white-tailed deer intestinal microbiota was predominantly comprised of phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, whose relative frequencies varied significantly between sampling periods. The second objective was to examine the associations between the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and microbiota composition and diversity. Results indicated that relative abundance of some microbial taxa varied when a pathogen was present. This study provides insights into microbial compositional dynamics of a wildlife species inhabiting coupled natural and agricultural landscapes. Data focus attention on the high prevalence of Proteobacteria particularly during the summer and highlight the need for future research regarding the role of white-tailed deer as a natural pathogen reservoir in agroecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteobacteria/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Heces/microbiología , Firmicutes/clasificación , Firmicutes/aislamiento & purificación , Proteobacteria/clasificación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Estaciones del Año
17.
J Food Prot ; 80(1): 86-89, 2017 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221870

RESUMEN

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leukosis in cattle, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in cattle. Both diseases are chronic in nature and can lead to the disruption of normal immunological or physiological processes. Cattle are the major reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), a cause of foodborne illness in humans. We tested the hypothesis that cattle infected with BLV or MAP are more likely to shed STEC. We conducted a cross-sectional study during the summers of 2011 and 2012 in 11 Michigan cattle herds. A fecal sample from each animal was collected for STEC culture, and multiplex PCR for stx1, stx2, and eaeA was used to screen suspect colonies for STEC confirmation. Antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for BLV and MAP were used to screen serum from each animal. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the percentage of lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils in a subsample (n =497) of blood samples. Of the animals sampled, 34.9% were BLV positive, 2.7% were MAP positive, and 16% were shedding STEC. Cattle in the dairy herds had a higher frequency of BLV and MAP than did those in beef herds, but more cattle in beef herds were shedding STEC. Neither BLV nor MAP was associated with STEC shedding (P values of 0.6838 and 0.3341, respectively). We also observed no association between STEC status and the percentage of neutrophils (P value of 0.3565), lymphocytes (P value of 0.8422), or the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (P value of 0.1800). Although controlling both BLV and MAP is important for overall herd health and productivity, we found no evidence that controlling BLV and MAP has an impact on STEC shedding in cattle.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Leucemia Bovina , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Estudios Transversales , Heces/microbiología , Humanos , Michigan , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28217556

RESUMEN

Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection. The advent of animal models of chorioamnionitis provides a powerful tool to study host-pathogen relationships in vivo and ex vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response elicited by GBS and evaluate how antimicrobial strategies elaborated by these innate immune cells affect bacteria. Our work using a mouse model of GBS ascending vaginal infection during pregnancy reveals that clinically isolated GBS has the capacity to invade reproductive tissues and elicit host immune responses including infiltration of PMNs within the choriodecidua and placenta during infection, mirroring the human condition. Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin. Exposure of GBS to holo- or apo-forms of lactoferrin reveals that the iron-sequestration activity of lactoferrin represses GBS growth and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data indicate that the mouse model of ascending infection is a useful tool to recapitulate human models of GBS infection during pregnancy. Furthermore, this work reveals that neutrophil extracellular traps ensnare GBS and repress bacterial growth via deposition of antimicrobial molecules, which drive nutritional immunity via metal sequestration strategies.


Asunto(s)
Trampas Extracelulares , Inmunidad Innata , Membrana Mucosa/patología , Infiltración Neutrófila , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/patología , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidad , Animales , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Hierro/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Ratones , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/inmunología , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/inmunología , Streptococcus agalactiae/inmunología
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(1)2017 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067833

RESUMEN

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a common inhabitant of the genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal tract in up to 40% of healthy adults; however, this opportunistic pathogen is able to breach restrictive host barriers to cause disease and persist in harsh and changing conditions. This study sought to identify a role for quorum sensing, a form of cell to cell communication, in the regulation of the fibrinogen-binding (rgfBDAC) two-component system and the ability to associate with decidualized endometrial cells in vitro. To do this, we created a deletion in rgfD, which encodes the putative autoinducing peptide, in a GBS strain belonging to multilocus sequence type (ST)-17 and made comparisons to the wild type. Sequence variation in the rgf operon was detected in 40 clinical strains and a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in rgfD in all of the ST-17 genomes that resulted in a truncation. Using qPCR, expression of rgf operon genes was significantly decreased in the ST-17 ΔrgfD mutant during exponential growth with the biggest difference (3.3-fold) occurring at higher cell densities. Association with decidualized endometrial cells was decreased 1.3-fold in the mutant relative to the wild type and rgfC expression was reduced 22-fold in ΔrgfD following exposure to the endometrial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that this putative quorum sensing molecule is important for attachment to human tissues and demonstrate a role for RgfD in GBS pathogenesis through regulation of rgfC.

20.
Virulence ; 8(6): 924-937, 2017 08 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27791478

RESUMEN

Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, asymptomatically colonizes up to 30% of women and can persistently colonize even after antibiotic treatment. Previous studies have shown that GBS resides inside macrophages, but the mechanism by which it survives remains unknown. Here, we examined the ability of 4 GBS strains to survive inside macrophages and then focused on 2 strains belonging to sequence type (ST)-17 and ST-12, to examine persistence in the presence of antibiotics. A multiple stress medium was also developed using several stressors found in the phagosome to assess the ability of 30 GBS strains to withstand phagosomal stress. The ST-17 strain was more readily phagocytosed and survived intracellularly longer than the ST-12 strain, but the ST-12 strain was tolerant to ampicillin unlike the ST-17 strain. Exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and erythromycin increased the level of phagocytosis of the ST-17 strain, but had no effect on the ST-12 strain. In addition, blocking acidification of the phagosome decreased the survival of the ST-17 strain indicating a pH-dependent survival mechanism for the ST-17 strain. Congruent with the macrophage experiments, the ST-17 strain had a higher survival rate in the multiple stress medium than the ST-12 strain, and overall, serotype III isolates survived significantly better than other serotypes. These results indicate that diverse GBS strains may use differing mechanisms to persist and that serotype III strains are better able to survive specific stressors inside the phagosome relative to other serotypes.


Asunto(s)
Macrófagos/microbiología , Fagosomas/microbiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidad , Estrés Fisiológico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Genotipo , Humanos , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitosis , Fagosomas/efectos de los fármacos , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Células THP-1 , Factores de Virulencia/genética
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