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1.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 41(3): 274-279, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26703813

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Controversy persists on the use of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). High-grade disease is known to be associated with decreased local control and overall survival (OS). Because RT has proven beneficial for local control and OS in patients with high-grade extremity soft tissue sarcoma, we evaluated the efficacy of adjuvant RT in high-grade RPS. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify patients with pathology-confirmed RPS from 1973 to 2010. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 480 total patients, 144 (30.0%) received postoperative radiation. Patients who received adjuvant RT had improved median OS (36 mo) compared with those who did not (27 mo, hazard ratio [HR]=0.79, P=0.023). On multivariate analysis the use of adjuvant RT (HR=0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-0.98; P=0.029), male sex (HR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.59; P=0.003), age above 65 years (HR=1.38; 95% CI, 1.15-1.67; P=0.001), and increasing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results historical stage (HR=1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.76; P<0.001) were all prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSIONS: In a large retrospective analysis, postoperative RT improved OS in high-grade RPS patients. As such, adjuvant RT should be strongly considered in all patients with high-grade RPS. The optimal timing of RT relative to surgery requires further study.


Asunto(s)
Radioterapia Ayuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Retroperitoneales/radioterapia , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias de los Tejidos Blandos/radioterapia , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Retroperitoneales/mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Programa de VERF , Sarcoma/mortalidad , Neoplasias de los Tejidos Blandos/mortalidad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
2.
Radiother Oncol ; 124(2): 325-330, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778348

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While stage III and IV classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients are often combined and defined as "advanced stage," there are significant differences in disease distribution and burden between the two stages. This may obscure advantages of radiotherapy (RT) in a combined modality therapy strategy in stage III disease due to the relative lack of benefit in stage IV patients. METHODS: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, restricting our search to patients with stage III classical HL diagnosed from 2004 to 2012, to examine the difference in overall and cause-specific survival (OS and CSS) between patients who did or did not receive RT. RESULTS: Patients treated with RT had improved OS and CSS relative to those treated without RT (5-year OS 91.6% with RT compared to 71.4% without RT, HR=0.34, p<0.001) and CSS (5-year OS 95.4% with RT compared to 84.7% without RT, HR=0.32, p<0.001). A benefit in OS and/or CSS was seen in all patient subgroups except for older adults (>64years). CONCLUSION: These data support at least a cautionary approach to omitting RT from treatment strategies for patients with advanced stage HL.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/mortalidad , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Radioterapia Ayuvante/estadística & datos numéricos , Programa de VERF , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 58(12): 2833-2844, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482717

RESUMEN

In 120 Stage I-IV testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated from 1964 to 2015, we assessed the benefits of prophylactic contralateral testicular radiation (RT) and prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) therapy on overall, progression free, testicular relapse free, and CNS relapse free survival (OS, PFS, TRFS, and CRFS, respectively). Seventy percent of patients received RT, 53% received anthracyclines and rituximab (modern therapy), and 61% received CNS prophylaxis. On univariate analysis RT was associated with improved TRFS, PFS, and trended toward improved OS. On multivariate analysis (MVA), RT was significantly associated with improved OS and PFS; the PFS benefit persisted among patients receiving modern therapy. CNS prophylaxis was associated with improved OS, PFS, and TRFS, but not CRFS on univariate analysis, and was not significant on MVA. RT is associated with improved survival, and should be considered for all testicular DLBCL patients, but additional strategies are needed to prevent CNS relapse.


Asunto(s)
Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/mortalidad , Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/radioterapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/mortalidad , Neoplasias Testiculares/radioterapia , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biomarcadores , Biopsia , Terapia Combinada , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Imagen Multimodal , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Radioterapia/efectos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
4.
J Contemp Brachytherapy ; 7(2): 135-41, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26034494

