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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 32, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422080

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains highly endemic in Cameroon. The rapid emergence and spread of drug resistance was responsible for the change from monotherapies to artemisinin-based combinations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers within an evolving efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Cameroon from January 1998 to August 2020. METHODS: The PRISMA-P and PRISMA statements were adopted in the inclusion of studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of P. falciparum anti-malarial drug resistance genes (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfatp6, Pfcytb and Pfk13). The heterogeneity of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. The random effects model was used as standard in the determination of heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Out of the 902 records screened, 48 studies were included in this aggregated meta-analysis of molecular data. A total of 18,706 SNPs of the anti-malarial drug resistance genes were genotyped from 47,382 samples which yielded a pooled prevalence of 35.4% (95% CI 29.1-42.3%). Between 1998 and 2020, there was significant decline (P < 0.0001 for all) in key mutants including Pfcrt 76 T (79.9%-43.0%), Pfmdr1 86Y (82.7%-30.5%), Pfdhfr 51I (72.2%-66.9%), Pfdhfr 59R (76.5%-67.8%), Pfdhfr 108 N (80.8%-67.6%). The only exception was Pfdhps 437G which increased over time (30.4%-46.9%, P < 0.0001) and Pfdhps 540E that remained largely unchanged (0.0%-0.4%, P = 0.201). Exploring mutant haplotypes, the study observed a significant increase in the prevalence of Pfcrt CVIET mixed quintuple haplotype from 57.1% in 1998 to 57.9% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). In addition, within the same study period, there was no significant change in the triple Pfdhfr IRN mutant haplotype (66.2% to 67.3%, P = 0.427). The Pfk13 amino acid polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This review reported an overall decline in the prevalence of P. falciparum gene mutations conferring resistance to 4-aminoquinolines and amino alcohols for a period over two decades. Resistance to artemisinins measured by the presence of SNPs in the Pfk13 gene does not seem to be a problem in Cameroon. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020162620.

2.
Food Sci Nutr ; 8(7): 3413-3424, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724605

RESUMEN

The reduction of postharvest losses in rice and safou is imperative to increase productivity in their respective value chains. In this study, fine broken rice grains were used to produce rice flour and subsequently rice-based biscuits. The biscuits were further fortified with safou powder, and the physical, nutritional, and sensory quality and stability during storage of the different types of biscuits were analyzed using standard methods. Fine or nonsandy biscuits had peak particle size of 500 µm, while medium (slightly sandy) and large (sandy) biscuits had peak particle sizes of 1,000 µm and 1,400 µm, respectively. The hardness varied from 5.7 ± 2.3 N for biscuits with large particles to 16.1 ± 4.4 N for biscuits with fine particles. Fortification of biscuits with sour safou increased the protein and amino acid content of the biscuits. Tryptophan was absent in both safou and the biscuits produced. There was an increase in phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese, and aluminum following fortification with safou. Nonsandy biscuits dissolved faster in the mouth (melt) during consumption than the other biscuits although most of the biscuits were perceived to be low in melting and buttery. Nonsandy biscuits were rated as "very good," while slightly sandy and sandy were rated as "good." Safou rice-based biscuits were perceived as "very good," while simple rice biscuits were perceived as "good." Fortification of rice biscuits with safou increased the protein, essential amino acid, and mineral contents of the biscuits with very appreciable taste. These biscuits can be used to help fight protein, iron, and zinc malnutrition and in mitigating postharvest losses of underutilized broken rice and safou especially sour safou.

