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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639847

RESUMEN

Evidence suggests that changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic were unevenly distributed over consumer groups. We investigated possible inter-country differences in how changes in alcohol consumption are contingent on initial consumption (before or at the start of the pandemic), and how changes in consumption translate into possible changes in the prevalence of heavy drinking. We used data from the European Survey on Alcohol use and COVID-19 (ESAC) conducted in Czechia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK (N = 31921). Past-year alcohol consumption and changes in consumption were measured by AUDIT-C. Drinking habits were compared according to percentiles of pre-pandemic consumption levels, below versus above the 90th percentile. Across countries, drinkers in the highest 10% for pre-pandemic consumption increased their drinking during the pandemic, whereas absolute changes among those initially drinking below this level were modest. The percentage of people reporting >28 alcohol units/week increased significantly in seven of eight countries. During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption in the upper decile of the drinkers increased as did the prevalence of heavy drinkers, in contrast with a declining consumption in other groups in the sample.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alcohólica , COVID-19 , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Addiction ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The lack of an agreed international minimum approach to measuring cannabis use hinders the integration of multidisciplinary evidence on the psychosocial, neurocognitive, clinical and public health consequences of cannabis use. METHODS: A group of 25 international expert cannabis researchers convened to discuss a multidisciplinary framework for minimum standards to measure cannabis use globally in diverse settings. RESULTS: The expert-based consensus agreed upon a three-layered hierarchical framework. Each layer - universal measures, detailed self-report and biological measures - reflected different research priorities and minimum standards, costs and ease of implementation. Additional work is needed to develop valid and precise assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent use of the proposed framework across research, public health, clinical practice and medical settings would facilitate harmonisation of international evidence on cannabis consumption, related harms and approaches to their mitigation.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcohólicos/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Colombia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Derivación y Consulta , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255843, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a programme to reduce alcohol consumption for drinkers with high alcohol consumption levels. Only 2.9% of patients in primary health care (PHC) are screened for their alcohol use in Germany, despite high levels of alcohol consumption and attributable harm. We developed an open-access simulation model to estimate the impact of higher SBIRT delivery rates in German PHC settings on population-level alcohol consumption. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hypothetical population of drinkers and non-drinkers was simulated by sex, age, and educational status for the year 2009 based on survey and sales data. Risky drinking persons receiving BI or RT were sampled from this population based on screening coverage and other parameters. Running the simulation model for a ten-year period, drinking levels and heavy episodic drinking (HED) status were changed based on effect sizes from meta-analyses. In the baseline scenario of 2.9% screening coverage, 2.4% of the adult German population received a subsequent intervention between 2009 and 2018. If every second PHC patient would have been screened for alcohol use, 21% of adult residents in Germany would have received BI or RT by the end of the ten-year simulation period. In this scenario, population-level alcohol consumption would be 11% lower than it was in 2018, without any impact on HED prevalence. Screening coverage rates below 10% were not found to have a measurable effect on drinking levels. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale implementation of SBIRT in PHC settings can yield substantial reductions of alcohol consumption in Germany. As high screening coverage rates may only be achievable in the long run, other effective alcohol policies are required to achieve short-term reduction of alcohol use and attributable harm in Germany. There is large potential to apply this open-access simulation model to other settings and for other alcohol interventions.

5.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(7): 496-505, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248222

