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1.
Nurse Educ Today ; 85: 104299, 2019 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785575

RESUMEN

Providing personal care is one of the most significant activities of nursing care. Nursing students, who approach the patient's body for the first time, may experience a wide range of emotions, affecting their attitude toward the nursing profession and performance. Nevertheless, the emotional aspects related to providing personal care in nursing education have remained relatively neglected. A qualitative descriptive study was performed to describe the emotions felt by first-year nursing students when providing personal care and to analyze the situations which triggered their emotions. First-year students (N = 145) were asked to narrate episodes of body care evoking both positive and negative emotions. Emotions were analyzed according to Damasio's theory while trigger situations were inductively found through a content analysis. Our results show that first-year nursing students experienced mostly social emotions, with a significant triggering role played by patients. In most of the narratives, patients were seen as a source of (un)recognition and personal (un)satisfaction. In this pattern, the patients play a fundamental role in supporting their confidence. Providing emotional education and peer discussion/sharing may facilitate the ability of nursing students to become aware of their own feelings and to be focused on patient's needs.

2.
J Transcult Nurs ; : 1043659619889118, 2019 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752617

RESUMEN

Introduction: In recent decades, Italy has been exposed to significant migrant flows resulting from political and economic instability in neighbouring countries. As a result, there has been an increased amount of cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD) among nursing students. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of CALD nursing students as lived in the Italian nursing programmes. Method: A descriptive phenomenological method was used in 2017 with the involvement of a purposeful sample of 21 CALD nursing students in five Italian Bachelor of Nursing Science campuses. Data were collected using semistructured interviews; the subsequent content analysis was conducted by two independent researchers. Results: CALD nursing students reported having lived a transformative experience based on seven themes, from "living in the middle, between belonging and detachment" to "acquiring cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity." Discussion: Dealing with linguistic and cultural differences can affected CALD students' academic success, but also encourages them to develop awareness and cultural sensitivity by influencing their peers and the environment of the nursing programme. Therefore, having CALD students is a great value for nursing programmes. Nursing programmes should embody the values of cultural sensitivity and acceptance, including them as a nursing care value and as a concrete strategy to support CALD students. They should also develop strategies to promote the knowledge and responsibilities of nurses among CALD students and increase cultural sensitivity among faculty members at different levels.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 976, 2019 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331316

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among health professional students, who can play a central role in promoting healthy habits and smoking cessation, are sparse. Moreover, the association between e-cigarettes and smoking habits is still debated. The present study aimed to investigate the diffusion of e-cigarette use among nursing students in north-eastern Italy and explore its association with tobacco smoking. METHODS: In 2015, a questionnaire focused on e-cigarette use and tobacco smoking habits was anonymously administered to 2020 students attending nursing courses held by Verona University in 5 different centres. Of these students, 1463 (72.4%) answered the questionnaire. The influence of e-cigarette ever use on both tobacco smoking initiation in all subjects and smoking cessation among ever smokers was investigated by multivariable logistic models. RESULTS: Most responders were female (77.1%), and the mean (SD) age was 23.2 (4.2) years. Nearly all students (94.7%) had heard about e-cigarettes. Approximately one-third (30.3, 95% CI 27.9-32.7%) had ever used e-cigarettes, but only 2.1% (1.5-3.0%) had used e-cigarettes in the last month. Very few (2.1%) of those responders who had never used e-cigarettes were willing to try them. Prevalence values were much higher for tobacco smoking: 40.9% of responders reported being current tobacco smokers, and 10.1% reported being past smokers. Ever use and current use of e-cigarettes were reported by 57.2 and 4.4% of current tobacco smokers and by 12.0 and 0.6% of never or past smokers, respectively (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, students who ever used e-cigarettes had 13 times greater odds of being an ever tobacco smoker than never users, whereas they had three times lower odds of being a former smoker. Only 26 students were currently using both electronic and tobacco cigarettes, and most declared that they used e-cigarettes to stop or reduce tobacco smoking. Of note, only three students reported that they had completely stopped smoking thanks to e-cigarette use. CONCLUSION: Use of e-cigarettes seemed to be rather rare among Italian nursing students and was mainly restricted to current smokers. E-cigarette use was not associated with smoking cessation in nursing students.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Adulto Joven
4.
Nurse Educ Today ; 75: 13-21, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669021

