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1.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(3): 93, 2024 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367154

RESUMEN

In recent decades, Saiga antelope (Saiga t. tatarica) mass die-offs have become more common. The mass die-off of 2015 in central Kazakhstan, recorded 140,000 individual deaths across multiple herds. Previously, research has shown atmospheric humidity, the bacterium Pasteurella multocida serotype B, and resultant haemorrhagic septicaemia, were the primary cause. However, other synergistic factors may have impacted this process. Here we use a multivariate compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach to assess what other factors may have been involved. We show a pollutant linkage mechanism where relative humidity and dewpoint temperature combine with environmental pollutants, potentially toxic elements (e.g., Hg, As), complex carbon compounds (e.g., Acetone, Toluene), and inorganic compounds (e.g., CHx, SO2) which affected the Saiga during the calving season (start and peak) and at the onset of the mass die-off. We suggest a mechanism for this process. Upon arrival at their carving grounds, the Saiga experienced a sudden precipitation event, a spike in temperatures, and resultant high humidity occurs. The infectious bacterium P. multocida serotype B then spreads. Further, environmental pollutants contained within steppe soils are released to the air, forming localised smog events, these synergistically combine, and mass die-off occurs.


Asunto(s)
Antílopes , Contaminantes Ambientales , Animales , Antílopes/microbiología , Cambio Climático , Kazajstán
2.
Anim Biotelemetry ; 10(1): 10, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37521810

RESUMEN

Background: Recent developments in both hardware and software of animal-borne data loggers now enable large amounts of data to be collected on both animal movement and behaviour. In particular, the combined use of tri-axial accelerometers, tri-axial magnetometers and GPS loggers enables animal tracks to be elucidated using a procedure of 'dead-reckoning'. Although this approach was first suggested 30 years ago by Wilson et al. (1991), surprisingly few measurements have been made in free-ranging terrestrial animals. The current study examines movements, interactions with habitat features, and home-ranges calculated from just GPS data and also from dead-reckoned data in a model terrestrial mammal, the European badger (Meles meles). Methods: Research was undertaken in farmland in Northern Ireland. Two badgers (one male, one female) were live-trapped and fitted with a GPS logger, a tri-axial accelerometer, and a tri-axial magnetometer. Thereafter, the badgers' movement paths over 2 weeks were elucidated using just GPS data and GPS-enabled dead-reckoned data, respectively. Results: Badgers travelled further using data from dead-reckoned calculations than using the data from only GPS data. Whilst once-hourly GPS data could only be represented by straight-line movements between sequential points, the sub-second resolution dead-reckoned tracks were more tortuous. Although there were no differences in Minimum Convex Polygon determinations between GPS- and dead-reckoned data, Kernel Utilisation Distribution determinations of home-range size were larger using the former method. This was because dead-reckoned data more accurately described the particular parts of landscape constituting most-visited core areas, effectively narrowing the calculation of habitat use. Finally, the dead-reckoned data showed badgers spent more time near to field margins and hedges than simple GPS data would suggest. Conclusion: Significant differences emerge when analyses of habitat use and movements are compared between calculations made using just GPS data or GPS-enabled dead-reckoned data. In particular, use of dead-reckoned data showed that animals moved 2.2 times farther, had better-defined use of the habitat (revealing clear core areas), and made more use of certain habitats (field margins, hedges). Use of dead-reckoning to provide detailed accounts of animal movement and highlight the minutiae of interactions with the environment should be considered an important technique in the ecologist's toolkit.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145246, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736251

