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Addict Behav ; 112: 106576, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768796


BACKGROUND: Tobacco use often begins or stabilizes in young adulthood. Approximately 90% of young adults use social media and over 80% own a smartphone. Retailers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have targeted smartphones and social media with adverting campaigns. Despite evidence of ENDS advertising on social media and smartphones, few studies have examined associations between exposure to vaping advertisements on smartphones, social media use, and ENDS use (i.e., vaping) among young adults. METHODS: College students aged 18-24 from a large public university (N = 1047) completed online surveys about vaping. The survey measured frequency of vaping advertisement exposure, smartphone use, social media use, and vaping behaviors. Hierarchical logistic regression assessed whether demographics, vaping advertisement exposure, smartphone use, and social media use predicted ever vaping compared to never vaping. RESULTS: The four most commonly used platforms (used "daily") were Snapchat (80.0%), Instagram (73.4%), YouTube (59.7%), and Facebook (54.3%). Use of Snapchat, Instagram, and Facebook were all significantly associated with higher rates of vaping advertisement exposure via smartphones. Exposure to vaping advertisements on smartphones was associated with ever vaping (AOR: 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05-1.60). Of the social media platforms examined, only Snapchat use frequency was associated with higher odds of ever vaping (AOR: 1.22, 95% CI = 1.10-1.36). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to advertisements via smartphones and use of Snapchat were associated with higher rates of vaping for young adults. Social media and smartphone use should be further investigated for young adult impact.

PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240611, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085686


There has been an upsurge of e-cigarette use in the United States in recent years. While e-cigarettes may contain lower levels of toxic chemicals than combusted cigarettes, they still pose serious health hazards, including increased risk for heart and respiratory disease. Despite these risks, public awareness of the health harms of e-cigarettes remains low. Thus, it is important to educate the public about the potential harms of e-cigarettes. This study took themes commonly found in antismoking messages and used them to develop messages about harms of e-cigarettes. A national sample of 2801 current smokers and nonsmokers (aged 18+ years) were randomized to view one of four e-cigarette messages (harmful effect of chemicals, uncertainty about ingredients, distrust of big tobacco, or cost of vaping) or a control message (bottled water ad). Participants' reactions to the messages and behavioral intentions were assessed immediately following the exposure. MANOVA examined effects of the messages on blocks of the outcome variables and univariate analyses estimated adjusted means for each experimental condition for each outcome. The message about harmful chemicals was perceived as the most informative and effective and elicited the highest levels of negative emotions (Ps<0.05). However, on measures of actual effectiveness, the other messages performed equally well. Specifically, messages with different themes (harmful chemicals, uncertainty about ingredients, anti-industry, or financial cost) increased perceived risk of e-cigarettes, support for e-cigarette control, and lowered self-exempting beliefs and intentions to use e-cigarettes (Ps<0.05). Themes commonly used in anti-smoking messages may be effective in educating the public about the potential harm of e-cigarettes. The observed differential effects of the messages suggest the need to use multiple themes in a public education campaign about e-cigarettes.

J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e17104, 2020 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348288


BACKGROUND: As user modification can alter the addictiveness and toxicity of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), more research is needed to understand the types, motivations, risks, and information sources that lead to these product alterations. YouTube has been identified as a major platform where ENDS users obtain and share information about ENDS products and modifications. However, a comprehensive study of ENDS modification videos on YouTube is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the content of YouTube videos depicting modifications of ENDS. METHODS: YouTube was searched in March 2019 to identify videos depicting ENDS modifications. Search terms were derived from interviews with ENDS users and current literature. We used 28 search phrases that combined the words vape and vaping with modification-related key terms (eg, custom build, modification, and dripping). The final sample included 168 videos. RESULTS: Videos were 1 to 108 min long (median 9.55). Presenters were largely male (117/168, 69.6%), white (94/168, 56.0%), and older than 25 years (94/168, 56.0%). Most videos gave how to instructions (148/168, 88.1%), but few offered warnings (30/168, 17.9%) or mentioned commercial alternatives to modifications they presented (16/168, 9.5%). The ENDS devices most often featured were drippers (63/168, 37.5%) and refillable tanks (37/168, 22.0%). The most often modified ENDS components were coils (82/168, 48.8%) and e-liquids (34/168, 20.2%), which included adding other substances, such as cannabis, to the e-liquids (6/168, 3.6%). Most videos portrayed ENDS modifications positively (106/168, 63.1% positive; 60/168, 35.7% neutral; and 2/168, 1.2% negative) and were either neutral or positive in their overall portrayal of ENDS devices (78/168, 46.4% positive; 89/168, 53.0% neutral; and 1/168, 0.6% negative). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several concerning trends in popular YouTube videos on ENDS modifications, including lack of warnings, the addition of marijuana derivatives to e-liquids, and the positive portrayal of ENDS devices and modifications. By identifying the types of modifications (coil and e-liquid being the most prevalent), this study sets an agenda for research on the effects of modifications.