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Effective performance of clinical handovers should be one of the priorities of nursing education to promote efficient communication skills and ensure patient safety. However, to date, no studies have explored to what extent nursing students are involved in handovers. OBJECTIVE: To explore nursing students' handover involvement during their clinical rotations and associated factors. METHOD: This was a secondary analysis of a large national cross-sectional study that involved 9607 undergraduate nursing students in 27 universities across 95 three-year Italian baccalaureate nursing programs. The involvement in the clinical handovers was the end point (from 0, never, to 3, always). A path analysis was performed to identify variables directly and indirectly affecting students' handover involvement. RESULTS: Handover involvement was reported as 'only a little', 'to some extent', and 'always' by 1739 (18.1%), 2939 (30.6%), and 4180 (43.5%) students, respectively; only 749 (7.8%) of students reported never being involved. At the path analysis explaining the 19.1% of variance of nursing students' involvement, some variables emerged that directly increased the likelihood of being involved in handovers. These were being female (ß = 0.115, p < 0.001); having children (ß = 0.107, p = 0.011); being a 3rd-year student (ß = 0.142, p < 0.001) and being a 2nd-year student as compared to a 1st-year student (ß = 0.050, p = 0.036); and having a longer clinical rotation (ß = 0.015, p < 0.001) in units with high 'quality of the learning environment' (ß = 0.279, p < 0.001). Moreover, students who were supervised by the nurse teacher (ß = -0.279, p < 0.001), or by a nurse on a daily basis (ß = -0.253, p = 0.004), or by the staff (ß = -0.190, p < 0.001) reported being less involved in handovers as compared to those students supervised by a clinical nurse. Variables with indirect effects also emerged (model of student's supervision adopted at the unit level, and number of previous clinical rotations attended by students). Moreover, handover involvement explained 11.5% of students self-reported degree of competences learned during the clinical experience. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting students' opportunity to be involved in handover can prevent the development of communication skills and the professional socialization processes. Strategies at different levels are needed to promote handover among undergraduate nursing students.


Asunto(s)
Pase de Guardia/estadística & datos numéricos , Preceptoría/métodos , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Bachillerato en Enfermería/métodos , Bachillerato en Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Preceptoría/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; 15(6): 480-490, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Easy-to-access tools have been demonstrated to improve evidence-based practice (EBP) competences among nursing students. However, students' perception of access to EBP tools (e.g., clinical practice guidelines [CPGs], protocols) is unknown. AIMS: To explore: (1) nursing students' opportunity to access EBP tools during their education, and (2) associated factors. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study including all Italian nursing programs. Nursing students were deemed eligible according to the following inclusion criteria: Those who (1) were attending or just ended their practical rotation lasting at least 2 weeks at the time of the survey, and (2) expressed through written informed consent their willingness to take part in the study. Participants were asked about their perceived opportunity to access EBP tools during their most recent clinical learning experience (from 0 - not at all to 3 - always). A set of explanatory variables was collected at the individual, nursing program, and regional levels by using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Nine thousand six hundred and seven (91.6%) out of 10,480 nursing students took part in the study. Overall, 4,376 (45.6%) students perceived not at all or only a small opportunity to access EBP tools during their most recent clinical rotation. In the multilevel analysis, factors promoting access were mainly set at the clinical learning environment level (high safety and nursing care quality, high self-directed learning opportunities, high quality of the learning environment, and being supervised by a clinical nurse). In contrast, male gender and lower academic class were associated with a lower perception of accessibility to EBP tools. A consistent variability in the perceived opportunity to access EBP tools emerged across regions. LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Evidence-based decision-making is increasingly expected from nurses. Therefore, nursing faculties should safeguard and continuously improve students' competence regarding EBP, by implementing strategies mainly at the nursing program and regional levels.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Percepción , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Bachillerato en Enfermería/métodos , Bachillerato en Enfermería/normas , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Nurs Ethics ; : 969733018774617, 2018 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783904