RESUMEN

Objective: To validate a Russian-language version of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Methods: We invited 2173 patients from 21 rural and urban primary health-care centres in nine Russian regions to participate in the study (143 declined and eight were excluded). In a standardized interview, patients who had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months provided information on their sociodemographic characteristics and completed the Russian AUDIT, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to identify problem drinking and alcohol use disorders. We assessed the feasibility of administering the test, its internal consistency and its ability to predict hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders in primary health care in the Russian Federation. Findings: Of the 2022 patients included in the study, 1497 were current drinkers with Russian AUDIT scores. The test was internally consistent with good psychometric properties (Cronbach's α : 0.842) and accurately predicted alcohol use disorders and other outcomes (area under the curve > 75%). A three-item short form of the test correlated well with the full instrument and had similar predictive power (area under the curve > 80%). We determined sex-specific thresholds for all outcomes, as non-specific thresholds resulted in few women being identified. Conclusion: With the validated Russian AUDIT, there is no longer a barrier to introducing screening and brief interventions into primary health care in the Russian Federation to supplement successful alcohol control policies.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Atención Primaria de Salud , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Población Rural , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Población Urbana
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15127, 2021 07 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302018

RESUMEN

Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for premature mortality. Although alcohol control policies are known to impact all-cause mortality rates, the effect that policies have on specific age groups is an important area of research. This study investigates the effect of alcohol control policies implemented in 2009 and 2017 in Lithuania on all-cause mortality rates. All-cause mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 people) were obtained for 2001-2018 by 10-year age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 years, etc.). All-cause mortality rates, independent of macro-level secular trends (e.g., economic trends) were examined. Following a joinpoint analysis to control for secular trends, an interrupted time series analysis showed that alcohol control policies had a significant effect on all-cause mortality rates (p = .018), with the most significant impact occurring among young adults (20-29 and 30-39 years of age). For these age groups, their mortality rate decreased during the 12 months following policy implementation (following the policy in 2009 for those 20-29 years of age, p = .0026, and following the policy in 2017 for those 30-39 years of age, p = .011). The results indicate that alcohol control policy can impact all-cause mortality rates, above and beyond secular trends, and that the impact is significant among young adults.

8.
Addiction ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109685

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe as well as its associations with income and experiences of distress related to the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional on-line survey conducted between 24 April and 22 July 2020. SETTING: Twenty-one European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 964 adults reporting past-year drinking. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in alcohol consumption were measured by asking respondents about changes over the previous month in their drinking frequency, the quantity they consumed and incidence of heavy episodic drinking events. Individual indicators were combined into an aggregated consumption-change score and scaled to a possible range of -1 to +1. Using this score as the outcome, multi-level linear regressions tested changes in overall drinking, taking into account sampling weights and baseline alcohol consumption [Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C)] and country of residence serving as random intercept. Similar models were conducted for each single consumption-change indicator. FINDINGS: The aggregated consumption-change score indicated an average decrease in alcohol consumption of -0.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.18, -0.10]. Statistically significant decreases in consumption were found in all countries, except Ireland (-0.08, 95% CI = -0.17, 0.01) and the United Kingdom (+0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.17). Decreases in drinking were mainly driven by a reduced frequency of heavy episodic drinking events (-0.17, 95% CI = -0.20, -0.14). Declines in consumption were less marked among those with low- or average incomes and those experiencing distress. CONCLUSIONS: On average, alcohol consumption appears to have declined during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. Both reduced availability of alcohol and increased distress may have affected consumption, although the former seems to have had a greater impact in terms of immediate effects.