3.
Malar J ; 19(1): 172, 2020 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362282

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effectiveness of improved housing on indoor residual mosquito density and exposure to infected Anophelines in Minkoameyos, a rural community in southern forested Cameroon. METHODS: Following the identification of housing factors affecting malaria prevalence in 2013, 218 houses were improved by screening the doors and windows, installing plywood ceilings on open eaves and closing holes on walls and doors. Monthly entomological surveys were conducted in a sample of 21 improved and 21 non-improved houses from November 2014 to October 2015. Mosquitoes sampled from night collections on human volunteers were identified morphologically and their parity status determined. Mosquito infectivity was verified through Plasmodium falciparum CSP ELISA and the average entomological inoculation rates determined. A Reduction Factor (RF), defined as the ratio of the values for mosquitoes collected outdoor to those collected indoor was calculated in improved houses (RFI) and non-improved houses (RFN). An Intervention Effect (IE = RFI/RFN) measured the true effect of the intervention. Chi square test was used to determine variable significance. The threshold for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 1113 mosquitoes were collected comprising Anopheles sp (58.6%), Culex sp (36.4%), Aedes sp (2.5%), Mansonia sp (2.4%) and Coquillettidia sp (0.2%). Amongst the Anophelines were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (95.2%), Anopheles funestus (2.9%), Anopheles ziemanni (0.2%), Anopheles brohieri (1.2%) and Anopheles paludis (0.5%). Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) was the only An. gambiae sibling species found. The intervention reduced the indoor Anopheles density by 1.8-fold (RFI = 3.99; RFN = 2.21; P = 0.001). The indoor density of parous Anopheles was reduced by 1.7-fold (RFI = 3.99; RFN = 2.21; P = 0.04) and that of infected Anopheles by 1.8-fold (RFI = 3.26; RFN = 1.78; P = 0.04). Indoor peak biting rates were observed between 02 a.m. to 04 a.m. in non-improved houses and from 02 a.m. to 06 a.m. in improved houses. CONCLUSION: Housing improvement contributed to reducing indoor residual anopheline density and malaria transmission. This highlights the need for policy specialists to further evaluate and promote aspects of house design as a complementary control tool that could reduce indoor human-vector contact and malaria transmission in similar epidemiological settings.

4.
Int J Biochem Mol Biol ; 10(4): 42-48, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777682

RESUMEN

C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is one of the co-receptors of HIV found on the surface of the target cell and studied as genetic factors known to be associated with HIV infection. This study investigates the influence of mothers' and children's CCR2 polymorphism on HIV acquisition in children. A cross-sectional study was performed in five hospitals in the Northern Region of Cameroon. Blood samples were collected from HIV-infected mothers and their exposed babies. DNA was extracted from the Buffy coat using the QIAamp®DNA mini kit (Qiagen). The DNA extract was subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) followed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was verified. A total of 113 HIV-positive mothers, and their 113 children (25 infected and 88 non-infected) under 15 years were enrolled. There was a significant relationship between mothers and children's polymorphisms (P = 0.000). There was a concordance of 57.5% between mothers and children genotypes (Kappa = 0.2, P = 0.001). Mothers carrying the CCR2-64I allele were 1.2 times more likely to have HIV-infected children compared to those without mutation (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.5-3.0). Likewise children carrying the mutated phenotypes were 1.4 times more likely to be HIV-infected compared to those without mutation (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.6-3.5). This risk increased to 2.0 (95% CI: 0.5-8.3) for children whose mothers also carried mutation, and decreased to 0.96 (95% CI: 0.2-3.8) for those whose mothers carried the wild type phenotype. In cases of a mutant phenotype in both mother and child, more attention should be paid during follow-up of children born from HIV-positive mother.

