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1.
Nature ; 559(7713): 236-240, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995867

RESUMEN

Controlled transport of water molecules through membranes and capillaries is important in areas as diverse as water purification and healthcare technologies1-7. Previous attempts to control water permeation through membranes (mainly polymeric ones) have concentrated on modulating the structure of the membrane and the physicochemical properties of its surface by varying the pH, temperature or ionic strength3,8. Electrical control over water transport is an attractive alternative; however, theory and simulations9-14 have often yielded conflicting results, from freezing of water molecules to melting of ice14-16 under an applied electric field. Here we report electrically controlled water permeation through micrometre-thick graphene oxide membranes17-21. Such membranes have previously been shown to exhibit ultrafast permeation of water17,22 and molecular sieving properties18,21, with the potential for industrial-scale production. To achieve electrical control over water permeation, we create conductive filaments in the graphene oxide membranes via controllable electrical breakdown. The electric field that concentrates around these current-carrying filaments ionizes water molecules inside graphene capillaries within the graphene oxide membranes, which impedes water transport. We thus demonstrate precise control of water permeation, from ultrafast permeation to complete blocking. Our work opens up an avenue for developing smart membrane technologies for artificial biological systems, tissue engineering and filtration.

2.
Opt Express ; 25(9): 10255-10260, 2017 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468398

RESUMEN

We demonstrate a graphene-based electro-absorption modulator with extremely small modulation volume that can be controlled by low gating voltages 1-3 V and shows light modulation at wavelengths as short as 900 nm. Our choice of hafnium oxide dielectric separator gives the possibility to obtain significant electro-optical effect in a simple optical heterostructure. Having low power consumption, our devices could find a wide range of applications in telecom industry.

3.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13590, 2016 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27874003

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional atomic heterostructures combined with metallic nanostructures allow one to realize strong light-matter interactions. Metallic nanostructures possess plasmonic resonances that can be modulated by graphene gating. In particular, spectrally narrow plasmon resonances potentially allow for very high graphene-enabled modulation depth. However, the modulation depths achieved with this approach have so far been low and the modulation wavelength range limited. Here we demonstrate a device in which a graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure is suspended over a gold nanostripe array. A gate voltage across these devices alters the location of the two-dimensional crystals, creating strong optical modulation of its reflection spectra at multiple wavelengths: in ultraviolet Fabry-Perot resonances, in visible and near-infrared diffraction-coupled plasmonic resonances and in the mid-infrared range of hexagonal boron nitride's upper Reststrahlen band. Devices can be extremely subwavelength in thickness and exhibit compact and truly broadband modulation of optical signals using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials.

4.
Science ; 351(6270): 246-8, 2016 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26816373

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional graphene plasmon-based technologies will enable the development of fast, compact, and inexpensive active photonic elements because, unlike plasmons in other materials, graphene plasmons can be tuned via the doping level. Such tuning is harnessed within terahertz quantum cascade lasers to reversibly alter their emission. This is achieved in two key steps: first, by exciting graphene plasmons within an aperiodic lattice laser and, second, by engineering photon lifetimes, linking graphene's Fermi energy with the round-trip gain. Modal gain and hence laser spectra are highly sensitive to the doping of an integrated, electrically controllable, graphene layer. Demonstration of the integrated graphene plasmon laser principle lays the foundation for a new generation of active, programmable plasmonic metamaterials with major implications across photonics, material sciences, and nanotechnology.

5.
Opt Express ; 23(2): 1265-75, 2015 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25835885

RESUMEN

The dense packing of two dimensional flakes by van der Waals forces has enabled the creation of new metamaterials with desirable optical properties. Here we assemble graphene oxide sheets into a three dimensional metamaterial using a microfluidic technique and confirm their ordering via measurements of ellipsometric parameters, polarized optical microscopy, polarized transmission spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We show that the produced metamaterials demonstrate strong in-plane optical anisotropy (Δn≈0.3 at n≈1.5-1.8) combined with low absorption (k<0.1) and compare them with as-synthesized samples of graphene oxide paper. Our results pave the way for engineered birefringent metamaterials on the basis of two dimensional atomic crystals including graphene and its derivatives.

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