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Undergraduate nursing students have been documented to experience ethical distress during their clinical training and felt poorly supported in discussing the ethical issues they encountered. Research aims: This study was aimed at exploring nursing students' perceived opportunity to discuss ethical issues that emerged during their clinical learning experience and associated factors. RESEARCH DESIGN: An Italian national cross-sectional study design was performed in 2015-2016. Participants were invited to answer a questionnaire composed of four sections regarding: (1) socio-demographic data, (2) previous clinical learning experiences, (3) current clinical learning experience quality and outcomes, and (4) the opportunity to discuss ethical issues with nurses in the last clinical learning experience (from 0 - 'never' to 3 - 'very much'). Participants and research context: Participants were 9607 undergraduate nursing students who were attending 95 different three-year Italian baccalaureate nursing programmes, located at 27 universities in 15 Italian regions. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accordance with the Human Subject Research Ethics Committee guidelines after the research protocol was approved by an ethics committee. FINDINGS: Overall, 4707 (49%) perceived to have discussed ethical issues 'much' or 'very much'; among the remaining, 3683 (38.3%) and 1217 (12.7%) students reported the perception of having discussed, respectively, 'enough' or 'never' ethical issues emerged in the clinical practice. At the multivariate logistic regression analysis explaining 38.1% of the overall variance, the factors promoting ethical discussion were mainly set at the clinical learning environment levels (i.e. increased learning opportunities, self-directed learning, safety and nursing care quality, quality of the tutorial strategies, competences learned and supervision by a clinical nurse). In contrast, being male was associated with a perception of less opportunity to discuss ethical issues. CONCLUSION: Nursing faculties should assess the clinical environment prerequisites of the settings as a context of student experience before deciding on their accreditation. Moreover, the nursing faculty and nurse managers should also enhance competence with regard to discussing ethical issues with students among clinical nurses by identifying factors that hinder this learning opportunity in daily practice.

7.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 31(4): 768-778, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509365

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction with nursing care (NC) is an important predictor of overall satisfaction with the hospital experience. However, the concept of patient satisfaction has been criticised both at the theoretical and at the methodological levels, and more attention on patient dissatisfaction has been called for with the aim of identifying strategies to improve the quality of care. AIMS: To describe dissatisfaction with NC as perceived by acute medical patients and identify predictors. DESIGN AND METHODS: A secondary analysis of longitudinal data involving 12 Italian medical units was performed. A consecutive sample of 1016 patients ≥65 years (2012-2013) was included, and their satisfaction with NC was assessed, administering the Italian version of the Patient Satisfaction Scale (PSS) at the day of discharge. The scale was based on 11 items evaluated on a four-point Likert scale (score ranging from 11 - very dissatisfied to 44 - very satisfied). Patients were defined as 'satisfied with NC' when the score was ≥33, whereas they were considered as 'dissatisfied with NC' when the score was <33. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of patient dissatisfaction with NC. RESULTS: There were 788 (77.6%) patients satisfied (≥33 at the PSS) and 228 (22.4%) dissatisfied with NC (<33). The risk of dissatisfaction was likely to be higher in female patients (RR 1.883, 95% CI 1.359-2.609), in those who developed pressure sores during the in-hospital stay (RR 1.555, 95% CI 1.021-2.368), who received NC with high skill mix (RR 1.072, 95% CI 1.034-1.111) and those who were admitted to a large hospital (RR 1.001, 95% CI 1.001-1.002). In contrast, increased age (RR 0.987, 95% CI 0.975-0.998), increased amount of care offered by Registered Nurses (RR 0.984, 95% CI 0.974-0.994), a higher proportion of baccalaureate nurses on staff (RR 0.975, 95% CI 0.958-0.993) and being admitted to a teaching hospital (RR 0.497, 95% CI 0.130-0.910) all decreased the likelihood of being dissatisfied with NC. CONCLUSIONS: Dissatisfaction with NC was affected by individual, NC and hospital variables, such as the amount of staff resources, nurses education and skill mix. The findings emerged may inform clinicians, managers and policymakers regarding strategies that should be designed and implemented to prevent patient dissatisfaction.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización , Atención de Enfermería/normas , Satisfacción del Paciente , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Calidad de la Atención de Salud
8.
J Tissue Viability ; 26(2): 85-88, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365206

RESUMEN

To describe the prevalence and incidence density of hospital-acquired unavoidable pressure sores among patients aged ≥65 years admitted to acute medical units. A secondary analysis of longitudinal study data collected in 2012 and 2013 from 12 acute medical units located in 12 Italian hospitals was performed. Unavoidable pressure ulcers were defined as those that occurred in haemodynamically unstable patients, suffering from cachexia and/or terminally ill and were acquired after hospital admission. Data at patient and at pressure ulcer levels were collected on a daily basis at the bedside by trained researchers. A total of 1464 patients out of 2080 eligible (70.4%) were included. Among these, 96 patients (6.5%) hospital-acquired a pressure ulcer and, among 19 (19.7%) were judged as unavoidable. The incidence of unavoidable pressure ulcer was 8.5/100 in hospital-patient days. No statistically significant differences at patient and pressure ulcers levels have emerged between those patients that acquired unavoidable and avoidable pressure sores. Although limited, evidence on unavoidable pressure ulcer is increasing. More research in the field is recommended to support clinicians, managers and policymakers in the several implications of unavoidable pressure ulcers both at the patient and at the system levels.