5.
J Parasitol Res ; 2019: 1417967, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984417

RESUMEN

Background: Despite recommendation from the World Health Organization that all malaria suspected patients undergo a parasitological confirmation using rapid diagnostic test or light microscopy prior to treatment, health facilities in remote malaria endemic settings sometimes resort to presumptive diagnosis of malaria for clinical management for various reasons. Following observation of this practice, we undertook a cross-sectional study aimed at comparing presumptive diagnosis based on axillary temperature, SD Bioline™ rapid test, and light microscopy as strategies for malaria diagnosis in the coastal region of Mutengene in the South West of Cameroon with the overall goal of supporting improved malaria diagnosis at local levels. Methodology: Venous blood from 320 participants was used to detect the presence of malaria parasite using SD Bioline™ mRDT and Giemsa stained microscopy or spotted on filter paper for PCR amplification of the 18s rRNA gene of Plasmodium sp following standard procedures. The axillary temperature of each participant was also measured. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and their confidence intervals were determined for each of the methods with PCR as the reference. The area under the curve was used to estimate accuracy of diagnostic method and compared between test method using the X2 test with P<0.05 considered significant. Results: The overall diagnostic sensitivities of presumptive diagnosis using axillary temperature, light microscopy, and SD Bioline™ were observed to be 74.30% (95%CI: 67.90-80.01), 94.86% (95%CI: 90.99-97.41), and 95.33% (95%CI: 91.57-97.74), respectively, and their respective diagnostic specificities were 53.77% (95%CI: 43.82-63.51), 94.34% (95%CI: 88.09-97.87), and 94.34%(95%CI: 88.09-97.89). SD Bioline™ had a diagnostic sensitivity of 91.80% [95%CI: 81.90-97.28] at a parasitaemia of less than 500 parasites/µl of blood but a sensitivity of 100% for parasite counts above 500 parasites/µl of blood. The predictive values of the positive test were highly comparable between light microscopy (90.09%, [95%CI: 83.61-94.18]) and SD Bioline™ mRDT (90.91%, [95%CI: 84.50-94.83]), P=0.98 with kappa values of 0.898 but lower for presumptive diagnosis (50.89%, [95%CI: 43.72-58.03]), P<0.0001, and kappa value of 0.277. Perfect agreement was observed between SD Bioline™ mRDT and light microscopy (Cohen kappa= 0.924). Conclusions: The study showed that SD Bioline™ was as good as light microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria in remote areas of perennial transmission in South West Cameroon. This study equally revealed the limitations of presumptive diagnosis of malaria (as opposed to the use of RDTs or microscopy). Efforts should be made in such areas to promote parasitological confirmation of malaria using quality assured rapid tests or light microscopy for case management of malaria. The presence of nonnegligible levels of Plasmodium ovale in this study area indicate that treatment guidelines may require revision if same trend is proven in several other areas of same ecology.

6.
Appl Clin Genet ; 12: 261-268, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920362

RESUMEN

Purpose: The metabolism of antiretroviral drugs is subject to individual variations of the CYP 2B6 gene. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of CYP 2B6 516 G>T and 983 T>C polymorphisms and investigate their association with the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in people living with HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. Patients and methods: A total number of 122 patients, attending the Yaoundé Central Hospital HIV Day Clinic, consented to take part in this study. Blood specimens were collected and DNA was extracted using the Chelex method. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed for the detection of CYP 2B6 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotype frequencies were compared between groups with or without ADRs. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess association between genotype and adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results: Three types of metabolizers were identified: extensive, intermediate and slow. For the 516G>T polymorphism, prevalences of 8.2% GG, 65.6% GT and 26.2% TT were obtained. For the 983T>C polymorphism, 89.3% TT, 4.1% CT and 6.6% CC prevalences were obtained. Those homozygous for the wild-type allele (516GG) were less likely to develop ADR with a statistically significant difference (OR=0.885, P=0.029). For the CYP2B6 T983C SNP, homozygous mutants (CC) may present a higher risk (threefold) of developing adverse reactions (OR=2.677, P=0.164). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that ADRs among HIV/AIDS patients under ART may be associated with the genetic variability of the metabolizing enzyme CYP 2B6. Genotyping for this gene may guide the better administration of Efavirenz and Nevirapine to Cameroonian patients.

7.
Malar Res Treat ; 2018: 7071383, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854394

RESUMEN

Background: As a result of the spread of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs, Malaria treatment guidelines in Cameroon evolved from nonartemisinin monotherapy to artemisinin-based combination therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of these therapy changes on the prevalence of molecular markers of resistance from 2003 to 2013 in Mutengene, Cameroon. Methodology: Dry blood samples (collected in 2003-2005 and 2009-2013) were used for parasite DNA extraction. Drug resistance genes were amplified by PCR and hybridized with oligonucleotide probes or subjected to restriction digestion. The prevalence of individual marker polymorphisms and haplotypes was compared in these two study periods using the Chi square test. Results: Alleles conferring resistance to 4-aminoquinolines in the Pfcrt 76T and Pfmdr1 86Y, 184F, and 1246Y genotypes showed a significant reduction of 97.0% to 66.9%, 83.6% to 45.2%, 97.3% to 56.0%, and 3.1% to 0.0%, respectively (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in SNPs associated with antifolate drugs resistance 51I, 59R, 108N, or 540E (P > 0.05). Haplotype analysis in the Pfmdr1 gene showed a reduction in the YFD from 75.90% to 42.2%, P < 0.0001, and an increase in the NYD (2.9% to 30.1%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The results indicated a gradual return of the 4-aminoquinoline sensitive genotype while the antifolate resistant genotypes increased to saturation.