RESUMEN

Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) otherwise known as heavy metals are ubiquitous in soils and can have a range of negative health and environmental impacts. In terrestrial systems understanding how PTEs move in the environment is made challenging by the complex interactions within soil and the wider environment and the compositional nature of PTEs. PTEs are compositional because data of individual PTEs within in a sample are ratios which may be under a sum constraint, where individual components sum up to a whole. In this study three different scenarios were considered, one using the centred log ratio transformation (clr) a compositional transformation, the more "traditional" log10 transformation (log10) and untransformed data acting as a comparison (unt) were applied to four different datasets. Three were the Liver, Muscle and Kidney tissue of Eurasian Badgers (Meles meles) and the fourth was soil and data were extracted from a regional geospatial survey. Cluster analysis demonstrated that the clr and log10 transformation were able to resolve compositional trends at the point of the individual sample, whilst unt could not and did not meet the preconditions for the next phase of analysis. At the level of compositional trends between PTEs complex heatmaps demonstrated that clr was able to isolate PTE relationships and highlight commonalities between different datasets, whilst log10 could not. In the final phase, principal component analysis (PCA) of the clr transformation showed similarities between the signals in the soft tissues and the disparities they had with soil, whilst the log10 transformation was unable to achieve this. Overall, the clr transformation was shown to perform more consistently under a variety of analytical scenarios and the compositional approach will provide more realistic interpretations about PTEs in both soil and animal soft tissue than the log10 or unt conditions.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Ecotoxicología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 143087, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131870

RESUMEN

Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Badgers (Meles meles), otherwise known as heavy metals, are unique amongst environmental pollutants occurring, both naturally and anthropogenically. PTEs have a broad range of negative health and environmental effects, therefore identifying their sources and pathways through the environment is imperative for public health policy. This is difficult in terrestrial systems due to the compositional nature of soil geochemistry. In this study, a compositional statistical approach was used to identify how PTEs accumulate in a terrestrial carnivorous mammal, Eurasian Badgers (Meles meles). Compositional principal component analysis (PCA) was used on geochemical data from the Tellus survey, the soil baseline and badger tissue data to map geo-spatial patterns of PTEs and show accumulative trends measured in time. Mapping PCs identified distinct regions of PTE presence in soil and PTE accumulation in badger tissues in Northern Ireland. PTEs were most elevated in liver, kidney and then muscle tissues. Liver and kidney showed the most distinct geo-spatial patterns of accumulation and muscle was the most depleted. PC1 and 2 for each type were modelled using generalised additive mixed models (GAMM) to identify trends through time. PC1 for the liver and muscle were associated with rainfall and ∂N15 in the liver, showing a link to diet and a bioaccumulation pathway, whilst PC2 for both tissues was associated with mean temperature, showing a link to seasonal activity and a bioaccessibility pathway. However, in kidney tissue these trends are reversed and PC1 was associated with bioaccessibility and PC2 with bioaccumulation. Combined these techniques can elucidate both geo-spatial trends in PTEs and the mechanisms by which they move in environment and in future may be an effective tool for assessing PTE bioavailability in environmental health surveys.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Mustelidae , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Metales Pesados/análisis , Irlanda del Norte , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
5.
Mov Ecol ; 3(1): 23, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26380711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Research on wild animal ecology is increasingly employing GPS telemetry in order to determine animal movement. However, GPS systems record position intermittently, providing no information on latent position or track tortuosity. High frequency GPS have high power requirements, which necessitates large batteries (often effectively precluding their use on small animals) or reduced deployment duration. Dead-reckoning is an alternative approach which has the potential to 'fill in the gaps' between less resolute forms of telemetry without incurring the power costs. However, although this method has been used in aquatic environments, no explicit demonstration of terrestrial dead-reckoning has been presented. RESULTS: We perform a simple validation experiment to assess the rate of error accumulation in terrestrial dead-reckoning. In addition, examples of successful implementation of dead-reckoning are given using data from the domestic dog Canus lupus, horse Equus ferus, cow Bos taurus and wild badger Meles meles. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents how terrestrial dead-reckoning can be undertaken, describing derivation of heading from tri-axial accelerometer and tri-axial magnetometer data, correction for hard and soft iron distortions on the magnetometer output, and presenting a novel correction procedure to marry dead-reckoned paths to ground-truthed positions. This study is the first explicit demonstration of terrestrial dead-reckoning, which provides a workable method of deriving the paths of animals on a step-by-step scale. The wider implications of this method for the understanding of animal movement ecology are discussed.

