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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244750, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382800

RESUMEN

Bats are among the most diverse, widespread, and abundant mammals. In Argentina, 67 species of bats have been recorded, belonging to 5 families and 29 genera. These high levels of biodiversity are likely to complicate identification at fieldwork, especially between closely related species, where external morphology-based approaches are the only immediate means for a priori species assignment. The use of molecular markers can enhance species identification, and acquires particular relevance in capture-release studies. In this study, we discuss the extent of the use of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for species identification, comparing external morphology identification with a molecular phylogenetic classification based on this marker, under the light of current bat systematics. We analyzed 33 samples collected in an eco-epidemiological survey in the province of Santa Fe (Argentina). We further sequenced 27 museum vouchers to test the accuracy of cytochrome b -based phylogenies in taxonomic identification of bats occurring in the Pampean/Chacoan regions of Argentina. The cytochrome b gene was successfully amplified in all Molossid and Vespertilionid species except for Eptesicus, for which we designed a new reverse primer. The resulting Bayesian phylogeny was congruent with current systematics. Cytochrome b proved useful for species-level delimitation in non-conflicting genera (Eumops, Dasypterus, Molossops) and has infrageneric resolution in more complex lineages (Eptesicus, Myotis, Molossus). We discuss four sources of incongruence that may act separately or in combination: 1) molecular processes, 2) biology, 3) limitations in identification, and 4) errors in the current taxonomy. The present study confirms the general applicability of cytochrome b -based phylogenies in eco-epidemiological studies, but its resolution and reliability depend mainly, but not solely, on the level of genetic differentiation within each bat genus.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/genética , Citocromos b/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Variación Genética , Animales , Argentina , Filogenia
2.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375530

RESUMEN

In rabies diagnosis, it is essential to count on a rapid test to give a quick response. The combined sensitivity and robustness of the TaqMan RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) have made these methods a valuable alternative for rabies virus (RABV) detection. We conducted a study to compare the applicability of two widely used qRT-PCR assays targeting the nucleoprotein gene (LysGT1 assay) and leader sequences (LN34 qRT-PCR assay) of RABV genomes, in all variants circulating in Argentina. A total of 44 samples obtained from bats, dogs, cattle, and horses, that were previously tested for rabies by FAT and conventional RT-PCR, were used in the study. All variants were successfully detected by the pan-lyssavirus LN34 qRT-PCR assay. The LysGT1 assay failed to detect three bat-related variants. We further sequenced the region targeted by LysGT1 and demonstrated that the presence of three or more mismatches with respect to the primers and probe sequences precludes viral detection. We conclude that the LysGT1 assay is prone to yield variant-dependent false-negative test results, and in consequence, the LN34 assay would ensure more effective detection of RABV in Argentina.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Rabia/diagnóstico , Rabia/virología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Argentina/epidemiología , Bovinos , Quirópteros , Geografía Médica , Caballos , Humanos , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografía , ARN Viral , Rabia/epidemiología , Virus de la Rabia/clasificación , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos
3.
Food Environ Virol ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165867

RESUMEN

Cosaviruses (CoSV) and Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) are novel members of the Picornaviridae family. The Matanza-Riachuelo river basin covers a total area of 2200 km2 with approximately 60 km long. Its last section is called Riachuelo River. The aim of this study was to describe the circulation of both picornaviruses and their relationship with the environmental situation of the Riachuelo River using 274 samples collected from 2005 to 2015. CoSV and SAFV were investigated in samples available by two periods: 2005-2006 and 2014-2015 (103 and 101, respectively). Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters confirmed very high levels of human fecal contamination during the 11 years evaluated. CoSV was detected in 85.7% (66/77) and 65.4% (17/26) of the samples collected in 2005-2006 and 2014-2015 periods, respectively. Species A and D were identified, the first one being widely predominant: 74.1% (20/27) and 75.0% (3/4) in both periods. SAFV virus was detected in 47.1% (32/68) and 52.6% (10/19) in periods 2005-2006 and 2014-2015, respectively. SAFV-6 was the most identified genotype in the entire study, while SAFV-3 was predominant in 2005-2006. The contribution of genotypes 1, 2, 4 and 8 was minor. The high prevalence of CoSV and SAFV suggests that both viruses have been circulating in Argentina at least since 2005. Our results show that a watercourse with high rates of human fecal contamination can become a persistent source of new viruses which capacity to produce human diseases is unknown.

4.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 140-143, jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013363

RESUMEN

We present two groups of cases of atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) detected in Argentina in 2015. The first group involved 14 patients from Chubut province and the second group affected 12 patients from San Luis province. Molecular analysis of the complete VP1 protein gene revealed the circulation of E2 sublineage, the most predominant worldwide. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CV-A6 infections associated with atypical HFMD in Argentina and South America.