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate recurrent vaginal cancer treated with vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) using graphic optimization in patients not amenable to surgery and interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 5 patients with recurrent cancer in the vagina that were deemed not to be good candidates for ISBT implant because of medical reasons. All patients received computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) based evaluation in addition to a detailed clinical examination, and were noted to have recurrent nodules in the vagina with size ranging from 10-25 mm. Four of the 5 patients had recurrent disease in the vaginal apex, whereas one patient had recurrence in the lateral vaginal wall. Subsequently, all patients were treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by multichannel vaginal cylinder (MVC)-based VBT using graphic optimization for shaping the isodose to improve the clinical target volume (CTV) coverage, as well as to spare the organs at risk (OAR). The dose to the bladder and rectum with regard to 0.1 cc, 1 cc, and 2 cc were recorded. RESULTS: Median age of the patients was 78 years (range 58-86 years). Thickness of the lesions before VBT ranged from 6-15 mm. All patients were followed up with MRI at 3 months. All patients but one demonstrated complete clinical/ radiological response of the tumor. No patient had any grade III/IV toxicity at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: MVC-based VBT using graphic optimization is safe and yields favorable results if used judiciously.

5.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 5(2): 93-8, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25413414

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare port film rejection and treatment outcome according to craniospinal irradiation (CSI) position for medulloblastoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively searched for patients ≤19 years treated with CSI for medulloblastoma at 1 department. We collected the following data: age; sex; risk group; need for general anesthesia; radiation therapy (RT) dose and fractionation; and the acceptance or rejection of weekly port films during treatment. We also collected data on outcomes, including neuraxis recurrence and possible complications such as myelitis. RESULTS: Of 46 children identified, 23 were treated prone (median age, 8.1 years) and 23 supine (median age, 7.2 years). High-risk disease was seen in 26% of prone and 35% of supine patients (P = .25). There was no difference in use of general anesthesia between those treated prone versus supine (57% vs 61%). The rejection rate of cranial port films in the prone position was 35%, which was significantly higher than the rate of 8% in patients treated supine (P < .0001). The 5-year progression-free (P = .37) and overall survival (P = .18) rates were 62% and 67% for prone and 76% and 84% for supine patients. There were no isolated junctional failures or radiation myelitis in either CSI position. CONCLUSIONS: The supine position for CSI was found to have similar survival outcomes compared with the prone position. A higher proportion of rejected cranial port films was seen in children treated in the prone position.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Cerebelosas/radioterapia , Irradiación Craneoespinal/métodos , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Posición Prona , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Posición Supina , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 90(4): 858-62, 2014 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25245583

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Although it is generally accepted that consolidation therapy for neuroblastoma includes irradiation of the primary site and any remaining metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites, limited information has been published regarding the efficacy of this approach. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty patients with high-risk neuroblastoma were treated at 1 radiation therapy (RT) department after receiving 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and resection. All patients had at least a partial response after induction therapy, based upon international neuroblastoma response criteria. The primary sites were treated with 24 to 30 Gy whereas the MIBG-avid metastatic sites were treated with 24 Gy. RT was followed by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue and 6 months of cis-retinoic acid. RESULTS: The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 48% and 59%, respectively. The 5-year locoregional control at the primary site was 84%. There were no differences in locoregional control according to degree of primary surgical resection. The 5-year local control rate for metastatic sites was 74%. The 5-year PFS rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and >3 postinduction MIBG sites were 66%, 57%, 20%, and 0% (P<.0001), respectively, whereas 5-year OS rates were 80%, 57%, 50%, and 0%, respectively (P<.0001). CONCLUSIONS: RT to the primary site and postinduction MIBG-positive metastatic sites was associated with 84% and 74% local control, respectively. The number of MIBG-avid sites present after induction chemotherapy and surgery was predictive of progression-free and overall survival.


Asunto(s)
Neuroblastoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Neuroblastoma/radioterapia , 3-Yodobencilguanidina/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Carboplatino/administración & dosificación , Niño , Preescolar , Cisplatino/administración & dosificación , Quimioterapia de Consolidación/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Fraccionamiento de la Dosis de Radiación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Etopósido/administración & dosificación , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Inducción/métodos , Lactante , Neoplasia Residual , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/mortalidad , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Cintigrafía , Radiofármacos/farmacocinética , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Adulto Joven
7.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 14(6): 474-9, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25108680