8.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 230, 2018 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615104

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of non-synonymous variants rs2280205 and rs2276961 of the SLC2A9 gene to gout in Cameroonians. RESULTS: In a case-control study including 30 patients with acute gout matched to 30 healthy volunteers. We searched for polymorphism of the targeted variants using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism following polymerize chain reaction. Fisher exact test and Student t-test were used to compare variables, with a threshold of significance set at 0.05. The mean age of participants was 58 ± 8 years with 28 (93%) males. The family history of gout was found in one-third of the cases (p > 0.05). Uricemia was higher in cases than controls (p < 0.001) but 24 h urate excretion was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Ancestral alleles (G and C) and their homozygous genotypes (GG and CC) of the targeted variants were predominant in both groups (p < 0.001). The polymorphisms of targeted variants were not associated with gout, and do not influence uric acid concentration in blood and urine. Non-synonymous variants rs2280205 and rs2276961 are not associated with gout in Cameroonians. However, the hereditary component of the disease suggests the influence of other genetic and/or environmental factors.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Facilitadoras del Transporte de la Glucosa/genética , Gota/genética , Anciano , Camerún , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Gota/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 207, 2017 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606170

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa the prognosis of children with type 1 diabetes is poor. Many are not diagnosed and those diagnosed have a dramatically reduced life expectancy (less than one year). The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of glucose control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This hospital based cross-sectional study involved 76 children/adolescents (35 boys and 41 girls, mean age of 15.1 ± 3.1 years) with type 1 diabetes included in the "Changing Diabetes in Children" (CDiC) program and attending the clinics for children living with type 1 diabetes in the North West Region of Cameroon. Data on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was obtained from hospital records of participants. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and diabetes related practices were obtained from participants using a structured questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression models to assess the association between determinants and good glyceamic control. RESULTS: The study population had a mean HbA1c of 10.3 ± 2.9%. Bivariate analysis indicated that having a mother as the primary caregiver (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.2), being on 2 daily insulin injections (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5) and good blood glucose monitoring (BGM) adherence (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.04-0.3) were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with better HbA1c. Minimal/moderate caregiver involvement in BGM (OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.7-22.0) and insulin injection (OR 14.9, 95% CI 4.8-46.5) were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with poor outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that having a mother as the primary caregiver (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.002-0.189) was an independent predictor of good glucose control. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the mother's involvement in the diabetes management of their children and minimal/moderate caregiver involvement in the task of insulin injection are the most important determinants for good and poor glucose control respectively. It is currently unclear whether the direct involvement of the mother is causal or whether "mother as a primary caregiver" is just an indicator for a setting in which good diabetes treatment is possible.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangre , Adolescente , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo
11.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 36(1): 12, 2017 04 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420445

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the association between the rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene with obesity in a Cameroonian population. METHOD: This was a case-control pilot study including 61 obese and 61 non-obese Cameroonian adults. Anthropometric indices of obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids were measured. The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and genotypes were correlated with clinical and biological parameters. RESULTS: The T allele was predominant in the study population with a frequency of 93%. No statistically significant difference was however observed between the genotypic (p = 0.50) and allelic frequencies (p = 0.58) of obese and non-obese subjects. Comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters of C allele carriers (CX = CC + CT) with those of TT genotype showed that there was no significant difference between the lipid profile of these two groups. CONCLUSION: The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene might not be associated with obesity in the Cameroonian population.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Alelos , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteína 2 Similar al Factor de Transcripción 7/genética , Adulto , Camerún , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Proyectos Piloto , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Vía de Señalización Wnt , Adulto Joven
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16(1): 658, 2016 11 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27825318

