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1.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822390

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the evolving roles of pharmacy technicians in the United States, the profession has attempted to define a national standard. Community pharmacy employers to-date have preferred on-the-job training to formal, accredited training programs or credentialing, however, limited evidence exists on the perceived needs of pharmacy technicians in the United States compared to those of community pharmacy employers. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to explore: 1) community pharmacy employer perceptions of associated benefits and perceived value of pharmacy technician certification and 2) needs of employers related to pharmacy technician attitudes and knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs). METHODS: Using a semi-structured interview guide, researchers interviewed 7 community pharmacy employers within top management teams in a variety of community pharmacy settings. The data were analyzed for themes using the human capital vs. signal theory. RESULTS: Employers and managers generally saw both attitude and KSAs as vital to success. However, given a choice between experience and attitude, attitude was preferred. There was general agreement that certified technicians offered more value to their organization, however gaps in certified technician KSAs were noted (i.e., lack of day-to-day practical skills, vaccination screening, motivating patients to change behaviors, patient communication and workflow management). CONCLUSIONS: New emerging directions for certification now exist due to the rapidly shifting pharmacy landscape, which is revolves around new and expanded clinical patient care services. This shifting landscape has exposed gaps, reinforced strengths, and uncovered potential new opportunities and needs related to technician certification.

2.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(2): 6516, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962637

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine relationships between students' demographic and academic performance factors and their scores on the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Methods. Students' PCOA scores and demographics (eg, age, race/ethnicity, sex), preadmission data [eg, cumulative and science grade point average (GPA), Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT)], and academic performance variables (eg, pharmacy GPA, academic standing) were analyzed for one class of third-year pharmacy students (N=159). Independent t-tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to compare scores by demographic variables. Pearson's r correlations were used to assess relationships between PCOA scores and age, PCAT scores, and GPA. Stepwise linear regression was conducted to determine the predictive ability of variables with significant correlations to PCOA performance. Results. Significant correlations were found between sex and PCOA scores with males scoring higher than females. Significant correlations with PCOA scores were also found for PCAT scores, pre-pharmacy science GPA, and pharmacy didactic GPA. Significant differences were found by academic standing, where students in academic difficulty who were allowed to proceed without repeating curricular content scored significantly lower on the PCOA than those who did not experience academic difficulty. Conversely, there were no statistical differences between those who repeated courses and those who never experienced academic difficulty. PCOA performance predictors in the final regression model included PCAT composite score, pharmacy GPA and sex. Conclusion. New findings included differences in PCOA scores by sex and by academic standing, a variable not previously explored in published studies. Findings have implications for remediation decisions in pharmacy curricula.

3.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 59(2): 187-194, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679031

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the current roles of the pharmacy technician in the provision of medication therapy management (MTM) and their relation to organizational behavior at "high-performing" community pharmacies within a nationwide supermarket chain. DESIGN: Qualitative research study using methodologic triangulation with the use of semistructured interviews of key informants, direct observation at "high-performing" pharmacy sites, and respondent journals. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: High-performing pharmacy sites within a large supermarket pharmacy chain in Tennessee. A high-performing site was defined as a pharmacy that has successfully implemented MTM into its pharmacy workflow. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Themes related to pharmacy technician roles in the delivery of direct patient care services. RESULTS: A total of 28 key informants were interviewed from May 2015 to May 2016. Key informants included 10 certified technicians, 5 noncertified technicians, and 13 pharmacists across 8 pharmacies in central and eastern Tennessee. Three themes were identified. At high-performing sites, pharmacy technicians were engaged in both clinical support activities as well as nonclinical support activities with the goal of improving clinical service implementation. Several barriers and facilitators were revealed. CONCLUSION: Within high-performing teams, expanded technician roles to support patient care service delivery were associated with successful clinical service implementation. Future studies should further explore these expanded technician duties, as well as the role of organizational culture, climate, and team dynamics, in the delivery of patient care and clinical services across a heterogeneous pharmacy setting.