6.
Parasitology ; 131 Suppl: S143-67, 2005.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16569287

RESUMEN

Flatworm, nematode and arthropod parasites have proven their ability to develop resistance to currently available chemotherapeutics. The heavy reliance on chemotherapy and the ability of target species to develop resistance has prompted the search for novel drug targets. In view of its importance to parasite/pest survival, the neuromusculature of parasitic helminths and pest arthropod species remains an attractive target for the discovery of novel endectocide targets. Exploitation of the neuropeptidergic system in helminths and arthropods has been hampered by a limited understanding of the functional roles of individual peptides and the structure of endogenous targets, such as receptors. Basic research into these systems has the potential to facilitate target characterization and its offshoots (screen development and drug identification). Of particular interest to parasitologists is the fact that selected neuropeptide families are common to metazoan pest species (nematodes, platyhelminths and arthropods) and fulfil specific roles in the modulation of muscle function in each of the three phyla. This article reviews the inter-phyla activity of two peptide families, the FMRFamide-like peptides and allatostatins, on motor function in helminths and arthropods and discusses the potential of neuropeptide signalling as a target system that could uncover novel endectocidal agents.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos/fisiología , FMRFamida/fisiología , Helmintos/fisiología , Neuropéptidos/fisiología , Receptores de Neuropéptido/fisiología , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Animales , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Artrópodos/efectos de los fármacos , FMRFamida/efectos de los fármacos , FMRFamida/aislamiento & purificación , Helmintos/efectos de los fármacos , Insecticidas/farmacología , Neuropéptidos/clasificación , Neuropéptidos/efectos de los fármacos , Control de Plagas/métodos , Receptores de Péptidos de Invertebrados/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores de Péptidos de Invertebrados/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropéptido/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos
7.
Int J Parasitol ; 33(8): 859-76, 2003 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12865086

RESUMEN

Caenorhabditis elegans possesses 22 FMRFamide-like peptide (flp) genes predicted to encode 60 different FMRFamide-related peptides with a range of C-terminal signatures. Peptides from five flp genes (1, 6, 8, 9 and 14) are known to modulate the ovijector of Ascaris suum in vitro. This study examines the physiological effects of peptides from the remaining 17 flp genes such that the variety of FMRFamide-related peptide-induced ovijector response types can be delineated. Five categories of response were identified according to the pattern of changes in contractile behaviour and baseline tension. Peptides encoded on 16 flp genes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 20) had qualitatively similar inhibitory (response type 1) actions, with the lowest activity thresholds (1 nM) recorded for peptides with FIRFamide or FLRFamide C-terminal signatures. Peptides encoded on four flp genes (2, 18, 19 and 21), and on the A. suum afp-1 gene, had excitatory actions on the ovijector (response type 2), with PGVLRFamides having the lowest activity threshold (1 nM). An flp-2 peptide (LRGEPIRFamide) induced a transient contraction of the ovijector (activity threshold, 10nM) that was designated response type 3. Response type 4 comprised a transient contraction followed by an extended period of inactivity and was observed with peptides encoded on flp-5 (AGAKFIRFamide, APKPKFIRFamide), flp-8 (KNEFIRFamide) and flp-22 (SPSAKWMRFamide). SPSAKWMRFamide was the most potent peptide tested with an activity threshold of 0.1 nM. A single peptide (AMRNALVRFamide; activity threshold 0.1 microM), encoded on flp-11, induced response type 5, a shortening of the ovijector coupled with an increase in contraction frequency. Although most flp genes encode structurally related peptides that trigger one of the five ovijector response types, flp-2 and flp-11 co-encode FMRFamide-related peptides that induce distinct responses. Within the ovijector of A. suum FaRPs play a complex role involving at least five receptor subtypes or signalling pathways.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris suum/efectos de los fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/química , FMRFamida/farmacología , Genitales Femeninos/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Ascaris suum/fisiología , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , FMRFamida/química , FMRFamida/genética , Femenino , Genes de Helminto , Genitales Femeninos/fisiología , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Porcinos/parasitología
8.
Parasitology ; 126(Pt 3): 273-82, 2003 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12666886