Asunto(s)
Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Úlcera por Presión/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Úlcera por Presión/clasificación , Úlcera por Presión/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
9.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 36(1): 7-13, 2017.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398387

RESUMEN

. An overview of education models for nursing students clinical practice: a literature review. INTRODUCTION: In the past decade the nursing education research developed and tested a number of clinical educational models. AIM: To describe the most used clinical educational models and to analyze their strengths and weaknesses in fostering the learning processes of nursing students. METHODS: A literature review of studies on clinical education models for undergraduate nursing student, published in English, was performed. Electronic database Pubmed and Cinhal were searched until November 2016. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included in the review and five clinical education model identified: 1) the university tutor supervises a group of students and selects learning opportunities; 2) a clinical expert/tutor nurse works side by side with one student; 3) the student is responsible of his/her learning process with the supervision of the ward staff; 4) a clinical tutor of the ward is dedicated to the students' supervision; 5) the student is not assigned to a ward but clinical learning opportunities matched with his/her needs are selected by the university. CONCLUSIONS: All the clinical education models shared the focus on students' learning needs. Their specific characteristics better suit them for different stages of students' education and to different clinical settings.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Modelos Educacionales , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Investigación en Educación de Enfermería
10.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 36(1): 41-50, 2017.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398391

RESUMEN

. The Clinical Learning Quality Evaluation Index for nursing students. INTRODUCTION: The Italian nursing programs, the need to introduce tools evaluating the quality of the clinical learning as perceived by nursing students. Several tools already exist, however, several limitations suggesting the need to develop a new tool. AIM: A national project aimed at developing and validating a new instrument capable of measuring the clinical learning quality as experience by nursing students. METHODS: A validation study design was undertaken from 2015 to 2016. All nursing national programs (n=43) were invited to participate by including all nursing students attending regularly their clinical learning. The tool developed based upon a) literature, b) validated tools already established among other healthcare professionals, and c) consensus expressed by experts and nursing students, was administered to the eligible students. RESULTS: 9606 nursing in 27 universities (62.8%) participated. The psychometric properties of the new instrument ranged from good to excellent. According to the findings, the tool consists in 22 items and five factors: a) quality of the tutorial strategies, b) learning opportunities; c) safety and nursing care quality; d) self-direct learning; e) quality of the learning environment. CONCLUSIONS: The tool is already used. Its systematic adoption may support comparison among settings and across different programs; moreover, the tool may also support in accrediting new settings as well as in measuring the effects of strategies aimed at improving the quality of the clinical learning.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/normas , Educación en Enfermería/normas , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Psicometría/normas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos
11.
Clin Ther ; 39(2): 311-321, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28126247

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is widely used in hospitalized patients. It has been internationally studied in surgical patients, but little attention to date has been dedicated to medical patients within the Italian context. The aims of the present study were to describe the prevalence of fluid therapy and associated factors among Italian patients admitted to medical and surgical units, describe the methods used to manage fluid therapy, and analyze the monitoring of patients by clinical staff. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 7 hospitals in northern Italy, data on individual and monitoring variables were collected, and their associations with in-hospital fluid therapy were analyzed by using logistic regression analysis. Patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to medical and surgical units were included. Patients who received at least 500 mL of continuous fluids were included in the fluid therapy group. FINDINGS: In total, 785 (median age, 72 years; women, 52%) patients were included in the study, and 293 (37.3%) received fluid therapy. Maintenance was the most frequent reason for prescribing IV fluid therapy (59%). The mean (SD) volume delivered was 1177 (624) mL/d, and the highest volume was infused for replacement therapy (1660 [931] mL/d). The mean volume infused was 19.55 (13) mL/kg/d. The most commonly used fluid solutions were 0.9% sodium chloride (65.7%) and balanced crystalloid without glucose (32.9%). The proportion of patients assessed for urine output (52.6% vs 36.8%; P < 0.001), serum electrolyte concentrations (74.4% vs 65.0%; P = 0.005), and renal function (70.0% vs 58.7%; P = 0.002) was significantly higher in patients who did receive fluid therapy versus those who did not. In contrast, the use of weight and fluid assessments was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.216 and 0.256, respectively). Patients admitted for gastrointestinal disorders (odds ratio [OR], 3.5 [95% CI, 1.8-7.05) and for fluid/electrolyte imbalances (OR, 3.35 [95% CI, 1.06-10.52) were more likely to receive fluids. However, the likelihood of receiving fluids was lower for patients admitted to a surgical unit (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.22-0.59]) and with cardiovascular diseases (OR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.17-0.79). IMPLICATIONS: Only one third of the study patients received fluid therapy. Crystalloid fluids, are the fluids of choice for maintaining plasma volume. During fluid therapy, measurement of the serum electrolyte concentrations, renal function, and urine output was largely used while weight and fluid balance were rarely assessed.