4.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(9): 6725, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559501

RESUMEN

Objective. To develop and establish validity for a grading rubric to evaluate diabetes subjective, objective, assessment, plan (SOAP) note writing on primary care (PC) advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and to assess reliability and student perceptions of the rubric. Methods. Ten PC APPE faculty members collaborated to develop a rubric to provide formative and summative feedback on three written SOAP notes per APPE student over a 10-month period. Correlation analyses were conducted between rubric scores and three criterion variables to assess criterion-related validity: APPE grades, Pharmaceutical Care Ability Profile Scores, and Global Impression Scores. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability testing were completed using Cohen's kappa and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). Student perceptions were assessed through an anonymous student survey. Results. Fifty-one students and 167 SOAP notes were evaluated using the final rubric. The mean score significantly increased from the first to second SOAP note and from the first to third SOAP note. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between final rubric scores and criterion variables. The ICC for inter-rater reliability was fair (.59) for final rubric scores and excellent for intra-rater reliability (.98 to1.00). Students responded that the rubric improved their ability (84.9%) and confidence (92.4%) to write SOAP notes. Conclusion. The rubric may be used to make valid decisions about students' SOAP note writing ability and may increase their confidence in this area. The use of the rubric allows for greater reliability among multiple graders, supporting grading consistency.


Asunto(s)
Documentación/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Docentes , Retroalimentación Formativa , Metas , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Escritura
5.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(10): 5980, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643306

RESUMEN

Objective. To compare the different philosophies, emphases and processes of national and international accreditation paths available to pharmacy programs in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. To identify engagement of GCC pharmacy programs with International Pharmacy Accreditation or Certification (IPAC) and the outcome advantages of IPAC compared to other national accreditation standards. Findings. National quality standards across the GCC countries are similarly structured but in different stages of development. Pharmacy specific standards are absent. Of the 44 institutions identified offering pharmacy degrees, only three out of 28 of those in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and all but two out of 15 elsewhere in the GCC, have national program-level accreditation. Nine of the institutions have IPAC via either the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education-International Services Program (ACPE-ISP), the Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (CCAPP) or the German Accreditation Agency in Health and Social Sciences (AHPGS). None of the institutions have sought accreditation from the Australian Pharmacy Council (APC). IPAC may serve as a tool to provide specific recognition of the quality of pharmacy programs and to enhance the quality of pharmacy education in the region. Summary. In the absence of national bodies to accredit pharmacy initial training degrees, IPAC has become increasingly popular in the GCC countries. There are distinct regional differences in uptake and choice of IPAC. IPAC may serve as a tool to provide specific recognition of the quality of pharmacy programs and to enhance the quality of pharmacy education in the region in the absence of an unmet for pharmacy-specific national accreditation.


Asunto(s)
Acreditación/organización & administración , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Acreditación/tendencias , Australia , Canadá , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Arabia Saudita
6.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(6): 966-971, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233393

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study quantifies and describes student self-assessment approaches in colleges of pharmacy across the United States. METHODS: Faculty members identified as assessment directors from college websites at U.S. colleges of pharmacy were electronically surveyed. Prior to distribution, feedback and question validation was sought from select assessment directors. Surveys were distributed and recorded, via Qualtrics® survey software and analyzed in Microsoft Excel®. RESULTS: Responses were received from 49 colleges of pharmacy (n = 49/134, 37% response rate). The most commonly used strategies were reflective essays (n = 44/49, 90%), portfolios (n = 40/49, 82%), student self-evaluations (n = 35/49, 71%) and questionnaires/surveys/checklists (n = 29/49, 59%). Out of 49 submitted surveys, 35 programs noted students received feedback on self-assessment. Feedback came most commonly from faculty (n = 31/35, 88%). Thirty-four programs responded regarding self-assessment integration including fifteen colleges (n = 15/34, 44%) that integrated self-assessment both into the curriculum and co-curricular activities, while 14 (n = 14/34, 41%) integrated self-assessment exclusively into the curriculum, and five (n = 5/34, 15%) used self-assessment exclusively in co-curricular activities. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Student self-assessment is a critical first step of the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) process. Colleges and schools of pharmacy use a wide variety of methods to develop this skill in preparing future practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Autoevaluación , Curriculum/normas , Curriculum/tendencias , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/tendencias
7.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(5): 86, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720914