9.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e557-e565, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a policy option to reduce consumption of alcohol and the harm it does, on May 1, 2018, Scotland introduced a minimum price of 50 British pence (p) per unit of alcohol (8 g) sold; Wales followed suit on March 2, 2020, with the same minimum unit price (MUP). We analysed household purchase data based on bar codes to assess the impact of these policy options in the medium term for Scotland and in the immediate term for Wales. METHODS: For these location-controlled, interrupted time series regression analyses, the data source was Kantar WorldPanel's household shopping panel, which, at the time of our analysis, included 35 242 British households providing detailed information on 1·24 million separate alcohol purchases in 2015-18 and the first half of 2020. With no data exclusions, we analysed the impact of introducing MUP in Scotland, using purchases in northern England as control, and in Wales, using western England as control. The studied changes associated with MUP were price paid per gram of alcohol purchased, grams of alcohol purchased, and amount of money spent on alcohol. FINDINGS: In Scotland, price increases and purchase decreases following the introduction of MUP in 2018 were maintained during the first half of 2020. The difference between Scotland and northern England in 2020 was a price increase of 0·741 p per gram (95% CI 0·724-0·759), a 7·6% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·063 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·656-7·470), a 7·7% decrease. In Wales, the introduction of MUP led to similar results. The difference between Wales and western England was a price increase 0·841 of 0·841 p per gram (0·732-0·951), an 8·2% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·052 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·463-7·640), an 8·6% decrease. For both Scotland and Wales, reductions in overall purchases of alcohol were largely restricted to households that bought the most alcohol. The introduction of MUP was not associated with an increased expenditure on alcohol by households that generally bought small amounts of alcohol and, in particular, those with low incomes. The changes were not affected by the introduction of COVID-19 confinement in the UK on March 26, 2020. INTERPRETATION: The evidence base supporting the positive, targeted impact of MUP is strengthened by the comparable results for Scotland and Wales. The short-term impact of MUP in Scotland during 2018 is maintained during the first half of 2020. MUP is an effective alcohol policy option to reduce off-trade purchases of alcohol and should be widely considered. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/economía , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Escocia , Gales
10.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 39(7): 809-822, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970445

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-attributable costs to society are captured by cost-of-illness studies, however estimates are often not comparable, e.g. due to the omission of relevant cost components. In this contribution we (1) summarize the societal costs attributable to alcohol use, and (2) estimate the total costs under the assumption that all cost components are considered. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted for studies reporting costs from alcohol consumption for the years 2000 and later, using the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases. Cost estimates were converted into 2019 international dollars (Int$) per adult and into percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). For each study, weights were calculated to correct for the exclusion of cost indicators. RESULTS: Of 1708 studies identified, 29 were included, and the mean costs of alcohol use amounted to 817.6 Int$ per adult (95% confidence interval [CI] 601.8-1033.4), equivalent to 1.5% of the GDP (95% CI 1.2-1.7%). Adjusting for omission of cost components, the economic costs of alcohol consumption were estimated to amount to 1306 Int$ per adult (95% CI 873-1738), or 2.6% (95% CI 2.0-3.1%) of the GDP. About one-third of costs (38.8%) were incurred through direct costs, while the majority of costs were due to losses in productivity (61.2%). DISCUSSION: The identified cost studies were mainly conducted in high-income settings, with high heterogeneity in the employed methodology. Accounting for some methodological variations, our findings demonstrate that alcohol use continues to incur a high level of cost to many societies. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO #CRD42020139594.

11.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(3): e1875, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951258

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This contribution provides insights into the methodology of a pan-European population-based online survey, performed without external funding during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present the impact of different dissemination strategies to collect data from a non-probabilistic convenience sample and outline post-stratification weighting schemes, to provide guidance for future multi-country survey studies. METHODS: Description and comparison of dissemination strategies for five exemplary countries (Czechia, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Spain) participating in the Alcohol Use and COVID-19 Survey. Comparison of the sample distribution with the country's actual population distribution according to sociodemographics, and development of weighting schemes. RESULTS: The dissemination of online surveys through national newspapers, paid social media adverts and dissemination with the support of national health ministries turned out to be the most effective strategies. Monitoring the responses and adapting dissemination strategies to reach under-represented groups, and the application of sample weights were helpful to achieve an analytic sample matching the respective general population profiles. CONCLUSION: Reaching a large pan-European convenience sample, including most European countries, in a short time was feasible, with the support of a broad scientific network.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , República Checa/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Lituania/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(5): 899-911, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We summarize research on the public stigmatization of persons with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in comparison with other mental health conditions and embed the results into a conceptual framework of the stigma process. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search using Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed and PsycINFO (via Ovid), and Web of Science for population-based studies on the public stigma in AUD and at least 1 other mental health condition, published between October 1, 2010 and December 20, 2020, thus including all studies published since the last systematic review on this topic. The study is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020173054). RESULTS: We identified 20,561 records, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria, reporting results from 16 unique studies conducted in 9 different countries. Compared to substance-unrelated mental disorders, persons with AUD were generally less likely to be considered mentally ill, while they were perceived as being more dangerous and responsible for their condition. Further, the public desire for social distance was consistently higher for people with AUD. We found no consistent differences in the public stigma toward persons with AUD in comparison with other substance use disorders. CONCLUSION: The stigmatization of persons with AUD remains comparatively high and is distinct from that of other substance-unrelated disorders.

