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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0084621, 2021 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668736

RESUMEN

Isothermal amplification-based tests have been introduced as rapid, low-cost, and simple alternatives to real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. The clinical performance of two isothermal amplification-based tests (Atila Biosystems iAMP coronavirus disease of 2019 [COVID-19] detection test and OptiGene COVID-19 direct plus RT-loop-mediated isothermal amplification [LAMP] test) was compared with that of clinical RT-PCR assays using different sampling strategies. A total of 1,378 participants were tested across 4 study sites. Compared with standard of care RT-PCR testing, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Atila iAMP test for detection of SARS-CoV-2 were 76.2% and 94.9%, respectively, and increased to 88.8% and 89.5%, respectively, after exclusion of an outlier study site. Sensitivity varied based on the anatomic site from which the sample was collected. Sensitivity for nasopharyngeal sampling was 65.4% (range across study sites, 52.8% to 79.8%), for midturbinate was 88.2%, for saliva was 55.1% (range across study sites, 42.9% to 77.8%), and for anterior nares was 66.7% (range across study sites, 63.6% to 76.5%). The specificity for these anatomic collection sites ranged from 96.7% to 100%. Sensitivity improved in symptomatic patients (overall, 82.7%) and those with a higher viral load (overall, 92.4% for cycle threshold [CT] of ≤25). Sensitivity and specificity of the OptiGene direct plus RT-LAMP test, which was conducted at a single study site, were 25.5% and 100%, respectively. The Atila iAMP COVID test with midturbinate sampling is a rapid, low-cost assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2, especially in symptomatic patients and those with a high viral load, and could be used to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in clinical settings. Variation of performance between study sites highlights the need for site-specific clinical validation of these assays before clinical adoption. IMPORTANCE Numerous SARS-CoV-2 detection assays have been developed and introduced into the market under emergency use authorizations (EUAs). EUAs are granted primarily based on small studies of analytic sensitivity and specificity with limited clinical validations. A thorough clinical performance evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 assays is important to understand the strengths, limitations, and specific applications of these assays. In this first large-scale multicentric study, we evaluated the clinical performance and operational characteristics of two isothermal amplification-based SARS-CoV-2 tests, namely, (i) iAMP COVID-19 detection test (Atila BioSystems, USA) and (ii) COVID-19 direct plus RT-LAMP test (OptiGene Ltd., UK), compared with those of clinical RT-PCR tests using different sampling strategies (i.e., nasopharyngeal, self-sampled anterior nares, self-sampled midturbinate, and saliva). An important specific use for these isothermal amplification-based, rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-perform SARS-CoV-2 assays is to allow for a safer return to preventive clinical encounters, such as cancer screening, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that have low SARS-CoV-2 vaccination rates.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368249

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death for women in low- and middle-income countries. The goal of our study was to evaluate screening and triage strategies, including high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME), to detect cervical abnormalities concerning for precancer at the point of care. Women (n = 1824) were enrolled at the Instituto de Cáncer de El Salvador. All underwent screening by both human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using careHPV and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Screen-positives, along with 10% of screen-negatives, were invited to return for a follow-up examination that included triage with VIA, colposcopy and HRME imaging. Biopsies were taken of any abnormalities identified. If no abnormalities were identified, then the worst scoring site by HRME was biopsied. The sensitivities of HPV testing and VIA to screen for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 2 or more severe diagnoses (CIN2+) were 82.1% and 75% (P = .77), while the specificities were 90.4% and 80.9% (P < .001), respectively. The sensitivities of VIA, colposcopy and HRME as triage tests for CIN2+ were 82.1%, 82.1% and 71.4%, respectively (P ≥ .38). HRME had a significantly higher specificity (66.7%) than VIA (51.9%) (P < .001) and colposcopy (53.3%) (P < .001). When evaluating different theoretical screening and triage strategies, screening with HPV testing followed by triage with HRME would result in more women receiving appropriate care (97%) compared to screening with VIA (75%) or HPV alone (90%). Our findings demonstrate that screening with HPV is superior to VIA, and that triage with HRME imaging increases the specificity of detecting CIN2+ at the point of care in a low-resource setting.