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine the relationship between the NAPLEX and Pre-NAPLEX among pharmacy graduates, as well as determine effects of pre-pharmacy, pharmacy school, and demographic variables on NAPLEX performance. Methods. A retrospective review of pharmacy graduates' NAPLEX scores, Pre-NAPLEX scores, demographics, pre-pharmacy academic performance factors, and pharmacy school academic performance factors was performed. Bivariate (eg, ANOVA, independent samples t-test) and correlational analyses were conducted, as was stepwise linear regression to examine the significance of Pre-NAPLEX score and other factors as related to NAPLEX score. Results. One hundred fifty graduates were included, with the majority being female (60.7%) and white (72%). Mean NAPLEX score was 104.7. Mean Pre-NAPLEX score was 68.6. White students had significantly higher NAPLEX scores compared to Black/African American students. NAPLEX score was correlated to Pre-NAPLEX score, race/ethnicity, PCAT composite and section scores, undergraduate overall and science GPAs, pharmacy GPA, and on-time graduation. The regression model included pharmacy GPA and Pre-NAPLEX score. Conclusion. The findings provide evidence that, although pharmacy GPA is the most critical determinant, the Pre-NAPLEX score is also a significant predictor of NAPLEX score.


Asunto(s)
Composición de Medicamentos/normas , Quimioterapia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Licencia en Farmacia , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Análisis de Varianza , Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Educación en Farmacia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Facultades de Farmacia , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Tennessee
8.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 13(4): 746-753, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27818213

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing (POCT) is a specialty of laboratory medicine that occurs at the bedside or near the patient when receiving health services. Despite its established clinical utility and consumer demand in the community pharmacy, the implementation of POCT within this setting has remained modest for a variety of reasons. One possible solution to this problem is the concept of co-creation - the partnership between consumer and manufacturer in the development of value for a service or device. OBJECTIVE: Using the theoretical underpinning of co-creation, this study aimed to investigate perceptions of point-of-care-testing (POCT) industry leadership on the community pharmacy market in the United States to uncover reasons for limited implementation within community pharmacies. METHODS: Participants were recruited for this study through the use of snowball sampling. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants via telephone. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and entered into a qualitative analysis software program to summarize the data. RESULTS: Five key themes were uncovered: gaps in understanding, areas of positive impact, barriers to implementation, facilitators of implementation, and community pharmacy - a potential major player. CONCLUSIONS: Through uncovering gaps in perceptions, it may be possible to leverage the U.S. pharmacy industry's size, potential for scalability, and ease of patient access to further patient care.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/tendencias , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Sector de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Liderazgo , Sistemas de Atención de Punto/tendencias , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/tendencias , Conducta Cooperativa , Predicción , Teoría Fundamentada , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Percepción , Investigación Cualitativa , Participación de los Interesados , Estados Unidos
9.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 80(6): 97, 2016 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27667834

RESUMEN

Objective. To assess student preferences regarding online learning and technology and to evaluate student pharmacists' social media use for educational purposes. Methods. An anonymous 36-question online survey was administered to third-year student pharmacists enrolled in the Drug Information and Clinical Literature Evaluation course. Results. Four hundred thirty-one students completed the survey, yielding a 96% response rate. The majority of students used technology for academic activities, with 90% using smart phones and 91% using laptop computers. Fifty-eight percent of students also used social networking websites to communicate with classmates. Conclusion. Pharmacy students frequently use social media and some online learning methods, which could be a valuable avenue for delivering or supplementing pharmacy curricula. The potential role of social media and online learning in pharmacy education needs to be further explored.


Asunto(s)
Instrucción por Computador/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Red Social , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Instrucción por Computador/métodos , Instrucción por Computador/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Humanos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet/tendencias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 80(1): 4, 2016 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26941430

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess first-year (P1) pharmacy students' studying behaviors and perceptions after implementation of a new computerized "composite examination" (CE) testing procedure. METHODS: Student surveys were conducted to assess studying behavior and perceptions about the CE before and after its implementation. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 149 P1 students (92% response rate). Significant changes between survey results before and after the CE included an increase in students' concerns about the limited number of questions per course on each examination and decreased concerns about the time allotted and the inability to write on the CEs. Significant changes in study habits included a decrease in cramming (studying shortly before the test) and an increase in priority studying (spending more time on one course than another). CONCLUSION: The CE positively changed assessment practice at the college. It helped overcome logistic challenges in computerized testing and drove positive changes in study habits.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Evaluación Educacional , Percepción/fisiología , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adulto , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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