Asunto(s)
Fluidoterapia/métodos , Soluciones Isotónicas/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Peso Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Soluciones Cristaloides , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
12.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 29(3): 517-527, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27155980

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the progressive demographic ageing of the population and the National Health System reforms affecting care at the bedside, a periodic re-evaluation of in-hospital mortality rates and associated factors is recommended. AIMS: To describe the occurrence of in-hospital mortality among patients admitted to acute medical units and associated factors. Two hypotheses (H) were set as the basis of the study: patients have an increased likelihood to die H1: at the weekend when less nursing care is offered; H2: when they receive nursing care with a skill-mix in favour of Nursing Aides instead of Registered Nurses. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a prospective study of patients >65 years consecutively admitted in 12 Italian medical units. Data on individual and nursing care variables were collected and its association with in-hospital mortality was analysed by stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality occurrence was 6.8 %, and 37 % of the patients died during the weekend. The logistic regression model explained 34.3 % (R 2) of the variance of in-hospital mortality: patients were six times (95 % CI = 3.632-10.794) more likely at risk of dying at weekends; those with one or more AEDs admissions in the last 3 months were also at increased risk of dying (RR 1.360, 95 % CI = 1.024-1.806) as well as those receiving more care from family carers (RR = 1.017, 95 % CI = 1.009-1.025). At the nursing care level, those patient receiving less care by RNs at weekends were at increased risk of dying (RR = 2.236, 95 % CI = 1.270-3.937) while those receiving a higher skill-mix, thus indicating that more nursing care was offered by RNs instead of NAs were at less risk of dying (RR = 0.940, 95 % CI = 0.912-0.969). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this secondary analysis, in addition to the role of some clinical factors, findings suggest redesigning acute care at weekends ensuring consistent care both at the hospital and at the nursing care levels.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crítica/mortalidad , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Posterior/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Causas de Muerte , Comorbilidad , Enfermedad Crítica/enfermería , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/provisión & distribución , Estudios Prospectivos
13.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 31(1): 85-95, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27163738

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Informal caregiving offered by family members has been widely studied in the community setting, but little attention to date has been dedicated to that offered at the hospital level. AIMS: To describe the proportion of patients admitted to acute medical units receiving care from informal caregivers as decided by the family and to identify the factors affecting the numbers of care shifts performed by informal caregivers. DESIGN AND METHODS: A longitudinal study was performed involving 12 acute medical units located in 12 northern Italian hospitals. RESULTS: All patients (N = 1464) admitted to medical units were included, and 77.1% of them received at least one shift of informal care during their in-hospital stay, especially during the mornings and afternoons. At the patient level, those at higher risk of prolonged hospitalisation and difficult discharge at admission, and those reporting higher occurrence of adverse events, such as pressure sores, confusion events and use of physical restraints during hospitalisation, were more likely receiving informal care. At the nursing care level, a higher amount of missed nursing care was associated with an increased number of care shifts offered by informal caregivers during patient hospitalisation, whereas the amount of care offered by staff was a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: Families play a care role in the care of older patients admitted to acute medical units. They contribute substantially to the care of patients, especially during morning and afternoon shifts.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Enfermería de Cuidados Críticos/organización & administración , Familia/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 35(1): 29-35, 2016.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27183424