13.
J Hepatol ; 75(3): 536-546, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892007

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite a marked reduction in new cases of cirrhosis caused by HCV infection, over 500,000 new cirrhosis cases in this category were estimated globally in 2019. This contribution quantifies the relationship between alcohol use and the progression of liver disease in people with HCV infections. METHODS: The causal impact of different levels of alcohol use on cirrhosis has previously been established. The quantification of this relationship was undertaken based on a systematic search of the literature and a meta-analysis. We limited our search to longitudinal and case-control studies with biologically verified outcomes. Different sensitivity analyses were conducted to check on key assumptions and on the generalizability of the relationship. RESULTS: Alcohol use has a dose-dependent relationship with incident cirrhosis, which is linear on the log-linear level, and thus exponential on the level of odds ratios or other risk indicators. Each standard drink of 12 grams of pure alcohol per day increases the risk by about 11%. The results were stable regardless of the statistical model used, level of adjustment, quality of the study, or outcome (i.e., cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, liver-related death). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use has a marked impact on the progression of HCV infections to cirrhosis and more severe liver outcomes. LAY SUMMARY: Alcohol consumption has a significant impact on the progression of liver disease in people with HCV infections. Each alcoholic drink per day is associated with an increase in the risk of cirrhosis of 11%.

14.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(5): 869-876, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899647

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This contribution gives an overview on estimating the economic impact of substance use (SU) and substance use disorders (SUDs) from a societal perspective. AREAS COVERED: In this Expert Review, we first discuss the scope of the economic costs of SU to society and the methods used to estimate them. In general, cost studies should not be limited to SUDs, but should also include costs related to the consequences of any type of SU to achieve a comprehensive picture of the societal burden. Further, estimating potentially avoidable costs will increase the value of cost studies. Importantly, methodologically sound cost studies shed light on the magnitude of societal problems related to SU and can be used as a reference point to evaluate regulatory policies and other preventive measures. The area of estimating potential economic benefits of SU is understudied and lacks a theoretical and methodological framework. EXPERT OPINION: Overall, economic studies on the impact of SU and SUDs can strongly contribute to better-informed decision-making in the creation of regulatory and control policies. The least developed area of research refers to a consensus methodology that could be used in studies which compare economic costs to potential economic benefits.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/economía , Política de Salud , Humanos
15.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 36, 2021 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 reached Europe in early 2020 and disrupted the private and public life of its citizens, with potential implications for substance use. The objective of this study was to describe possible changes in substance use in the first months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional online survey of 36,538 adult substance users from 21 European countries conducted between April 24 and July 22 of 2020. Self-perceived changes in substance use were measured by asking respondents whether their use had decreased (slightly or substantially), increased (slightly or substantially), or not changed during the past month. The survey covered alcohol (frequency, quantity, and heavy episodic drinking occasions), tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use. Sample weighted data were descriptively analysed and compared across substances. RESULTS: Across all countries, use of all substances remained unchanged for around half of the respondents, while the remainder reported either a decrease or increase in their substance use. For alcohol use, overall, a larger proportion of respondents indicated a decrease than those reporting an increase. In contrast, more respondents reported increases in their tobacco and cannabis use during the previous month compared to those reporting decreased use. No distinct direction of change was reported for other substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest changes in use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during the initial months of the pandemic in several European countries. This study offers initial insights into changes in substance use. Other data sources, such as sales statistics, should be used to corroborate these preliminary findings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801260