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Mantle cell lymphoma has an aggressive clinical course and continuous relapse pattern with a median survival of 3 to 7 years. Multiple courses of chemotherapy are the basis of treatment. Radiotherapy is underutilized in this disease. We undertook this study to assess the role of radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 consecutive patients with mantle cell lymphoma diagnosed from December, 1999 to January, 2010 who received radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The main endpoint was in-field lymphoma response at each irradiated disease site. RESULTS: There were 39 evaluable patients (68 symptomatic sites). Sites treated included: nodal stations (n = 31), soft tissue (n = 13), mucosal sites (n = 11), central nervous system (n = 10), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), and bone (n = 1). Median maximum tumor size at presentation was 3.5 cm (range, 1.3 cm-9.6 cm). The median dose of radiation was 30.6 Gy (range 18-40 Gy). Median follow-up post radiation per site was 12.3 months (range, 0.6-80.9 months). Response to treatment was complete in 47 sites (69.1%), partial in 16 sites (23.5%), and 5 sites (7.4%) had stable disease. In 9 (13.2%) sites local relapse occurred (median 7 months; range 2-21). The mean size of lymphoma at time of RT correlated with relapse, with tumors with local relapse larger than those without a local relapse (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Our data add to accumulating evidence that mantle cell lymphoma is a radio-sensitive disease with excellent responses to relatively low radiation doses, even in patients with chemo-refractory disease.


Asunto(s)
Linfoma de Células del Manto/radioterapia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Terapia Combinada , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Linfoma de Células del Manto/mortalidad , Linfoma de Células del Manto/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Retratamiento , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Case Rep Oncol ; 7(1): 18-22, 2014 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24575010

RESUMEN

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Despite orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), recurrent HCC is a major cause of morbidity. In this case report, we evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a bridge to OLT and for recurrence in the transplanted liver of a patient with HCC. A 52-year-old male with a history of chronic hepatitis C presented with a 1.7-cm liver lesion radiographically consistent with HCC, which was subsequently treated with a course of SBRT to 50 Gy in 5 fractions followed by OLT in 2009. The patient had a 2.2-cm recurrence in the transplanted liver in 2012, which was treated with SBRT to 62.5 Gy in 5 fractions. He tolerated the course of radiotherapy well with no significant radiation-related toxicity and remains in complete remission approximately 1 year after SBRT. SBRT is a safe and effective modality for the treatment of recurrent HCC in the transplanted liver of the same patient initially treated with SBRT as a bridge to OLT.

10.
Cancer ; 119(14): 2654-9, 2013 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23633429

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate local control and patterns of failure in pediatric patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) who received treatment with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: In total, 39 children received IMRT after incomplete resection or disease progression. Three methods of target delineation were used. The first was to delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV) and add a 1-cm margin to create the clinical target volume (CTV) (Method 1; n = 19). The second was to add a 0.5-cm margin around the GTV to create the CTV (Method 2; n = 6). The prescribed dose to the GTV was the same as dose to the CTV for both Methods 1 and 2 (median, 50.4 grays [Gy]). The final method was dose painting, in which a GTV was delineated with a second target volume (2TV) created by adding 1 cm to the GTV (Method 3; n = 14). Different doses were prescribed to the GTV (median, 50.4 Gy) and the 2TV (median, 41.4 Gy). RESULTS: The 8-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 78.2% and 93.7%, respectively. Seven failures occurred, all of which were local in the high-dose (≥95%) region of the IMRT field. On multivariate analysis, age ≤5 years at time of IMRT had a detrimental impact on progression-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: IMRT provided local control rates comparable to those provided by 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional radiotherapy. Margins ≥1 cm added to the GTV may not be necessary, because excellent local control was achieved by adding a 0.5-cm margin (Method 2) and by dose painting (Method 3).


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioma/tratamiento farmacológico , Glioma/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirugía , Carboplatino/administración & dosificación , Sistema Nervioso Central/efectos de la radiación , Niño , Preescolar , Cognición/efectos de la radiación , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Glioma/patología , Glioma/cirugía , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Clasificación del Tumor , Neoplasia Residual/radioterapia , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Planificación de la Radioterapia Asistida por Computador , Radioterapia Ayuvante , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/efectos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vincristina/administración & dosificación
11.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 84(2): 350-4, 2012 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22401918