RESUMEN

The major muscle systems of the metacercaria of the strigeid trematode, Apatemon cobitidis proterorhini have been examined using phalloidin as a site-specific probe for filamentous actin. Regional differences were evident in the organization of the body wall musculature of the forebody and hindbody, the former comprising outer circular, intermediate longitudinal and inner diagonal fibres, the latter having the inner diagonal fibres replaced with an extra layer of more widely spaced circular muscle. Three orientations of muscle fibres (equatorial, meridional, radial) were discernible in the oral sucker, acetabulum and paired lappets. Large longitudinal extensor and flexor muscles project into the hindbody where they connect to the body wall or end blindly. Innervation to the muscle systems of Apatemon was examined by immunocytochemistry, using antibodies to known myoactive substances: the flatworm FMRFamide-related neuropeptide (FaRP), GYIRFamide, and the biogenic amine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Strong immunostaining for both peptidergic and serotoninergic components was found in the central nervous system and confocal microscopic mapping of the distribution of these neuroactive substances revealed they occupied separate neuronal pathways. In the peripheral nervous system, GYIRFamide-immunoreactivity was extensive and, in particular, associated with the innervation of all attachment structures; serotoninergic fibres, on the other hand, were localized to the oral sucker and pharynx and to regions along the anterior margins of the forebody.


Asunto(s)
Músculos/anatomía & histología , Músculos/inervación , Trematodos/anatomía & histología , Animales , Sistema Digestivo/anatomía & histología , Sistema Digestivo/ultraestructura , Microscopía Confocal , Músculos/ultraestructura , Sistema Nervioso/anatomía & histología , Trematodos/ultraestructura
9.
Int J Parasitol ; 33(2): 199-208, 2003 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12633657

RESUMEN

KHEYLRF-NH(2) (AF2) is a FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) present in parasitic and free-living nematodes. At concentrations as low as 10 pM, AF2 induces a biphasic tension response, consisting of a transient relaxation followed by profound excitation, in neuromuscular strips prepared from Ascaris suum. In the present study, the effects of AF2 on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) levels were measured following muscle tension recordings from 2 cm neuromuscular strips prepared from adult A. suum. AF2 induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in cAMP, beginning at 1 nM; cAMP levels increased by 84-fold following 1 h exposure to 1 microM AF2. cGMP and IP(3) levels were unaffected by AF2 at concentrations

Asunto(s)
Ascaris suum/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Unión Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Neuropéptidos/farmacología , Animales , Ascaris suum/efectos de los fármacos , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Femenino , Técnicas In Vitro , Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Unión Neuromuscular/efectos de los fármacos , Estimulación Química
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 286(5): 1170-6, 2001 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11527423

RESUMEN

To date, 9 FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been structurally characterised from Caenorhabditis elegans. Radioimmunometrical screening of an ethanolic extract of C. elegans revealed the presence of two additional FaRPs that were purified by reverse-phase HPLC and subjected to Edman degradation analysis and gas-phase sequencing. Unequivocal primary structures for the two FaRPs were determined as Ala-Ala-Asp-Gly-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ile-Arg-Phe-NH(2) and Ser-Val-Pro-Gly-Val-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2). Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the molecular masses of the peptides were found to be 1032 Da (MH) and 875 Da (MH)(+), respectively. Two copies of AADGAPLIRFamide are predicted to be encoded on the precursor gene termed flp-13, while one copy of SVPGVLRFamide is located on flp-18. Synthetic replicates of the peptides were tested on Ascaris suum somatic muscle to assess bioactivity. ADDGAPLIRFamide had inhibitory effects on A. suum muscle strips, which occurred over a range of concentrations from a threshold for activity of 10 nM to 10 microM. SVPGVLRFamide was excitatory on A. suum somatic musculature from a threshold concentration for activity of 1 nM to 10 microM. The inhibitory and excitatory effects of AADGAPLIRFamide and SVPGVLRFamide, respectively, were the same for dorsal and ventral muscle strips as well as innervated and denervated preparations, suggesting that these physiological effects are not nerve cord dependent. Addition of ADDGAPLIRFamide (10 microM) to muscle strips preincubated in high-K(+) and -Ca(2+)-free medium resulted in a normal inhibitory response. Peptide addition to muscle strips preincubated in Cl(-)-free medium showed no inhibitory response, suggesting that the inhibitory response of the peptide may be chloride mediated. A normal excitatory response was noted following the addition of 10 microM SVPGVLRFamide to muscle strips preincubated in high-K(+), Ca(2+)- and Cl(-)-free media.