8.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1519-1530, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064628

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) project is a public-sector intervention introducing lower-cost human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in all four departments of the Paracentral region that screened a total of 28,015 women. After demonstrating success of an HPV screen-and-treat (S&T) algorithm over colposcopy management in the first two phases, the third phase scaled up the S&T strategy. We present results from phase III and evaluate S&T components across the entire project. METHODS: During phase III, 17,965 women age 30-59 years underwent HPV testing. HPV-positive women were asked to return and, if eligible, received gas-based cryotherapy. We compare loss to follow-up and time intervals between S&T steps across the three phases. RESULTS: There were no differences in HPV positivity across phases (phase I, 11.9%; phase II, 11.4%; phase III, 12.3%; P = .173). Although most HPV-positive women completed indicated follow-up procedures within 6 months in phases I (93.3%, 111 of 119) and II (92.3%, 429 of 465), this proportion declined to 74.9% (1,659 of 2,214; P < .001) in phase III. Mean days between testing and delivery of results to patients increased over program phases (phase I, 23.2 days; phase II, 46.7 days; phase III, 99.8 days; P < .001). CONCLUSION: A public-sector implementation of an HPV-based S&T algorithm was successfully scaled up in El Salvador, albeit with losses in efficiency. After CAPE, the Ministry of Health changed its screening guidelines and procured additional tests to expand the program.

9.
LGBT Health ; 7(4): 174-181, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407149

RESUMEN

Purpose: Sexual and gender minority persons in low-income countries have very limited access to routine health services. This study evaluated the feasibility of using a self-sampled human papillomavirus (HPV) test to increase access to screening for cervical cancer among transgender men in El Salvador. Methods: We partnered with a local advocacy organization for recruitment. A total of 24 transgender men (men assigned female at birth) ages 19-55 were enrolled and provided consent. Questionnaires assessed sociodemographics, health and sexual histories, and knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Screening was performed with a self-sampled HPV test. Participants with a positive test were offered colposcopy and cryotherapy treatment, if appropriate. Those with a negative test were advised to return in 5 years for rescreening. Results: Out of 24 consenting participants, 23 (95.83%) agreed to conduct HPV self-sampling, and 22/23 (95.65%) expressed willingness to self-sample in the future. Among self-sampled individuals, 3/23 (13%) tested positive and accepted colposcopy and biopsy. Analyses of biopsied tissue revealed one case of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1. Conclusion: HPV self-sampling and subsequent procedures were accepted by the majority of participants. This screening method may be a viable alternative to cytology among transgender men in El Salvador.

10.
IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med ; 8: 4300210, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190430

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer disproportionally affects women in low- and middle-income countries, in part due to the difficulty of implementing existing cervical cancer screening and diagnostic technologies in low-resource settings. Single-board computers offer a low-cost alternative to provide computational support for automated point-of-care technologies. Here we demonstrate two new devices for cervical cancer prevention that use a single-board computer: 1) a low-cost imaging system for real-time detection of cervical precancer and 2) a low-cost reader for real-time interpretation of lateral flow-based molecular tests to detect cervical cancer biomarkers. Using a Raspberry Pi computer to provide real-time image collection and processing, we developed: 1) a low-cost, portable high-resolution microendoscope system (PiHRME); and 2) a low-cost automatic lateral flow test reader (PiReader). The PiHRME acquired high-resolution ([Formula: see text]) images of the cervix at half the cost of existing high-resolution microendoscope systems; image analysis algorithms based on convolutional neural networks were implemented to provide real-time image interpretation. The PiReader acquired and analyzed images of a point-of-care human papillomavirus (HPV) serology test with the same contrast and accuracy as a standard flatbed high-resolution scanner coupled to a laptop computer, for less than one-fifth of the cost. Raspberry Pi single-board computers provide a low-cost means to implement point-of-care tools with automatic image analysis. This work demonstrates the promise of single-board computers to develop and translate low-cost, point-of-care technologies for use in low-resource settings.