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current roll-out of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in many endemic countries has resulted in the reporting of fewer cases of malaria-attributed illnesses. However, lack of knowledge of the prevalence of other febrile illnesses and affordable diagnostic tests means that febrile patients are not managed optimally. This study assessed the prevalence of commonly treatable or preventable febrile illnesses in children between 6 months and 15 years using rapid diagnostic tests at the point-of-care. METHODS: Febrile children were enrolled between February-April 2014 at a health facility after obtaining informed consent from parent. Eligible participants were aged 6 months-15 years with a history of fever in the last 24 h or axillary temperature ≥38 °C at consultation. All participants were tested using RDTs for malaria, typhoid, toxoplasmosis and rubella. Malaria parasites were further identified by microscopy and PCR. Clinical and household characteristics were recorded and association with pathogens determined. RESULTS: Of the 315 children enrolled, the mean age was 5.8 ± 3.8 years. Stomach pain (41.2 %) was the most reported symptom. Prior to attending the health facility, 70.8 % had taken antipyretics, 27.9 % antimalarials, 11.4 % antibiotics and 13.3 % antifungal drugs. Among 315 children with fever, based on RDTs, 56.8 % were infected with malaria, 4.4 % with typhoid, 3.2 % with acute toxoplasmosis, and 1.3 % with rubella (all positive for rubella were in the same family and not vaccinated). All non-malarial infections were co-infections and approximately 30 % of the fever cases went un-diagnosed. Malaria prevalence by microscopy and PCR was 43.4 and 70.2 % respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria were 75.98 and 100 % respectively, with 0.73 measurement agreement between RDTs and microscopy while that of RDT and PCR were 81 and 100 % respectively with a K value of 0.72. The use of Insecticide Treated Bednets was 44 %. There was a significant association between ITN non-usage and malaria (p = 0. 029) as well as drinking water and presence of typhoid (p = 0.047). No association was observed between type of housing and malaria, or toxoplasmosis and raising cats. CONCLUSION: Though malaria still remains the major cause of fever in children, using RDTs for other treatable febrile illnesses like typhoid and toxoplasmosis could facilitate the optimal management of febrile illnesses in children especially when these occur as co-infections with malaria.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/epidemiología , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiología , Fiebre Tifoidea/epidemiología , Adolescente , Animales , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Camerún/epidemiología , Gatos , Niño , Preescolar , Coinfección/tratamiento farmacológico , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Femenino , Fiebre/etiología , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Microscopía , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/diagnóstico , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Toxoplasmosis/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Fiebre Tifoidea/diagnóstico
13.
BMC Obes ; 3: 26, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27239321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2) is a transcription factor with a key role in adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage and glucose homeostasis. The Ala allele of the common Pro12Ala polymorphism in the isoform PPAR-γ2 is at the center of many controversies because in some populations, it has been observed to be associated with T2DM or obesity but, not in others. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-γ2 gene with susceptibility to obesity or T2DM in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: This case-control study included 62 obese, 60 T2DM patients and 120 controls (60 non obese and 60 patients without T2DM), all unrelated and of Cameroonian origin. PPAR-γ2 was examined by genotyping for Pro12Ala using the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism - Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR - RFLP). RESULTS: A portion of the 270 base pair bands of the PPAR-γ2 gene was successfully amplified. The Ala12 variant was totally absent from the study population, all participants being homozygote Pro/Pro. CONCLUSION: PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala gene polymorphism may not be associated with obesity and T2DM. These results suggest that, PPAR-γ2 is unlikely a major gene for obesity or T2DM in the study population.

14.
Malar J ; 15: 31, 2016 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26791422

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: All suspected cases of malaria should receive a diagnostic test prior to treatment with artemisinin-based combinations based on the new WHO malaria treatment guidelines. This study compared the accuracy and some operational characteristics of 22 different immunochromatographic antigen capture point-of- malaria tests (RDTs) in Cameroon to inform test procurement prior to deployment of artemisinin-based combinations for malaria treatment. METHODS: One hundred human blood samples (50 positive and 50 negative) collected from consenting febrile patients in two health centres at Yaoundé were used for evaluation of the 22 RDTs categorized as "Pf Only" (9) or "Pf + PAN" (13) based on parasite antigen captured [histidine rich protein II (HRP2) or lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) or aldolase]. RDTs were coded to blind technicians performing the tests. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the positive and negative tests (PPV and NPV) as well as the likelihood ratios were assessed. The reliability and some operational characteristics were determined as the mean values from two assessors, and the Cohen's kappa statistic was then used to compare agreement. Light microscopy was the referent. RESULTS: Of all RDTs tested, 94.2 % (21/22) had sensitivity values greater than 90% among which 14 (63.6%) were 'Pf + PAN' RDTs. The specificity was generally lower than the sensitivity for all RDTs and poorer for "Pf Only" RDTs. The predictive values and likelihood ratios were better for non-HRP2 analytes for "Pf + PAN" RDTs. The Kappa value for most of the tests obtained was around 67% (95% CI 50-69%), corresponding to a moderate agreement. CONCLUSION: Overall, 94.2% (21/22) of RDTs tested had accuracy within the range recommended by the WHO, while one performed poorly, below acceptable levels. Seven "Pf + PAN" and 3 "Pf Only" RDTs were selected for further assessment based on performance characteristics. Harmonizing RDT test presentation and procedures would prevent mistakes of test performance and interpretation.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Artemisininas/uso terapéutico , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antígenos de Protozoos/análisis , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Protozoarias/análisis , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 1(1): e000032, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588923

