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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 167, 2020 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease classified into two subgroups for therapeutic purposes: paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB), closely related to the host immune responses. In this context it is noteworthy looking for immunological biomarkers applicable as complementary diagnostic tools as well as a laboratorial strategy to follow-up leprosy household contacts. METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 49 participants, including 19 patients and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and incubated in the presence of Mycobacterium leprae bacilli. The cells were prepared for surface (CD4+ and CD8+) and intracytoplasmic cytokine staining (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10). Multiple comparisons amongst groups were carried out by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Student T or Mann-Whitney test. Comparative analysis of categorical variables was performed by Chi-square. Functional biomarker signature analysis was conducted using the global median values for each biomarker index as the cut-off edge to identify the proportion of subjects with high biomarker levels. RESULTS: The cytokine signature analysis demonstrated that leprosy patients presented a polyfunctional profile of T-cells subsets, with increased frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cell subsets along with IL-10+ and IL-4+ from CD4+ T-cells, as compared to health Controls (Venn diagram report). Moreover, statistical analysis was carried out using parametric or non-parametric variance analysis followed by pairwise multiple comparisons, according to the data normality distribution. L(PB) displayed a polyfunctional profile characterized by enhanced percentage of IFN-γ+, IL-10+ and IL-4+ produced by most T-cell subsets, as compared to L(MB) that presented a more restricted cytokine functional profile mediated by IL-10+ and IL-4+ T-cells with minor contribution of IFN-γ produced by CD4+ T-cells. Noteworthy was that HHC(MB) exhibited enhanced frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cells, contrasting with HHC(PB) that presented a cytokine profile limited to IL-10 and IL-4. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that L(PB) displayed enhanced percentage of IFN-γ+, IL-10+ and IL-4+ as compared to L(MB) that presented functional profile mediated by IL-10+ and IL-4+ T-cells and HHC(MB) exhibited enhanced frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cells, contrasting with HHC(PB). Together, our findings provide additional immunological features associated with leprosy and household contacts. These data provide evidence that biomarkers of immune response can be useful complementary diagnostic/prognostic tools as well as insights that household contacts should be monitored to access putative subclinical infection.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Lepra/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Células Cultivadas , Niño , Trazado de Contacto , Estudios Transversales , Citocinas/inmunología , Salud de la Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/clasificación , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/inmunología , Adulto Joven
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 153, 2018 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Characterization of the Mycobacterium leprae genome has made possible the development of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems that can amplify different genomic regions. Increased reliability and technical efficiency of quantitative PCR (qPCR) makes it a promising tool for early diagnosis of leprosy. Index cases that are multibacillary spread the bacillus silently, even before they are clinically diagnosed. Early detection and treatment could prevent transmission in endemic areas. METHODS: In this study, the qPCR technique is used to detect DNA of M. leprae in samples of slit skin smears (SSS) of the ear lobe and blood of leprosy patients and their asymptomatic household contacts residing in Governador Valadares, MG, Brazil, a hyperendemic area for leprosy. A total of 164 subjects participated in the study: 43 index cases, 113 household contacts, and, as negative controls, 8 individuals who reported no contact with patients nor history of leprosy in the family. The qPCR was performed to amplify 16S rRNA fragments and was specifically designed for M. leprae. RESULTS: Of asymptomatic household contacts, 23.89% showed bacillary DNA by qPCR in samples of SSS and blood. Also, 48.84% of patients diagnosed with leprosy were positive for qPCR while the bacillary load was positive in only 30.23% of patients. It is important to note that most patients were already receiving treatment when the collection of biological material for qPCR was performed. The level of bacillary DNA from household contacts was similar to the DNA levels detected in the group of paucibacillary patients. CONCLUSION: Considering that household contacts comprise a recognizable group of individuals with a high risk of disease, as they live in close proximity to a source of infection, qPCR can be used to estimate the risk of progress towards leprosy among household contacts and as a routine screening method for a chemoprophylactic protocol.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Composición Familiar , Lepra/epidemiología , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/diagnóstico , Lepra/transmisión , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/análisis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
3.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170467, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513821