Asunto(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans/química , FMRFamida/química , Oligopéptidos/química , Péptidos/química , Péptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris suum , Calcio/química , Cloruros/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Electrofisiología , Femenino , Espectrometría de Masas , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Oligopéptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Potasio/química , Análisis de Secuencia de Proteína , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Parasitology ; 121 ( Pt 3): 325-36, 2000 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11085252

RESUMEN

Ascaris suum possesses a well-developed nervous system which is regulated by a number of classical neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACh), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and serotonin. The vagina vera, the distal part of the ovijector, displays intrinsic, rhythmic activity which has been shown to be modulated by FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in vitro. Confocal scanning laser microscopy coupled with immunocytochemistry, and histochemical studies, revealed that the nerve plexus of the ovijector contains GABAergic and glutamatergic innervation. Although no distinctive cholinergic or serotoninergic innervation was apparent, cholinesterase activity was localized to discrete areas of the musculature of the vagina vera. The effects of classical transmitters on the activity of the vagina vera in vitro were examined. ACh was excitatory, stimulating a brief but powerful contraction of the vagina vera with a threshold for activity of 1 microM. Both GABA and glutamate were inhibitory, causing a cessation of contractile activity at high concentrations (> 10 microM). Although less potent than glutamate, GABA had more profound effects and induced longer-lasting paralysis of the tissue. The threshold concentrations for activity were 5 microM for glutamate and 10 microM for GABA. Serotonin had no consistent effect on the vagina vera. This study demonstrates that classical transmitters modulate the activity of the ovijector of A. suum.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris suum/fisiología , Neurotransmisores/fisiología , Acetilcolina/fisiología , Animales , Ascaris suum/química , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta , Ácido Glutámico/fisiología , Inmunohistoquímica , Microscopía Confocal , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Músculos/lesiones , Músculos/fisiología , Serotonina/fisiología , Transductores , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/fisiología
12.
Parasitology ; 120 ( Pt 1): 79-89, 2000 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10726269

RESUMEN

Ascaris suum possesses a large number of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) of which KNEFIRFamide (AF1), KHEYLRFamide (AF2) and KSAYMRFamide (AF8/PF3) have been shown to modulate the intrinsic, rhythmic activity of the vagina vera of A. suum in vitro. In the present study, the effects of the nematode FaRPs, SDPNFLRFamide (PF1), SADPNFLREamide (PF2) and KPNFIRFamide (PF4) (from Panagrellus redivivus) and AVPGVLRFamide (AF3) and GDVPGVLRFamide (AF4) (from A. suum) on the in vitro activity of the vagina vera were examined. The effects of each of the peptides were qualitatively and quantitatively distinct. All 3 FaRPs from P. redivivus were inhibitory, causing a cessation of contractions. PF2 was 3 times more potent than PF1, with a threshold of 1 nM. Although PF4 was the least potent (threshold, 10 nM), its effects at > or = 10 nM were quantitatively the greatest. Both AF3 and AF4 (1 microM) induced complex, multiphasic responses consisting of an initial contraction and spastic paralysis followed by a return of contractile activity of increased amplitude. AF3 was 3 times more potent than AF4. The effects of these peptides had some similarities to those observed on A. suum somatic body wall muscle in vitro, with PF1, PF2 and PF4 being inhibitory and AF3 and AF4 being excitatory.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris suum/fisiología , FMRFamida/análogos & derivados , FMRFamida/fisiología , Animales , Ascaris suum/química , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Liso/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Liso/fisiología , Vagina/fisiología
13.
J Comp Neurol ; 415(4): 518-28, 1999 Dec 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10570459