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A PubMed search of English-language studies pertaining to PA with LMD was performed using a combination of keywords that included juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma, low-grade glioma, leptomeningeal dissemination, neuraxis spread, and radiotherapy. We found 26 studies with 58 patients between 1976 and 2005 that met these criteria. RESULTS: The median survival for PA patients with LMD was 65 months. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 81.1%, 75.7%, and 55.5%. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 69.3%, 66.5%, and 34.6%, respectively. Age, gender, primary site location, timing of LMD presentation (synchronous vs. metachronous), and LMD location did not significantly influence OS or PFS. No statistically significant difference was found in OS or PFS between the chemotherapy and radiotherapy groups. Likewise, no difference was found in OS or PFS according to the use of craniospinal irradiation vs. less extensive RT fields. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-half of PA patients were alive 5 years after the diagnosis of LMD. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have efficacy against LMD. Although the use of craniospinal irradiation did not have an effect on PFS, the patient numbers were small and a larger number treated with craniospinal irradiation is needed to determine its efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Astrocitoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Meníngeas , Adolescente , Adulto , Astrocitoma/mortalidad , Astrocitoma/patología , Astrocitoma/terapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Niño , Preescolar , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagen/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patología , Neoplasias Meníngeas/terapia , Invasividad Neoplásica/patología , Análisis de Supervivencia , Adulto Joven
12.
Cancer ; 118(1): 112-7, 2012 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21692072

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) infrequently involves the central nervous system (CNS). This study was undertaken in patients with AML to determine whether cytogenetic findings predict CNS involvement. METHODS: The medical records of 1354 patients with AML who were treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 2000 and December 2008 were reviewed. Forty patients (3%) had CNS involvement at time of presentation or disease recurrence, of whom 37 had conventional cytogenetics performed on bone marrow aspirate material. Demographics, treatment, and status at last follow-up were collected. RESULTS: Eleven patients (30%) had a diploid karyotype, and 14 patients (38%) had complex cytogenetics. Only 5 of the 40 patients had CNS disease at diagnosis, and the remaining patients had CNS disease at relapse. Patients who developed CNS disease were younger (P = .019), had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count at diagnosis (P = .001), had higher lactate dehydrogenase level (LDH) levels (P < .0001), and had higher percentages peripheral blast cells (P = .024) at diagnosis compared with the rest of the population. In addition, patients with CNS disease had higher rates of chromosome 16 inversion (P < .001), chromosome 11 abnormality (P = .005), and trisomy 8 (P = .02) and had a tendency toward complex cytogenetics (P = .2) compared with the control group (patients who had AML with no CNS involvement). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AML and CNS disease often had higher LDH levels and WBC counts at diagnosis, and they often presented with chromosome 16 inversion and chromosome 11 abnormalities. The current study indicated that the overall survival of patients with AML who had CNS involvement is poor.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Sistema Nervioso Central/secundario , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Femenino , Humanos , Cariotipo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
13.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 34(5): 499-505, 2011 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21537149

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of consolidation radiation therapy (RT) for patients with stage III Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 118 patients with stage III Hodgkin lymphoma who were diagnosed and treated at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1993 through 2006. We evaluated the influence of site and size of initial involvement and use of consolidative RT on survival and patterns of failure after complete response (CR) to ABVD chemotherapy (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine). RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 104 patients (88%) achieved CR; median follow-up time was 68 months (range, 8 to 190). Seventy-one patients (68%) received ≥6 cycles of ABVD, and 40 patients (38.5%) received consolidative RT. Comparing patients who received RT with those who did not, the 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year overall survival (OS) rates were 98%, 80%, and 80% versus 91%, 72%, and 29%, respectively (P=0.08). Disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 94%, 81%, 65% versus 78%, 45%, and 15%, respectively (P=0.04). On multivariate analysis, the presence of initial mediastinal involvement (P=0.001) and bulky head and neck disease (P=0.001) was associated with worse DFS; mediastinal RT was associated with improved DFS (P=0.003) and OS (P=0.029). Use of ≥6 cycles of ABVD was associated with improved OS (P=0.001). The pattern of failure analysis showed that most failures (23 of 28) occurred above the diaphragm. CONCLUSIONS: Consolidative RT after CR may benefit patients with initial disease above the diaphragm, whereas below-the-diaphragm disease seems to be well managed by chemotherapy alone.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Braquiterapia , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/mortalidad , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bleomicina/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Terapia Combinada , Dacarbazina/uso terapéutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/mortalidad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Inducción de Remisión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Tasa de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vinblastina/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
14.
Cancer ; 117(19): 4468-74, 2011 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21437886