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: . Validation of the Italian Clinical Learning Environment Instrument (SVIAT): study protocol. INTRODUCTION: Nursing students obtain most of their university credits in internship environments whose quality can affect their clinical learning. Several tools are available to measure the quality of the clinical learning environment (CLE) as perceived by students: these instruments developed in other countries, were validated in Italian but do not discriminate those CLEs capable (or not) to promote significant clinical learning. AIM: To validate an instrument to measure the capability of the CLE to generate clinical learning; the secondary aim is to describe the learning environments as perceived by nursing students according to individual course site and tutorial models adopted. METHODS: The study will be developed in three phases: a) instrument development and pilot phase, b) validation of the psychometric properties of the instrument and c) description of the CLEs as perceived by the students including factors/item confirmed in the validation process. Expected outcomes. A large validation, with more than 8,000 participating students is expected; the construct under lying will be confirmed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and will report high internal consistency; the instrument will report also a high test-retest and inter-rater reliability; in addition, the instrument will demonstrate predictive ability by discriminating those units able (or not) to activate effective learning processes.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería/normas , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Italia , Aprendizaje , Psicometría , Autoinforme
15.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 22(5): 771-80, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27144880

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: There is growing interest in validating tools aimed at supporting the clinical decision-making process and research. However, an increased bureaucratization of clinical practice and redundancies in the measures collected have been reported by clinicians. Redundancies in clinical assessments affect negatively both patients and nurses. METHODS: To validate a meta-tool measuring the risks/problems currently estimated by multiple tools used in daily practice. A secondary analysis of a database was performed, using a cross-validation and a longitudinal study designs. In total, 1464 patients admitted to 12 medical units in 2012 were assessed at admission with the Brass, Barthel, Conley and Braden tools. Pertinent outcomes such as the occurrence of post-discharge need for resources and functional decline at discharge, as well as falls and pressure sores, were measured. Explorative factor analysis of each tool, inter-tool correlations and a conceptual evaluation of the redundant/similar items across tools were performed. Therefore, the validation of the meta-tool was performed through explorative factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation model to establish the ability of the meta-tool to predict the outcomes estimated by the original tools. RESULTS: High correlations between the tools have emerged (from r 0.428 to 0.867) with a common variance from 18.3% to 75.1%. Through a conceptual evaluation and explorative factor analysis, the items were reduced from 42 to 20, and the three factors that emerged were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. According to the structural equation model results, two out of three emerged factors predicted the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: From the initial 42 items, the meta-tool is composed of 20 items capable of predicting the outcomes as with the original tools.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia Organizacional , Evaluación en Enfermería/organización & administración , Habitaciones de Pacientes , Anciano , Bases de Datos Factuales , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Italia , Masculino , Observación , Investigación Cualitativa
16.
Geriatr Nurs ; 37(3): 192-9, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895646

RESUMEN

Describing the trajectories of hospital-associated functional decline in older patients admitted to acute medical units and identifying predictors at the individual, nursing, and hospital levels, were the aims of the study. A longitudinal survey among 12 acute medical units in which 1464 patients were consecutively enrolled and evaluated using the Barthel Index (BI), was performed. Functional decline was defined as a decrease in the BI of at least 5 points from admission to discharge. In all, 17.1% participants (n = 251) demonstrated functional decline. In accordance with multiple logistic regression analysis, 28.8% (R(2)) of the variance in the functional decline was explained by: confusion/disorientation (RR = 4.684; 95% CI = 3.144-6.978), admission from nursing homes (RR = 2.464; 95% CI = 1.642-3.697), daily care expressed in minutes offered by nursing aides (RR = 1.535; 95% CI = 1.275-1.849), higher workforce skill-mix (RR = 2.221; 95% CI = 1.763-2.797), bladder catheter insertion (RR = 1.599; 95% CI = 1.128-2.268), and higher BI score at admission (RR = 1.019; 95% CI = 1.014-1.024). Increasing the amount of care delivered by competent nurses-having a bachelors degree-providing and supervising direct-care activities, may reduce the occurrence of functional decline in older patients admitted to medical units.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Evaluación Geriátrica , Hospitalización , Anciano , Confusión , Hospitales , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Factores de Riesgo , Cateterismo Urinario
17.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 28(1): 139-46, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025462