RESUMEN

This study used electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy interfaced with cytochemistry to study neuromuscular interrelationships in the ovijector of Ascaris suum. An extensive nerve plexus with both FaRPergic and non-FaRPergic components extends over the outer surface of the ovijector. The non-FaRPergic component is derived from nerve branches of the ventral nerve cord, whereas the FaRPergic component emanates from two large FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons. In the vagina vera, most myofibrils are circular in orientation and a number of them divide and run for short distances in longitudinal and diagonal directions, their myofilaments are also orientated in a variety of directions. Parallel nerve fibres run in tracts along the length of the vagina vera with branches that penetrate the muscle layers. The vagina uteri possesses a thicker hypodermis than that of the vagina vera. It appears rich in secretory and phagocytic vesicles and the luminal side is invested with an electron-dense substance. The musculature of the vagina uteri is less well developed than that of the vagina vera, being restricted to circular myofibrils, with an apparent diagonal arrangement of myofilaments. Also, the innervation is less extensive in the vagina uteri with many fibres returning to the vagina vera to rejoin the nerve net and others continuing into the uteri.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris suum/anatomía & histología , Ascaris suum/química , Genitales Femeninos/química , Genitales Femeninos/ultraestructura , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/química , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestructura , Neuronas/química , Neuronas/ultraestructura , Animales , Ascaris suum/fisiología , FMRFamida/análisis , Femenino , Ganglios de Invertebrados/química , Ganglios de Invertebrados/fisiología , Ganglios de Invertebrados/ultraestructura , Genitales Femeninos/fisiología , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Faloidina/análisis , Serotonina/análisis , Tubulina (Proteína)/análisis
14.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 100(2): 185-94, 1999 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10391380

RESUMEN

The FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs), KHEYLRFamide (AF2) and KSAYMRFamide (PF3) were structurally characterised from the parasitic nematode of sheep, Haemonchus contortus (MH isolate). Both peptides were sequenced in a single gas-phase sequencing run and their structure confirmed by mass spectrometry which identified peptides of 920 Da (C-terminally amidated AF2) and 902/918 Da (C-terminally amidated non-oxidised/oxidised PF3, respectively). AF2 had inhibitory effects on H. contortus muscle and inhibited acetylcholine (ACh, 10 microM)-induced contractions, with a threshold for activity of 1 microM. PF3 induced concentration-dependent contractions of H. contortus (activity threshold, 10 nM) and enhanced ACh contractions. Compared with the MH isolate, an isolate of H. contortus which has reduced sensitivity to cholinergic drugs (Lawes isolate) was less sensitive to the effects of PF3. The concentration-response curves for the cholinergic compounds ACh and levamisole (LEV), and PF3, but not a control, KPNFIRFamide (PF4), showed a statistically similar shift. This study implicates PF3 in the modulation of cholinergic function in H. contortus.


Asunto(s)
FMRFamida/farmacología , Haemonchus/fisiología , Neuropéptidos/química , Neuropéptidos/farmacología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Antinematodos/farmacología , FMRFamida/química , FMRFamida/aislamiento & purificación , Hemoncosis/veterinaria , Haemonchus/efectos de los fármacos , Haemonchus/aislamiento & purificación , Levamisol/farmacología , Espectrometría de Masas , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Neuropéptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología
15.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 254(1): 222-30, 1999 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9920762

RESUMEN

To date, 53 peptides with C-terminal RFamides have been identified by the genome sequencing project in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study the FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) KPSFVRFamide (879.90 Da [MH]+) was structurally characterized from extracts of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Two copies of KPSFVRFamide are encoded by a gene designated flp-9. RT-PCR identified a single cDNA product which was confirmed as flp-9 by sequence determination. Flp-9 cDNA was isolated from larval stages of C. elegans but was not detected in adult worms, indicating that its expression is may be developmentally regulated. KPSFVRFamide displays sequence homology to the nematode peptide, KPNFIRFamide (PF4). The physiological effects of KPSFVRFamide, PF4 and the chimeras, KPNFVRFamide and KPSFIRFamide, were measured on body wall muscle and the vagina vera of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum. KPNFVRFamide and KPNFIRFamide had Cl--dependent inhibitory activity on innervated and denervated muscle-preparations, whereas KPSFVRFamide and KPSFIRFamide did not elicit a detectable physiological effect. Although all 4 peptides had inhibitory effects on the vagina vera, KPSFVRFamide and KPSFIRFamide (threshold, >/=0.1 microM) were less potent than KPNFVRFamide and KPNFIRFamide (threshold, >/=10 nM).