RESUMEN

Due to the high levels of alcohol use, alcohol-attributable mortality and burden of disease, and detrimental drinking patterns, Lithuania implemented a series of alcohol control policies within a relatively short period of time, between 2008 and 2019. Based on their expected impact on alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable harm, as well as their target population, these policies have been classified using a set of objective criteria and expert opinion. The classification criteria included: positive vs. negative outcomes, mainly immediate vs. delayed outcomes, and general population vs. specific group outcomes. The judgement of the alcohol policy experts converged on the objective criteria, and, as a result, two tiers of intervention were identified: Tier 1-highly effective general population interventions with an anticipated immediate impact; Tier 2-other interventions aimed at the general population. In addition, interventions directed at specific populations were identified. This adaptable methodological approach to alcohol control policy classification is intended to provide guidance and support for the evaluation of alcohol policies elsewhere, to lay the foundation for the critical assessment of the policies to improve health and increase life expectancy, and to reduce crime and violence.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Etanol , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Lituania/epidemiología
17.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(5): 373-379, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709997

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: SBIRT programs (Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment) for at-risk drinkers in emergency departments (ED) have shown to be effective, particularly at short term. In this article, we report mid and long-term follow-up results of a specialized SBIRT program. A short-term follow-up after 1.5 months showed encouraging results, with more than a 20% greater reduction of at-risk drinking in the intervention group and more than double of successful referrals to specialized treatment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the mid and long-term efficacy of an SBIRT program conducted by psychiatrist specialists in addictive disorders and motivational interviewing in the ED of a tertiary hospital. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a previously published randomized controlled trial of an SBIRT program conducted by alcohol specialists for at-risk drinkers presenting to the ED, measured with the AUDIT-C scale. INTERVENTION OR EXPOSURE: Patients were randomized into two groups, with the control group receiving two leaflets: one regarding alcohol use and the other giving information about the study protocol. The intervention group received the same leaflets as well as a brief motivational intervention on alcohol use and, where appropriate, a referral to specialized treatment. OUTCOMES MEASURE AND ANALYSIS: Long-term assessment primary outcome was the proportion of at-risk alcohol use measured by AUDIT-C scale. The main effectiveness analysis at 18 weeks and 12 months' follow-up was conducted with multilevel logistic regression analyses. Missing values were imputed with the last observation carried forward. MAIN RESULTS: Of 200 patients included in the study, 133 (66.5%) and 131 (65.5%) completed 18 weeks and 1-year follow-up respectively. Although the proportion of risky drinkers was substantially lower in the intervention group (38.5 vs. 57.4% at 4.5 months and 58.5 vs 68.2% at 1 year), these results did not reach statistical significance (OR = 2.15; CI, 0.87-5.33). CONCLUSIONS: In this secondary analysis for mid- and long-term effects of a specialized SBIRT program, there was no significant difference in the reduction of risky drinkers at 18 weeks and 1 year. The small size of the studied sample and the low retention rate precluded any significant conclusion, although point estimates suggest a positive effect. Overall, SBIRT programs are an effective tool to reduce alcohol use at short time and to refer patients to specialized treatment; however, its effects seem to decay over time.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Alcoholismo/terapia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Derivación y Consulta
18.
Addiction ; 116(10): 2673-2684, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751693