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to review the outcome of patients with solitary plasmacytoma (SP) after definitive radiation therapy. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed 84 patients with SP who were diagnosed and treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center during 1988 to 2008. The impact of tumor anatomic site, tumor size, and the presence of serum and urinary paraprotein at diagnosis was assessed on local control, survival, and the risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM). RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients (70%) had bone SP, and 25 patients (30%) had extramedullary SP. Serum paraprotein was present in 39 patients (46%). The median radiation dose was 45 grays (Gy) (range, 36-53.4 Gy). Local control was achieved in 77 patients (92%). Neither radiation dose nor tumor size predicted local control. The 5-year rate of progression to MM was 47% and was higher for patients with bone SP (56% vs 30% for extramedullary SP; P = .021), and patients who had serum paraprotein detected at diagnosis (60% vs 39%; P = .016). On univariate analysis, patients aged <60 years and men had higher rates of progression to MM, although the differences were not significant (P = .048 and P = .29, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that bone location and serum protein at diagnosis were associated statistically with progression to MM. The 5-year overall survival rate for the entire patient cohort was 78%, and no difference was observed between patients who had bone SP versus extramedullary SP (76% vs 85%, respectively; P = .274). CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that definitive radiation therapy for SP can provide excellent local control. Progression to MM remains the main problem and is more common among patients with bone SP and those who have serum paraprotein detected at diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Óseas/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiple/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/diagnóstico , Paraproteínas/metabolismo , Paraproteínas/orina , Plasmacitoma/radioterapia , Radioterapia/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Óseas/sangre , Neoplasias Óseas/etiología , Neoplasias Óseas/orina , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mieloma Múltiple/sangre , Mieloma Múltiple/etiología , Mieloma Múltiple/orina , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/sangre , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/etiología , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/orina , Plasmacitoma/mortalidad , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
15.
Cancer ; 117(3): 635-41, 2011 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20845476

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current study was conducted to determine whether the use of cochlear-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) boost results in excess local failures in children with medulloblastoma. METHODS: Fifty children with a median age of 7.8 years underwent resection, craniospinal irradiation (CSI), IMRT posterior fossa (PF) and/or tumor bed (TB) boost, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy for medulloblastoma. For standard-risk patients, the CSI dose was 18 to 23.4 grays (Gy) and was followed either by an IMRT PF boost to 36 Gy and a TB boost of 54 to 55.8 Gy (n = 29) or by an IMRT TB boost to 55.8 Gy (n = 4). For high-risk patients, the CSI dose was 36 to 39.6 Gy followed by an IMRT PF boost to 54 to 55.8 Gy (n = 8), an IMRT PF boost to 45 Gy and a TB boost to 55.8 Gy (n = 2), or an IMRT TB boost to 55.8 Gy (n = 7). For the TB boost, a 2-cm margin around the surgical bed was treated in most patients. RESULTS: The 5-year overall and progression-free survival rates (±standard deviation) were 72% ± 6.6% and 68.3% ± 6.8%, respectively, for all patients; 77.8% ± 7.4% and 75.1% ± 7.6%, respectively, for standard-risk patients; and 60.8% ± 12.8% and 55.4% ± 12.8%, respectively, for high-risk patients. The 5-year PF control rate was 90.5% ± 4.6%. TB failures occurred in 3 patients (including 2 patients who had distant failure), whereas an isolated non-TB PF failure occurred in 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS: The use of IMRT was associated with excellent local control and did not result in excess PF failures outside of the TB.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Cerebelosas/radioterapia , Irradiación Craneana , Meduloblastoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/métodos , Adolescente , Neoplasias Cerebelosas/tratamiento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Niño , Preescolar , Terapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/mortalidad , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 79(2): 503-7, 2011 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20418023