Asunto(s)
Neuropéptidos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Caenorhabditis elegans , Electrofisiología , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Neuropéptidos/genética , Neuropéptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Neuropéptidos/farmacología , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/farmacología , Homología de Secuencia de Aminoácido
16.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 897: 212-27, 1999.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10676450

RESUMEN

Nervous systems of helminths are highly peptidergic. Species in the phylum Nematoda (roundworms) possess at least 50 FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs), with more yet to be identified. To date, few non-FaRP neuropeptides have been identified in these organisms, though evidence suggests that other families are present. FaRPergic systems have important functions in nematode neuromuscular control. In contrast, species in the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) apparently utilize fewer FaRPs than do nematodes; those species examined possess one or two FaRPs. Other neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide F (NPF), play key roles in flatworm physiology. Although progress has been made in the characterization of FaRP pharmacology in helminths, much remains to be learned. Most studies on nematodes have been done with Ascaris suum because of its large size. However, thanks to the Caenorhabditis elegans genome project, we know most about the FaRP complement of this free-living animal. That essentially all C. elegans FaRPs are active on at least one A. suum neuromuscular system argues for conservation of ligand-receptor recognition features among the Nematoda. Structure-activity studies on nematode FaRPs have revealed that structure-activity relationship (SAR) "rules" differ considerably among the FaRPs. Second messenger studies, along with experiments on ionic dependence and anatomical requirements for activity, reveal that FaRPs act through many different mechanisms. Platyhelminth FaRPs are myoexcitatory, and no evidence exists of multiple FaRP receptors in flatworms. Interestingly, there are examples of cross-phylum activity, with some nematode FaRPs being active on flatworm muscle. The extent to which other invertebrate FaRPs show cross-phylum activity remains to be determined. How FaRPergic nerves contribute to the control of behavior in helminths, and are integrated with non-neuropeptidergic systems, also remains to be elucidated.


Asunto(s)
FMRFamida/análogos & derivados , FMRFamida/farmacología , Helmintos/fisiología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , FMRFamida/fisiología , Helmintos/efectos de los fármacos , Nematodos/efectos de los fármacos , Nematodos/fisiología , Transducción de Señal
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 248(2): 422-5, 1998 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9675153

RESUMEN

To date, seven FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been structurally characterized from C. elegans, of which one is structurally identical to the parasitic nematode peptide AF2 (KHEYLRFamide). The other six FaRPs have so far been identified in free-living forms only. In the present study an additional FaRP was isolated and structurally characterized from an ethanolic extract of C. elegans. The extract was screened using a C-terminally directed FaRP antiserum, and the FMRFamide-immunoreactive peptide purified to homogeneity using HPLC. Approximately 80 pmol of the peptide was subjected to Edman degradation and the unequivocal primary structure of the K7-amide, KSAYMRFamide (PF3/AF8) was determined following a single gas-phase sequencing run. The molecular mass of the peptide was determined using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer and was found to be 919 (MH+), which is in agreement with the theoretical mass of C-terminally amidated PF3. A new flp-gene, designated flp-6, has recently been identified which encodes six copies of KSAYMRFamide (PF3/AF8).


Asunto(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans/química , FMRFamida/química , FMRFamida/metabolismo , Neuropéptidos/química , Aminoácidos/análisis , Animales , Espectrometría de Masas , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Análisis de Secuencia
18.
Parasitology ; 116 ( Pt 3): 277-87, 1998 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9550221