Se describen dos grupos de casos de enfermedad de mano-pie-boca (HFMD) atípica causada por el virus Coxsackie A6 (Coxsackievirus A6, CV-A6) detectados en Argentina en el año 2015. El primero de los grupos involucró a 14 pacientes de Chubut y el segundo a 12 pacientes de San Luis. El análisis molecular del gen de la proteína VP1 completa reveló la circulación del sublinaje E2, el predominante a nivel global. Hasta donde sabemos, este es el primer reporte de infecciones CV-A6 asociadas con HFMD atípica en Argentina y Sudamérica.


Asunto(s)
Enterovirus/patogenicidad , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/etiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/microbiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología
5.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 51(2): 140-143, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269935

RESUMEN

We present two groups of cases of atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) detected in Argentina in 2015. The first group involved 14 patients from Chubut province and the second group affected 12 patients from San Luis province. Molecular analysis of the complete VP1 protein gene revealed the circulation of E2 sublineage, the most predominant worldwide. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CV-A6 infections associated with atypical HFMD in Argentina and South America.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coxsackievirus/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(4): 364-369, ago. 2017. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887348

RESUMEN

Introducción: La asociación entre enterovirus D68 y cuadros de mielitis aguda fláccida ha sido descrita en Estados Unidos, en 2014. Desde ese año, se han reportado casos esporádicamente en Canadá y Europa. Se describe, en este estudio, una serie de casos con mielitis aguda fláccida en el Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" en Buenos Aires, Argentina, en 2016. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes internados desde el 1/04/2016 al 1/07/2016 con mielitis fláccida aguda con lesiones en la médula espinal que comprometieran la sustancia gris en la resonancia magnética nuclear. Se procesaron, para la búsqueda etiológica, muestras de secreciones nasofaríngeas, hisopados de materia fecal y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 10 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue 4 años (rango de 3 meses a 5 años). Ocho pacientes tuvieron una enfermedad febril autolimitada antes del inicio de los síntomas neurológicos. Los hallazgos neurológicos fueron debilidad fláccida de, al menos, un miembro, cervicoplejia (n= 2) y parálisis facial (n= 2). Todos los pacientes presentaron lesiones longitudinales en la médula espinal, con compromiso de sustancia gris, predominantemente, en el asta anterior. En todos los casos, se realizó una punción lumbar. En 7 pacientes, se observó pleocitosis. En cuatro niños, se identificó enterovirus D68 en secreciones nasofaríngeas y, en uno, se identificó el enterovirusD68 en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Todos los pacientes persistieron con déficits neurológicos al momento del alta. Conclusiones: Se reporta el primer brote de mielitis aguda fláccida asociada a enterovirusD68 en Argentina. La vigilancia epidemiológica activa permitirá conocer la verdadera incidencia, epidemiología y etiología de esta enfermedad.


Introduction: The association between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid myelitis was first described in the United States in 2014. Since then, sporadic cases have been reported in Canada and Europe. This study describes a series of cases of acute flaccid myelitis at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan," in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 2016. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective study. All patients with acute flaccid myelitis and lesions in the spinal cord involving the gray matter, as observed in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, hospitalized from 04/01/2016 to 07/01/2016, were included in the study. Samples of nasopharyngeal secretions, fecal swabs and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and processed to look for the causative agent. Results: Ten patients were included. The median age was 4 years old (range from 3 months to 5 years old). Eight patients had a self-limiting febrile condition before the onset of neurological symptoms. Neurological findings were flaccid weakness in, at least, one limb, cervical paralysis (n= 2) and facial paralysis (n= 2). All patients had longitudinal lesions in the spinal cord, with gray matter involvement, mainly in the anterior horn. In all cases, a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) was performed. Pleocytosis was observed in 7 patients. In four children, enterovirus D68 was identified in nasopharyngeal secretions, and in one, it was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological deficit persisted in all patients at the time of discharge. Conclusions: The first outbreak of acute flaccid myelitis associated to enterovirus D68 is reported in Argentina. Active epidemiological surveillance will help to determine the true incidence, epidemiology and etiology of this disease.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Mielitis/epidemiología , Mielitis/virología , Argentina/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Hospitales Pediátricos , Mielitis/diagnóstico , Mielitis/terapia
7.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 115(4): 364-369, 2017 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737865

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The association between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid myelitis was first described in the United States in 2014. Since then, sporadic cases have been reported in Canada and Europe. This study describes a series of cases of acute flaccid myelitis at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan," in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 2016. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective study. All patients with acute flaccid myelitis and lesions in the spinal cord involving the gray matter, as observed in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, hospitalized from 04/01/2016 to 07/01/2016, were included in the study. Samples of nasopharyngeal secretions, fecal swabs and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and processed to look for the causative agent. RESULTS: Ten patients were included. The median age was 4 years old (range from 3 months to 5 years old). Eight patients had a self-limiting febrile condition before the onset of neurological symptoms. Neurological findings were flaccid weakness in, at least, one limb, cervical paralysis (n= 2) and facial paralysis (n= 2). All patients had longitudinal lesions in the spinal cord, with gray matter involvement, mainly in the anterior horn. In all cases, a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) was performed. Pleocytosis was observed in 7 patients. In four children, enterovirus D68 was identified in nasopharyngeal secretions, and in one, it was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological deficit persisted in all patients at the time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The first outbreak of acute flaccid myelitis associated to enterovirus D68 is reported in Argentina. Active epidemiological surveillance will help to determine the true incidence, epidemiology and etiology of this disease.