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To demonstrate how, in young female patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, using an inclined board technique can further decrease the volume of breasts and heart in the treatment field. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An inclined board was constructed with the ability to mount an Aquaplast face mask, a Vacu-Lock, and a hip stopper. Eight female patients with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma were planned and compared using the conventional flat position and the inclined board position. All patients on the inclined board were planned with 90° degree table position and 15° gantry angle rotation to compensate for the beam divergence resulting from the patient's position on the inclined board. Dose-volume histograms were generated, as well as the mean V30 and V5 of both breasts and heart using both treatment positions. RESULTS: The mean value of V30 of the right breast, left breast, and heart decreased from 3%, 3%, and 13%, respectively, using the flat position to 0, 0.4%, and 5%, respectively, using the inclined board. The mean value of V5 of the right breast, left breast, and heart decreased from 6%, 13%, and 36%, respectively, using the flat position to 2%, 8%, and 29%, respectively, using the inclined board. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with conventional flat positioning, this simple device and technique allows better sparing of the breasts and the heart while maintaining comparable target coverage and total lung dose.


Asunto(s)
Mama/efectos de la radiación , Corazón/efectos de la radiación , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Posicionamiento del Paciente/métodos , Traumatismos por Radiación/prevención & control , Femenino , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/patología , Humanos , Órganos en Riesgo/efectos de la radiación , Posicionamiento del Paciente/instrumentación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
17.
Cancer ; 117(11): 2461-6, 2011 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24048794

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current study was conducted to determine the incidence of gastric involvement in patients presenting with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) outside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to identify clinical or laboratory parameters that predict gastric involvement in such cases. METHODS: The records of 121 consecutive patients who presented with non-GI extranodal MZL and had undergone esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) as part of their initial workup were retrospectively reviewed. The authors assessed the presence of occult gastric MZL in these patients and possible associations with demographic characteristics; anatomic site of initial presentation; Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection; Zubrod score; International Prognostic Index (IPI); B symptoms; and serum lactate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin, albumin, and ß2-microglobulin levels. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of non-GI MZL was 59 years. The most common primary tumor sites were the salivary/parotid gland (32 patients), ocular adnexa (26 patients), skin (19 patients), and lung (17 patients). Twenty-two patients (18%) were found to have gastric involvement on EGD. Using logistic regression analysis, factors found to be associated with gastric involvement included: high IPI score (odds ratio [OR], 3.70; P = .03), female sex (OR, 6.50; P = .02), serum ß2-microglobulin level of ≥ 2.5 mg/L (OR, 3.69; P = .02), and involvement of the aerodigestive mucosal/glandular tissue (OR, 4.50; P = .004). On multivariate logistic analysis, aerodigestive mucosal/glandular sites, H. pylori infection, and an elevated ß2-microglobulin level were found to be associated with gastric involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Routine EGD is recommended for patients with non-GI MZL, particularly those with primary aerodigestive mucosal/glandular tissue involvement or those with a high IPI, female sex, elevated serum ß2-microglobulin level, or H. pylori infection regardless of the primary tumor site.


Asunto(s)
Linfoma de Células B de la Zona Marginal/epidemiología , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Linfoma de Células B de la Zona Marginal/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B de la Zona Marginal/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Adulto Joven
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 124(1): 13-26, 2010 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20809361

RESUMEN

The risk of breast cancer has been associated with reproductive history. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between fertility drugs used in assisted reproductive procedures and the risk of breast cancer. We performed a literature search using the MEDLINE, the COCHRANE Library, and Scopus to identify studies linking breast cancer to fertility drugs. We excluded case series, case reports, and review articles from our analysis. The study populations included women who were treated for infertility with clomiphene, gonadotropins, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, or other unspecified fertility agents. We extracted information on study design, sample size, type of fertility drugs and number of treatment cycles, breast cancer incidence, and follow-up time from these studies. Eight case-control studies and fifteen cohort studies were included in the quantitative analyses. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scales were used. Two investigators independently extracted study methods, sources of bias, and outcomes. We found that the risk of breast cancer was not significantly associated with fertility drug treatment. The follow-up periods were short in some of the studies analyzed in our study; however, we proceeded to test the trend in risk estimates across different durations of follow-up and found a trend for association using the nonparametric test; this was interpreted with caution in view of the lack of adjustment with other confounding factors. The current published data do not suggest higher risk of breast cancer in women who receive fertility treatment, but the lack of long-term follow up and the inherent weaknesses in some of the published studies have to be cautiously taken into account.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/inducido químicamente , Fármacos para la Fertilidad Femenina/efectos adversos , Técnicas Reproductivas Asistidas/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 28(27): 4170-6, 2010 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20713859