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol use has been identified as a major risk factor for burden of mortality and disease, particularly for countries in eastern Europe. During the past two decades, several countries in this region have implemented effective alcohol policy measures to combat this burden. The aim of the current study was to measure the association between Lithuania's alcohol control policies and adult all-cause mortality. DESIGN: Interrupted time-series methodology by means of general additive models. SETTING: Lithuania. PARTICIPANTS: Adult population of Lithuania, aged 20 years and older. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol control policies were ascertained via a document review of relevant legislation materials. Policy effects were evaluated as follows: (1) slope changes in periods of legislative (non-)activity with regard to alcohol control policy (analysis 1); (2) level changes of three interventions following recommendations of the World Health Organization (analysis 2); and (3) level changes of seven interventions judged a priori by an international panel of experts (analysis 3). Mortality was measured by sex-stratified and total monthly age-standardized rates of all-cause mortality for the adult population. FINDINGS: During the period 2001-18, effective alcohol control policy measures were implemented on several occasions, and in those years the all-cause mortality rate declined by approximately 3.2% more than in years without such policies. In particular, the implementation of increased taxation in 2017 was associated with reduced mortality over and above the general trend for men and in total for all analyses, which amounted to 1452 deaths avoided (95% confidence interval = -166 to -2739) in the year following the implementation of the policy. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol control policies in Lithuania appear to have reduced the overall adult all-cause mortality over and above secular trends.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Política Pública , Adulto , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Lituania/epidemiología , Masculino , Mortalidad , Impuestos
19.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783063

RESUMEN

ISSUES: Alcohol use has been shown to impact on various forms of liver disease, not restricted to alcoholic liver disease. APPROACH: We developed a conceptual framework based on a narrative review of the literature to identify causal associations between alcohol use and various forms of liver disease including the complex interactions of alcohol with other major risk factors. Based on this framework, we estimate the identified relations for 2017 for the USA. KEY FINDINGS: The following pathways were identified and modelled for the USA for the year 2017. Alcohol use caused 35 200 (95% uncertainty interval 32 800-37 800) incident cases of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. There were 1700 (uncertainty interval 1100-2500) acute hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections attributable to heavy-drinking occasions, and 14 000 (uncertainty interval 5900-19 500) chronic HBV and 1700 (uncertainty interval 700-2400) chronic HCV infections due to heavy alcohol use interfering with spontaneous clearance. Alcohol use and its interactions with other risk factors (HBV, HCV, obesity) led to 54 500 (uncertainty interval 50 900-58 400) new cases of liver cirrhosis. In addition, alcohol use caused 6600 (uncertainty interval 4200-9300) liver cancer deaths and 40 700 (uncertainty interval 36 600-44 600) liver cirrhosis deaths. IMPLICATIONS: Alcohol use causes a substantial number of incident cases and deaths from chronic liver disease, often in interaction with other risk factors. CONCLUSION: This additional disease burden is not reflected in the current alcoholic liver disease categories. Clinical work and prevention policies need to take this into consideration.

20.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 802-807, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667019

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are likely to suffer disproportionate harms related to the COVID-19 pandemic and related policy measures. While many surveys have been conducted, most are focused on drinking changes in the general population and validation with biological markers is lacking. METHOD: We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients with AUD attending a urine drug screening program. With mixed-effects logistic regression models, we assessed the probability of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide according to patients' main clinical characteristics and time of analysis (either prior to or after a lockdown was implemented in Spain). RESULTS: A total of 362 patients provided 2,040 urine samples (1,295 prior to lockdown, 745 during lockdown). The mean age of participants was 52.0 years (SD 12.6), and 69.2% were men. Of the 43% of patients tested for other drugs 22% screened positive. After adjusting for all covariates, the odds of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide during lockdown almost doubled (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.33, p = 0.008). Other significant covariates included testing positive for other drugs (OR = 10.79, 95% CI 4.60 to 26.97) and length of treatment (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an association between the lockdown due to COVID-19 and increased alcohol use in patients with AUD. Thus, addiction healthcare systems could face significant challenges ahead. In light of these findings, it is essential to evaluate prospectively how patients with AUD are affected by the pandemic and how health systems respond to their needs.


Asunto(s)
Abstinencia de Alcohol/tendencias , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Cuarentena/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Abstinencia de Alcohol/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , COVID-19/psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Cuarentena/psicología , Estudios Retrospectivos , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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