11.
Prev Med ; 131: 105931, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765712

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has been incorporated into El Salvador's national guidelines. The feasibility of home-based HPV self-collection among women who do not attend screening at the clinic (i.e., non-attenders) has been demonstrated, but cost-effectiveness has not been evaluated. Using cost and compliance data from El Salvador, we informed a mathematical microsimulation model of HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis from the societal perspective. We estimated the reduction in cervical cancer risk, lifetime cost per woman (2017 US$), life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER, 2017 US$ per year of life saved [YLS]) of a program with home-based self-collection of HPV (facilitated by health promoters) for the 18% of women reluctant to screen at the clinic. The model was calibrated to epidemiologic data from El Salvador. We evaluated health and economic outcomes of the self-collection intervention for women aged 30 to 59 years, alone and in concert with clinic-based HPV provider-collection. Home-based self-collection of HPV was projected to reduce population cervical cancer risk by 14% and cost $1210 per YLS compared to no screening. An integrated program reaching 99% coverage with both provider- and home-based self-collection of HPV reduced cancer risk by 74% (compared to no screening), and cost $1210 per YLS compared to provider-collection alone. Self-collection facilitated by health promoters is a cost-effective strategy for increasing screening uptake in El Salvador.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/economía , Pruebas de ADN del Papillomavirus Humano , Modelos Teóricos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Adulto , Colposcopía/economía , El Salvador , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Papillomaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control
12.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2019 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055452

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Gas-based cryotherapy is the conventional ablative treatment for cervical pre-cancer in low-income settings, but the use of gas poses significant challenges. We compared the depth of necrosis induced by gas-based cryotherapy with two gas-free alternatives: cryotherapy using CryoPen,and thermoablation. METHODS: We conducted a five-arm randomized non-inferiority trial: double-freeze carbon dioxide (CO2) cryotherapy (referent), single-freeze CO2 cryotherapy, double-freeze CryoPen, single-freeze CryoPen, and thermoablation. Subjects were 130 women scheduled for hysterectomy for indications other than cervical pathology, and thus with healthy cervical tissue available for histological evaluation of depth of necrosis post-surgery. The null hypothesis was rejected (ie, conclude non-inferiority) if the upper bound of the 90% confidence interval (90% CI) for the difference in mean depth of necrosis (referent minus each experimental method) was <1.14 mm. Patient pain during treatment was reported on a scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain). RESULTS: A total of 133 patients were enrolled in the study. The slides from three women were deemed unreadable. One patient was excluded because her hysterectomy was postponed for reasons unrelated to the study, and two patients were excluded because treatment application did not follow the established protocol. For the remaining 127 women, mean depth of necrosis for double-freeze CO2 (referent) was 6.0±1.6 mm. Differences between this and other methods were: single-freeze CO2 = 0.4 mm (90% CI -0.4 to 1.2 mm), double-freeze CryoPen= 0.7 mm (90% CI 0.04 to 1.4 mm), single-freeze CryoPen= 0.5 mm (90% CI -0.2 to 1.2 mm), and thermoablation = 2.6 mm (90% CI 2.0 to 3.1 mm). Mean pain levels were 2.2±1.0 (double-freeze CO2 cryotherapy), 1.8±0.8 (single-freeze CO2 cryotherapy), 2.5±1.4 (double-freeze CryoPen), 2.6±1.4 (single-freeze CryoPen), and 4.1±2.3 (thermoablation). DISCUSSION: Compared with the referent, non-inferiority could not be concluded for other methods. Mean pain scores were low for all treatments. Depth of necrosis is a surrogate for treatment efficacy, but a randomized clinical trial is necessary to establish true cure rates.

13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 145(1): 40-46, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702142

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of HPV-based screening and management algorithms for HPV-positive women in phase 2 of the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration, relative to the status quo of Pap-based screening. METHODS: Data from phase 2 of the CAPE demonstration (n=8000 women) were used to inform a mathematical model of HPV infection and cervical cancer. The model was used to project the lifetime health and economic outcomes of HPV testing every 5 years (age 30-65 years), with referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women; HPV testing every 5 years (age 30-65 years), with immediate cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women; and Pap testing every 2 years (age 20-65 years), with referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women. RESULTS: Despite slight decreases in the proportion of HPV-positive women who received treatment relative to phase 1, the health impact of screening in phase 2 remained stable, reducing cancer risk by 58.5%. As in phase 1, HPV testing followed by cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women remained the least costly and most effective strategy (US$490 per year of life saved). CONCLUSION: HPV-based screening followed by immediate cryotherapy in all eligible women would be very cost-effective in El Salvador.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/economía , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adulto , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/economía , El Salvador , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
14.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 22(1): 47-51, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29271857