RESUMEN

Ascaris suum contains a large number of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) of which KNEFIRFamide (AF1), KHEYLRFamide (AF2) and KSAYMRFamide (AF8, also called PF3) have been extensively studied and are known to exert actions on somatic muscle strips of the worm. In the present study, the effects of AF1, AF2 and AF8 on the activity of the vagina vera of female A. suum have been examined in vitro. The vagina vera is a muscular tube connecting the uterus and vagina uteri to the gonopore and is probably involved in regulating egg output. The tissue exhibited spontaneous, rhythmic contractions in vitro, which were modulated by each of the FaRPs tested. The effects of each of the peptides were qualitatively and quantitatively different, and in each case were reversible. AF1 (1 microM) caused a biphasic response in the form of a transient lengthening of the preparation, followed by a shortening; contractions were initially inhibited but resumed 5 min post-addition of the peptide. Lower concentrations (< or = 0.1 microM) induced a less marked effect, with rhythmic contractions returning 5 min post-addition. AF2 and AF8 reduced contraction frequency at concentrations > or = 0.1 microM. Both peptides also caused the tissue to shorten, although the effects of AF8 on baseline tension were inconsistent. The apparent potencies of AF1 and AF8 on contraction frequency of the vagina vera were 10-fold greater than AF2 and, unlike their actions on A. suum somatic body wall muscles, the actions of AF1 and AF2 were qualitatively different. Indeed, the effects of each of these FaRPs on the vagina vera were markedly different from those observed on the somatic muscle.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris suum/efectos de los fármacos , Neuropéptidos/farmacología , Animales , Ascaris suum/fisiología , FMRFamida/farmacología , FMRFamida/fisiología , Femenino , Genitales Femeninos/efectos de los fármacos , Genitales Femeninos/fisiología , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Neuropéptidos/fisiología
19.
Parasitology ; 114 ( Pt 6): 531-9, 1997 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9172424

RESUMEN

The physiological effects of synthetic replicates of the nematode FaRPs, AF1 (KNEFIRFamide), AF2 (KHEYLRFamide), PF1 (SDPNFLRFamide), PF2 (SADPNFLRFamide), AF8/PF3 (KSAYMRFamide) and PF4 (KPNFIRFamide) were examined on muscle preparations of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Changes in contractility following the addition of the test compound were recorded using a photo-optic transducer system. Unlike the varied effects these peptides have on nematode somatic musculature, all were found to induce excitatory responses in the muscle activity of F. hepatica. While qualitative effects of the nematode peptides were similar in that they induced increases in both the amplitude and frequency of F. hepatica muscle contractions, they varied considerably in the potency of their excitatory effects. The threshold activity for each peptide was as follows: 10 microM, PF1 and PF2; 3 microM, AF1 and PF3; 1 microM, AF2; and 30 nM, PF4. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the cross-phyla activity of nematode neuropeptides on the neuromuscular activity of a trematode.


Asunto(s)
Fasciola hepatica/efectos de los fármacos , Neuropéptidos/farmacología , Animales , Electrofisiología , FMRFamida , Fasciola hepatica/fisiología , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Nematodos/química , Neuropéptidos/síntesis química , Neuropéptidos/química , Oligopéptidos/farmacología
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 231(3): 591-5, 1997 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9070852

RESUMEN

To date, 9 FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans. Eight of these peptides are encoded on the flp-1 gene. However, AF2 (KHEYLRFamide) which was not co-encoded was the most abundant FaRP identified in ethanolic extracts. Further radioimmunometrical screening of acidified ethanol extracts of C. elegans has revealed the presence of other novel FaRPs, which are not encoded on the flp-1 gene. One of these peptides has been isolated by sequential rpHPLC and subjected to Edman degradation analysis and gas-phase sequencing and the unequivocal primary structure of the decapeptide Ala-Pro-Glu-Ala-Ser-Pro-Phe-Ile-Arg-Phe-NH2 was determined following a single gas-phase sequencing run. The molecular mass of the peptide was found to be 1133.7 Da, determined using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Synthetic replicates of this peptide were found to induce a profound relaxation of both dorsal and ventral somatic muscle-strip preparations of Ascaris suum with a threshold for activity of 10 nM. The inhibitory response was not dependent on the presence of nerve cords, indicating a post-synaptic site-of-action. The relaxation was Ca(+2)- and Cl(-)-independent but was abolished in high-K+ medium and could be distinguished from those of other inhibitory nematode FaRPs, including PF1 (SDPNFLRFamide) and PF4 (KPNFIRFamide).


Asunto(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Neuropéptidos/química , Oligopéptidos/química , Oligopéptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Ascaris , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , FMRFamida , Genes , Técnicas In Vitro , Músculos/fisiología , Oligopéptidos/genética , Oligopéptidos/farmacología , Relación Estructura-Actividad
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