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The current standard therapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in the setting of R-CHOP chemotherapy is not well reported. This retrospective analysis is an attempt to clarify this role. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subjects were 469 patients with histologically confirmed DLBCL treated between January 2001 and December 2007. Variables including age, sex, Ann Arbor disease stage, bulky disease status, standardized uptake values (SUVs) on positron emission tomography (PET), International Prognostic Index (IPI), and Ki67 staining (proliferation). RESULTS: Of 469 patients, 190 (40.5%) had stage I or II disease and 279 (59.5%) had stage III or IV disease, 327 (70%) had at least six cycles of R-CHOP, and 142 (30.2%) had involved-field RT (dose, 30 to 39.6 Gy) after complete response to chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 36 months (range, 8 to 85 months). Multivariate analysis showed that RT (P < .0001), IPI score (P = .001), response to therapy (P = .001), use of six to eight cycles of R-CHOP (P < .001), and combined presence (P = .006) or absence (P = .025) of high Ki67, high PET SUV, and bulky disease influenced overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Matched-pair analyses of patients who received six to eight cycles of R-CHOP with stage I or II disease (44 pairs) and all stages (74 pairs) indicated that RT improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52 and 0.29, respectively) and PFS (HR, 0.45 and 0.24, respectively) compared with no RT. CONCLUSION: This study showed significant improvements in OS and PFS among patients who received consolidation RT after R-CHOP chemotherapy for DLBCL.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Ciclofosfamida/administración & dosificación , Doxorrubicina/administración & dosificación , Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/tratamiento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/radioterapia , Prednisona/administración & dosificación , Vincristina/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Monoclonales de Origen Murino , Proliferación Celular , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/mortalidad , Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/patología , Masculino , Análisis por Apareamiento , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Radioterapia Ayuvante , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rituximab , Análisis de Supervivencia , Texas , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
20.
Cancer ; 116(16): 3825-9, 2010 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20564093

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients present with disease in nodal regions. However, in a small subset, disease develops in unique anatomic sites such as the head and neck area. This study aims to identify the characteristics and outcomes of patients who develop HL involving extranodal and nodal head and neck sites. METHODS: The authors searched The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center's database for HL patients treated between 1967 and 2007 and included those with HL at head and neck sites. They reviewed the records for site of involvement, pathology, treatment, and survival. RESULTS: The authors identified 39 patients with extranodal and nodal HL of the head and neck. Five patients with lymphocyte predominant HL were excluded. Specifically, 10 of 34 patients had disease in the tonsils, 9 in the nasopharynx, 8 in the thyroid, 3 in the parotid, 2 in the adenoids, and 1 each in Waldeyer's ring and nasal antrum. Median age at diagnosis was 31.5 years, average age at diagnosis was 38 years, and 22 of 34 were male; 23 had stage I or II disease. Pathologically, 14 of 34 had the nodular sclerosis subtype, whereas 15 had mixed cellularity. Twenty-nine of 34 had nodal neck disease at presentation. Five of 34 received chemotherapy alone, 5 received radiation alone, and 24 received combination therapy. Twenty-one of 34 received 39.6 gray of external beam radiation. The most commonly used chemotherapy regimens were ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone). At last follow-up, 85% were disease-free. CONCLUSIONS: HL of the head and neck is primarily diagnosed as early stage disease of men and of young to middle-aged individuals. Chemotherapy and primary/adjuvant radiotherapy offer excellent local and systemic control. The extent to which nodal disease is present in the neck does not alter outcomes when combined modality therapy is offered. Despite the unique anatomic location of these lesions, standard HL protocols work effectively to promote disease-free survival.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Terapia Combinada , Femenino , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/mortalidad , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/patología , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/terapia , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/mortalidad , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/patología , Enfermedad de Hodgkin/terapia , Humanos , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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