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of maintenance on performance of cryosurgical equipment used in El Salvador primary health clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine gynecological cryotherapy devices used in El Salvador were bench tested against a new machine of the same make and model. The devices were run for five successive double-freeze cycles. The El Salvador machines then received maintenance by a specialized engineer and another double-freeze cycle was performed. Temperature at the device probe tip was recorded throughout each cycle and ballistic gelatin was used as the tissue analogue to measure freeze ball dimensions achieved by the devices. Outcome measures were mean lowest-sustained temperatures and freeze ball mean weight, depth, and diameter. Paired and unpaired t tests were used to compare results premaintenance versus postmaintenance and postmaintenance versus the reference, respectively. RESULTS: Premaintenance versus postmaintenance freeze ball dimensions were significantly different (mean differences in weight = 2.31 g, p = .01; depth = 2.29 mm, p = .03; diameter = 3.51 mm, p = .02). However, postmaintenance dimensions were not significantly different than those of the reference (weight = 7.44 g vs. 8.39 g, p = .07; depth = 10.71 vs. 11.24 mm, p = .1; diameter = 31.38 mm vs. 32.05 mm, p = .3). Postmaintenance, minimum, and lowest-sustained temperatures were within the recommended clinical range. CONCLUSIONS: Specialized maintenance was necessary for heavily used cryotherapy devices to perform adequately, highlighting the challenges of gas-based cryotherapy in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Crioterapia/instrumentación , Crioterapia/métodos , Lesiones Precancerosas/terapia , Enfermedades del Cuello del Útero/terapia , El Salvador , Femenino , Humanos , Mantenimiento , Calidad de la Atención de Salud
15.
J Glob Oncol ; 3(5): 658-665, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094102

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are significantly higher in low- and middle-income countries compared with the United States and other developed countries. This disparity is caused by decreased access to screening, often coupled with low numbers of trained providers offering cancer prevention and treatment services. However, similar disparities are also found in underserved areas of the United States, such as the Texas-Mexico border, where cervical cancer mortality rates are 30% higher than in the rest of Texas. To address these issues, we have adopted the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) program, a low-cost telementoring model previously proven to be successful in increasing local capacity, improving patient management skills, and ultimately improving patient outcomes in rural and underserved areas. We use the Project ECHO model to educate local providers in the management of cervical dysplasia in a low-resource region of Texas and have adapted it to inform strategies for the management of advanced cervical and breast cancer in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. This innovative approach, using ECHO, is part of a larger strategy to enhance clinical skills and develop collaborative projects between academic centers and partners in low-resource regions.

16.
J Glob Oncol ; 3(4): 400-408, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831448

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, with 90% of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There has been a global effort to increase access to affordable screening in these settings; however, a corresponding increase in availability of effective and inexpensive treatment modalities for ablating or excising precancerous lesions is also needed to decrease mortality. This article reviews the current landscape of available and developing technologies for treatment of cervical precancer in LMICs. At present, the standard treatment of most precancerous lesions in LMICs is gas-based cryotherapy. This low-cost, effective technology is an expedient treatment in many areas; however, obtaining and transporting gas is often difficult, and unwieldy gas tanks are not conducive to mobile health campaigns. There are several promising ablative technologies in development that are gasless or require less gas than conventional cryotherapy. Although further evaluation of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness is needed, several of these technologies are safe and can now be implemented in LMICs. Nonsurgical therapies, such as therapeutic vaccines, antivirals, and topical applications, are also promising, but most remain in early-stage trials. The establishment of evidence-based standardized protocols for available treatments and the development and introduction of novel technologies are necessary steps in overcoming barriers to treatment in LMICs and decreasing the global burden of cervical cancer. Guidance from WHO on emerging treatment technologies is also needed.