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Conley Scale is one of the most widespread fall-risk screening tools in medical unit settings, despite the lack of data regarding its validity in patients currently admitted to these units. AIMS: Establishing the validity of the Conley Scale in identifying patients at risk of falling in an acute medical setting. METHODS: A 6-months longitudinal study in 12 acute medical units from September 2012 to March 2013, a total of 1464 patients with ≥65 years of age were consecutively enrolled and evaluated with the Conley Scale within 24 h of admission. A construct validity, internal consistency, and a priori and a posteriori predictive validity study was performed. RESULTS: The explorative factor analysis showed a two-factor structure explaining a total variance of 48.3 %: previous history (30.41 %), and physical and cognitive impairment (17.9 %). The scale reported a poor internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.465) and the capability to correctly identify 18/649 patients as being at risk of falling, whereas the negative predictive value was 98.5 %. The sensitivity and specificity values were 60.0 and 55.9 %, respectively. No difference emerged between patients scored as at risk and those scored as not at risk in the time elapsed from admission to the first fall (HR = 0.600, 95 % CI 0.289-2.247 p = .166). DISCUSSION: The Conley Scale is not able to predict falls in elderly acute medical patients, and has reported poor internal consistency and accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: More studies are needed to develop appropriate tools to predict the risk of falling in elderly individuals admitted to an acute medical setting.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Competencia Mental , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Recurrencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Intern Emerg Med ; 10(6): 693-702, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25840678

RESUMEN

Missed nursing care (MNC), such as nursing care omitted or delayed, has not been measured in the Italian context where several cost containment interventions affect the care offered in medical units. The aim of the study is to identify the amount, type, and reasons for MNC in the Italian medical care setting and to explore the factors that affect the occurrence of MNC. A 3-month longitudinal survey was carried out followed by a cross-sectional study design in 12 north eastern acute medical units. A total of 314 nursing staff members were involved. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of MNC. Patient ambulation (91.4 %), turning the patient every 2 h (74.2 %), and right timing in administering medications (64.6 %) were the most perceived MNC. Among the most frequent reasons were the unexpected rise in patient volume or critical conditions (95.2 %), inadequate numbers of staff (94.9 %), and large numbers of admissions/discharges (93.3 %). The R (2) 33.2 % of the variance in MNC were explained by a full-time position (OR 4.743, 95 % CI 1.146-19.629), communication tensions between Registered Nurses and Nurses' Aides (OR 1.601, 95 % CI 1.020-2.515), the amount of experience in medical unit (OR 1.564, 95 % CI 1.021-2.397), and the amount of daily care offered by Nurses' Aides (1.039, 95 % CI 1.011-1.067). A substantial amount of basic and clinically relevant nursing interventions was perceived to be missed, and this may lead to an increase in negative outcomes for patients admitted to a medical unit. Appropriate standards of nursing care should be adopted urgently in medical units aiming to protect frail patients.


Asunto(s)
Atención de Enfermería/normas , Carga de Trabajo/normas , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Atención de Enfermería/tendencias , Habitaciones de Pacientes/normas , Recursos Humanos
19.
J Clin Nurs ; 21(13-14): 2016-25, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22672461

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a specific training course will enhance empathic skills in student nurses during a 3-year degree course. The study considers levels of empathy in student nurses and assesses whether these can be increased. BACKGROUND: Empathy is accepted as a critical component of supportive relationships. Many scholars have argued that empathy provides health professionals with the capacity to improve the health of patients, so it should ideally be taught to make health professionals more responsive to patient needs. DESIGN: Cohort longitudinal study. METHODS: Data were collected using the Italian version of the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES). The study was designed to guarantee repeated measurements of levels of emotional empathy in the pre- and postintervention phases. This allowed us to evaluate the development and improvement of empathy and to measure the effects of extra training on the students' empathy skills. Two groups took part in the study: the Intervention and the Control Groups. Students in the Intervention Group attended additional seminars and laboratories in small groups with tutors to learn and develop communicative and empathic abilities. RESULTS: One hundred and three participants (76% women) completed the study. Data showed that the training course was effective, especially for women: BEES scores 31.60 at pre-intervention phase and 42.91 at the end of the academic course. Results regarding men were less clear, and the study discusses these unexpected, anomalous findings. CONCLUSION: According to literature, men and women have different empathic traits, and we found that they show disparate empathic tendencies. More women than men took advantage of the training course. In any case, our data show that specific training courses are effective. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: As our study shows, empathy is a skill that may be taught. So it would be advisable to introduce these into the traditional nursing curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Empatía , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Humanos , Italia , Estudios Longitudinales , Autoeficacia
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