RESUMEN

The Poverty-Related Diseases College was a virtual African-European college and network that connected young African and European biomedical scientists working on poverty-related diseases. The aim of the Poverty-Related Diseases College was to build sustainable scientific capacity and international networks in poverty-related biomedical research in the context of the development of Africa. The Poverty-Related Diseases College consisted of three elective and mandatory training modules followed by a reality check in Africa and a science exchange in either Europe or the USA. In this analysis paper, we present our experience and evaluation, discuss the strengths and encountered weaknesses of the programme, and provide recommendations to policymakers and funders.

16.
Health Syst Reform ; 2(4): 373-388, 2016 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514719

RESUMEN

Abstract-Rigorous evidence of "what works" to improve health care is in demand, but methods for the development of interventions have not been scrutinized in the same ways as methods for evaluation. This article presents and examines intervention development processes of eight malaria health care interventions in East and West Africa. A case study approach was used to draw out experiences and insights from multidisciplinary teams who undertook to design and evaluate these studies. Four steps appeared necessary for intervention design: (1) definition of scope, with reference to evaluation possibilities; (2) research to inform design, including evidence and theory reviews and empirical formative research; (3) intervention design, including consideration and selection of approaches and development of activities and materials; and (4) refining and finalizing the intervention, incorporating piloting and pretesting. Alongside these steps, projects produced theories, explicitly or implicitly, about (1) intended pathways of change and (2) how their intervention would be implemented.The work required to design interventions that meet and contribute to current standards of evidence should not be underestimated. Furthermore, the process should be recognized not only as technical but as the result of micro and macro social, political, and economic contexts, which should be acknowledged and documented in order to infer generalizability. Reporting of interventions should go beyond descriptions of final intervention components or techniques to encompass the development process. The role that evaluation possibilities play in intervention design should be brought to the fore in debates over health care improvement.

17.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 717, 2015 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26608632

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is one of the genes that have been identified as possible determinants of diabetes which is associated with obesity. Data on the genetic causes of obesity in sub-Saharan African populations are very scares. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphism (rs12255372 G/T) and obesity and weight-related traits in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 35 obese and 30 non-obese Cameroonian adults. TCF7L2 rs12255372 genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP and correlated with BMI and weight-related traits. RESULTS: No significant association was observed between the rs12255372 T allele (χ(2) = 0.0684, p = 0.79) or the TT genotype (χ(2) = 0.372, p = 0.54) of the TCF7L2 gene and obesity in the Cameroonian population. However, amongst the weight-related traits, triglycerides were significantly associated with the T risk allele of the TCF7L2 gene (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: This study on Cameroonian subjects replicates the absence of association between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 variant and obesity as observed in European and American populations.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteína 2 Similar al Factor de Transcripción 7/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Camerún , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Fenotipo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto Joven
18.
Acta Trop ; 150: 100-6, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26095044