17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 138(2): 194-200, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589548

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To establish the feasibility and acceptability of home-based HPV self-sampling among women who did not attend screening appointments in rural El Salvador. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from May 2015 to January 2016 among 60 women aged 30-59 years who were not pregnant, provided informed consent, had not been screened in 2 years, had no history of pre-cancer treatment, and did not attend a scheduled HPV screening. Participants completed questionnaires and received educational information before being given an opportunity to self-sample with the Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. RESULTS: Self-sampling was accepted by 41 (68%) participants. Almost all women chose to self-sample because the process was easy (40/41, 98%), could be performed at home (40/41, 98%), and saved time (38/41, 93%), and because they felt less embarrassed (33/41, 80%). The most common reason for declining the test was not wanting to be screened (8/19, 42%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV types among women who accepted self-sampling was 17% (7/41). CONCLUSION: For most women, community-based self-sampling was an acceptable way to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. In low-resource countries, incorporating community-based self-sampling into screening programs might improve coverage of high-risk women.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Adulto , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Estudios Transversales , El Salvador , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Proyectos Piloto , Población Rural , Autocuidado , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Prev Med ; 98: 39-41, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279262

RESUMEN

The accumulated scientific evidence now provides ample support for HPV primary screening as a superior method for detecting cervical precancer and preventing cervical cancer. Approximately half of the global burden of cervical cancer could be reduced in lower-middle income countries where attempts to implement traditional cytology-based programs have not experienced successes. In these countries screening programs have struggled with poor screening and diagnostic test sensitivity, difficulties maintaining quality control and adequate population coverage. HPV testing is not only more accurate and reliable, but also requires less training, quality assurance and expensive personnel. Because these countries are especially vulnerable to economic, political and societal instabilities, HPV tests must become more affordable and accessible in order to enable Ministries of Health to make long-term resource commitments.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Papillomaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Prevención Primaria , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos
19.
Gynecol Oncol Rep ; 20: 58-61, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337474

RESUMEN

•CareHPV tests were used to compare screen-and-treat and colposcopy management.•Screen-and-treat strategy with HPV testing was found to be very cost-effective.•CAPE has screened > 25,000 women in the Paracentral region.•Over 70% of screen-positive women received recommended treatment within six months.•CAPE is an example of public-private partnership resulting in paradigm change.

20.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 5(1): 57-64, 2017 03 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351879

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gas-based cryotherapy is the most widely used treatment strategy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low-resource settings, but reliance on gas presents challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our team adapted the original CryoPen Cryosurgical System, a cryotherapy device that does not require compressed gas and is powered by electricity, for use in LMICs. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was used involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, we used a user-centered design approach to identify priority features of the adapted device. U.S.-based and global potential users of the adapted CryoPen participated in discussion groups and a card sorting activity to rank 7 features of the adapted CryoPen: cost, durability, efficacy and safety, maintenance, no need for electricity, patient throughput, and portability. Mean and median rankings, overall rankings, and summary rankings by discussion group were generated. In addition, results of several quantitative tests were analyzed including bench testing to determine tip temperature and heat extraction capabilities; a pathology review of CIN grade 3 cases (N=107) to determine target depth of necrosis needed to achieve high efficacy; and a pilot study (N=5) investigating depth of necrosis achieved with the adapted device to assess efficacy. RESULTS: Discussion groups revealed 4 priority themes for device development in addition to the need to ensure high efficacy and safety and low cost: improved portability, durability, ease of use, and potential for cure. Adaptions to the original CryoPen system included a single-core, single-tip model; rugged carrying case; custom circuit to allow car battery charging; and sterilization by high-level disinfection. In bench testing, there were no significant differences in tip temperature or heat extraction capability between the adapted CryoPen and the standard cryotherapy device. In 80% of the cases in the pilot study, the adapted CryoPen achieved the target depth of necrosis 3.5 mm established in the pathology review. CONCLUSION: The LMIC-adapted CryoPen overcomes barriers to standard gas-based cryotherapy by eliminating dependency on gas, increasing portability, and ensuring consistent freeze temperatures. Further testing and evaluation of the adapted CryoPen will be pursued to assess scalability and potential impact of this device in decreasing the cervical cancer burden in LMICs.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/terapia , Crioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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