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Leprosy remains a health problem in many countries, with difficulties in diagnosis resulting in delayed treatment and more severe disabilities. Antibodies against several Mycobacterium leprae antigens have, however, shown value as diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate serum immunoglobulin (Ig) IgM and IgG subclass reactivity against three M. leprae specific antigens: NDO-HSA, a conjugate formed by natural octyl disaccharide bound to human serum albumin; LID-1, the fusion protein product of the ml0405 and ml2331 genes; and NDO-LID, a combination of LID-1 and NDO. METHODS Sera from healthy controls, paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients, and their respective household contacts, were evaluated for the presence of antigen-specific IgM, IgG, and IgG subclass antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity and specificity of each ELISA were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. FINDINGS Our data confirm that serum IgM antibodies against NDO-HSA and IgG antibodies against LID-1, as well as IgG/M antibodies against NDO-LID, are markedly increased in MB patients. For the first time, our data reveal a selective increase in IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against LID-1 and NDO-LID in MB patients, demonstrating that these antibody isotypes are suitable for differentiation between MB and PB patients. ROC curve analysis indicates an improved capacity for diagnosing MB leprosy patients using the detection of IgG antibodies, particularly the IgG1 isotype, specific to LID-1 and NDO-LID over the performance levels attained with NDO-HSA. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that serological tests based on the detection of antigen-specific IgG1 antibodies are a useful tool to differentiate MB from PB patients, and indicate the enhanced performance of the LID-1 and NDO-LID antigens in the serodiagnosis of leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Antígenos Bacterianos/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Trazado de Contacto , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Humanos , Lepra Multibacilar/inmunología , Lepra Paucibacilar/inmunología , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170467, 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-894925

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Leprosy remains a health problem in many countries, with difficulties in diagnosis resulting in delayed treatment and more severe disabilities. Antibodies against several Mycobacterium leprae antigens have, however, shown value as diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate serum immunoglobulin (Ig) IgM and IgG subclass reactivity against three M. leprae specific antigens: NDO-HSA, a conjugate formed by natural octyl disaccharide bound to human serum albumin; LID-1, the fusion protein product of the ml0405 and ml2331 genes; and NDO-LID, a combination of LID-1 and NDO. METHODS Sera from healthy controls, paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients, and their respective household contacts, were evaluated for the presence of antigen-specific IgM, IgG, and IgG subclass antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity and specificity of each ELISA were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. FINDINGS Our data confirm that serum IgM antibodies against NDO-HSA and IgG antibodies against LID-1, as well as IgG/M antibodies against NDO-LID, are markedly increased in MB patients. For the first time, our data reveal a selective increase in IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against LID-1 and NDO-LID in MB patients, demonstrating that these antibody isotypes are suitable for differentiation between MB and PB patients. ROC curve analysis indicates an improved capacity for diagnosing MB leprosy patients using the detection of IgG antibodies, particularly the IgG1 isotype, specific to LID-1 and NDO-LID over the performance levels attained with NDO-HSA. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that serological tests based on the detection of antigen-specific IgG1 antibodies are a useful tool to differentiate MB from PB patients, and indicate the enhanced performance of the LID-1 and NDO-LID antigens in the serodiagnosis of leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
5.
J Adv Res ; 8(1): 55-61, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053782

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are part of the human microbiota and are also important bacterial pathogens, for which therapeutic options are lacking nowadays. The combined administration of corticosteroids and antimicrobials is commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases to control inflammatory processes and to minimize potential toxicity of antimicrobials, avoiding sequelae. Although different pharmaceutical dosage forms of antimicrobials combined to corticosteroids are available, studies on the interference of corticosteroids on the pharmacological activity of antimicrobials are scarce and controversial. Here, we provide evidence of the interference of dexamethasone on the pharmacological activity of clinically important antimicrobial drugs against biofilms and planktonic cells of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Broth microdilution assays of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of gentamicin, chloramphenicol, oxacillin, ceftriaxone and meropenem were conducted with and without the addition of dexamethasone. The effect of all drugs was abrogated by dexamethasone in their MIC, MBC, and MBEC, except gentamicin and meropenem, for which the MBC was not affected in some strains. The present study opens doors for more investigations on in vitro and in vivo effects and safety of the combination of antimicrobials and glucocorticoids.

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