RESUMEN

National malaria treatment policies are devised to guide health professionals and to facilitate diagnosis and case management. Following the recommendations of the WHO, Cameroon changed its malaria treatment policy from monotherapy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. We report an investigation into trends of case management following this change in policy. Data was collected retrospectively, through consultation and perusal of laboratory and prescription registers of the Mbakong Health Centre. Analysis of data was done using SPSS and SAS Statistics. Data presented herein demonstrate that from 2006 to 2012, a total of 2484 (58.7%) of the total prescriptions included an anti-malarial, 1989 (47.0%) included an antibiotic and 1935(45.7%) included an antipyretic. The anti-malarials prescribed were Anti-malaria combination therapy (ACT) - 1216 (47.6%), quinine 1044 (40.8%) or SP 296 (11.6%). Of the 1216 patients prescribed an ACT, 441(36.3%) had a positive malaria parasite confirmation, 746 (61.3%) were negative for plasmodium. Overall, 29 patients (2.4%) were treated either with an ACT without any test performed. Quinine intake was recorded in 566 (54.2%) patients positive for plasmodium. ACT prescription increased from 23% in 2007 to between 44 and 45% in 2008-2009. During this period there was a corresponding drop in the prescription of quinine from 38% in 2007 to 13% in 2009 (r=-0.43, p>0.05). Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) was restrictively prescribed to women of childbearing age (97.0%) after 2008. Antibiotics prescription dropped from 53.7% to 39.3% from 2010 to 2012. The odds of being prescribed an antibiotic was significantly higher in patients with a malaria negative result compared to malaria positive patients (OR=6.12, CI 4.74-7.91, p<0.00001). Overall, there is an over treatment of malaria, thus departing from the WHO guidelines of appropriate treatment. Although there is an overall increase in the prescription of ACT, less prescription of quinine and a noticeable restrain from prescription of SP to febrile cases, the old practice was still rampant. There is need for healthcare workers to adhere to guidelines in order to enhance the rational use of drugs to achieve appropriate treatment of uncomplicated malaria according to WHO guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Malaria/epidemiología , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/tendencias , Pirimetamina/uso terapéutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antimaláricos/administración & dosificación , Camerún/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Centros Comunitarios de Salud , Esquema de Medicación , Combinación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pirimetamina/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sulfadoxina/efectos adversos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Clin Transl Med ; 4: 17, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25995831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To study the relationship between the rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: This case-control study included 60 T2DM patients and 60 healthy normoglycemic controls, all unrelated and of Cameroonian origin, aged above 40 years (range 40-87). The Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used for genotyping. RESULTS: The T allele frequency was significantly higher in the diabetic group (0.44) than in the control group (0.17). This allele was significantly associated to a greater risk of developing T2DM as compared to the G allele (OR = 3.92, 95% CI 2.04 - 7.67, p < 0.0001). The codominant (additive) model explained best the risk of developing the disease, as the TT genotype was significantly associated to T2DM when compared to the GG genotype (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 1.64 - 12.83, p = 0.0014). By logistic regression adjusted for age, this OR was 4.33 (95% CI: 1.57 - 11.92, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene is an important risk factor for T2DM in the Cameroonian population.

20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897419

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on the genetic variants for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in sub-Saharan African populations are very scarce. This study aimed to investigate the association of transcription factor 7-like (TCF7L2) with T2DM in a Cameroonian population and explore possible genotype-phenotype correlation. METHODS: This is a case-control study involving 37 T2DM patients and 37 non-diabetic volunteers of Cameroonian ethnicity aged 40 years old and above. We collected clinical and biological data to determine phenotypic traits. TCF7L2 was analyzed by genotyping for rs7903146 (C/T) using PCR-RFLP. Biochemical analyses were performed using a spectrophotometer with Chronolab kits. Statistical analyses were carried out using IBM SPSS, PS and Quanto. RESULTS: TCF7L2 was associated with T2DM in this Cameroonian population (p = 0.013 for alleles, and p = 0.013 for genotypes). The risk allele was C (9.5% patients vs. 0% healthy controls, OR = 16.56) and the protective allele was T (90.5% patients vs. 100.0% healthy controls, OR = 0.06). The risk genotype was C/T (18.9% patients vs. 0% healthy controls, OR = 18.44), while the protective genotype was T/T (81.1% patients vs. 100.0% healthy controls, OR = 0.054). The statistical power was 99.99%. TCF7L2 was not preferentially associated with a specific disease phenotype. CONCLUSION: TCF7L2 is associated with T2DM in this Cameroonian population. The association is not dependent on a specific T2DM phenotype. Clinical genetic testing for TCF7L2 can help to predict the occurrence of T2DM in Cameroon.

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