Asunto(s)
Mielitis/epidemiología , Mielitis/virología , Argentina/epidemiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Hospitales Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Mielitis/diagnóstico , Mielitis/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 20(1): 37-39, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-791248

RESUMEN

La leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA) es el cáncer más frecuente en niños. A nivel mundial se estima que cerca del 30% corresponde a la totalidad de las neoplasias malignas que se presentan en niños y, de estas, más del 75% son LLA. En Colombia no existe aún un registro nacional de cáncer que nos permita evaluar exactamente la carga de la enfermedad por esta patología; sin embargo, se estima que se presentan aproximadamente 2.080 casos nuevos por año de cáncer en pacientes pediátricos y de estos 500 corresponden a LLA. Con el objetivo de disminuir la mortalidad y mejorar la oportunidad en el diagnóstico y en el tratamiento de los niños afectados por esta patología, se desarrolló esta Guía de práctica clínica (GPC) como producto del trabajo durante meses de un grupo organizado y motivado de médicos especialistas en el área (epidemiólogos, economistas, entre otros), quienes elaboraron recomendaciones para las diferentes etapas tanto para la prevención, sospecha, diagnóstico, tratamiento, seguimiento de los niños y adolescentes con diagnóstico de LLA.


Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children. Globally, it is estimated that nearly 30% correspond to the total of malignant tumours in children, and 75% of them are ALL. There is no national cancer registry in Colombia that would allow us to precisely assess the burden of the disease for this condition; however, calculations have shown that there are 2,080 new paediatric cancer cases every year, and of those 500 correspond to ALL. With the goal of reducing mortality and improving the chances for a diagnosis and treatment of children affected by this condition, the present clinical practice guide (CPG) was developed after a work of months carried out by an organised and motivated group of physicians specialised in the field (epidemiologists and economists, among others), who formulated recommendations for the different stages: prevention, suspicion, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children and teens diagnosed with ALL.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Terapéutica , Leucemia , Niño , Adolescente , Monitoreo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Neoplasias , Costo de Enfermedad
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 6(5): e1635, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22590657

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. METHODS: We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Virus de la Rabia/clasificación , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Rabia/veterinaria , Animales , Argentina/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Epidemias , Epidemiología Molecular , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Filogeografía , ARN Viral/genética , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/virología , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Virus de la Rabia/inmunología , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Serotipificación
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 69(6): 643-646, nov.-dic. 2009. ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-633697

RESUMEN

El 22 de Julio de 2008, un niño de 8 años de edad, residente en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina, falleció por una encefalitis producida por el virus de la rabia. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante la detección de anticuerpos en suero y se confirmó por inmunofluorescencia en el cerebro. La tipificación antigénica correspondió a la variante 1 trasmitida por perros. El análisis molecular estableció que el virus detectado es de la misma variante genética que circula en Jujuy desde 2003. Este trabajo resume la evolución clínica del paciente y la posterior investigación epidemiológica que reveló el antecedente de mordedura por un perro 60 días antes de la iniciación de la enfermedad y la ausencia de un tratamiento antirrábico post-exposición.


On July 22, 2008, a previously healthy 8 years old boy from Jujuy, Argentina, died of encephalitis later confirmed as rabies. Diagnosis was made on the basis rabies-specific antibodies presence in a serum sample and it was confirmed by detection of the viral antigens in brain necropsy using the inmunofluorescent test. Antigenic characterization identified dog as source of infection. Molecular analysis recognized the same genetic variant circulating in Jujuy since 2003. This report presents the patient's clinical course and the epidemiologic investigation that revealed a dog bite 60 days before the illness onset and the lack of rabies treatment.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Niño , Perros , Humanos , Masculino , Mordeduras y Picaduras/complicaciones , Encefalitis Viral/patología , Rabia/patología , Antígenos Virales/análisis , Encéfalo/patología , Resultado Fatal , Virus de la Rabia/inmunología , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Rabia/inmunología
11.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 69(6): 643-6, 2009.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20053605

RESUMEN

On July 22, 2008, a previously healthy 8 years old boy from Jujuy, Argentina, died of encephalitis later confirmed as rabies. Diagnosis was made on the basis rabies-specific antibodies presence in a serum sample and it was confirmed by detection of the viral antigens in brain necropsy using the immunofluorescent test. Antigenic characterization identified dog as source of infection. Molecular analysis recognized the same genetic variant circulating in Jujuy since 2003. This report presents the patient's clinical course and the epidemiologic investigation that revealed a dog bite 60 days before the illness onset and the lack of rabies treatment.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras/complicaciones , Encefalitis Viral/patología , Rabia/patología , Animales , Antígenos Virales/análisis , Encéfalo/patología , Niño , Perros , Resultado Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Rabia/inmunología , Virus de la Rabia/inmunología , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación
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