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2.
J Virol ; 98(1): e0179123, 2024 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168672

RESUMEN

In the United States (US), biosafety and biosecurity oversight of research on viruses is being reappraised. Safety in virology research is paramount and oversight frameworks should be reviewed periodically. Changes should be made with care, however, to avoid impeding science that is essential for rapidly reducing and responding to pandemic threats as well as addressing more common challenges caused by infectious diseases. Decades of research uniquely positioned the US to be able to respond to the COVID-19 crisis with astounding speed, delivering life-saving vaccines within a year of identifying the virus. We should embolden and empower this strength, which is a vital part of protecting the health, economy, and security of US citizens. Herein, we offer our perspectives on priorities for revised rules governing virology research in the US.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos , Virología , Humanos , COVID-19 , Estados Unidos , Virus , Investigación Biomédica/normas
3.
Biomolecules ; 13(9)2023 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37759793

RESUMEN

Serine protease inhibitors, SERPINS, are a highly conserved family of proteins that regulate serine proteases in the central coagulation and immune pathways, representing 2-10% of circulating proteins in the blood. Serine proteases form cascades of sequentially activated enzymes that direct thrombosis (clot formation) and thrombolysis (clot dissolution), complement activation in immune responses and also programmed cell death (apoptosis). Virus-derived serpins have co-evolved with mammalian proteases and serpins, developing into highly effective inhibitors of mammalian proteolytic pathways. Through interacting with extracellular and intracellular serine and cysteine proteases, viral serpins provide a new class of highly active virus-derived coagulation-, immune-, and apoptosis-modulating drug candidates. Viral serpins have unique characteristics: (1) function at micrograms per kilogram doses; (2) selectivity in targeting sites of protease activation; (3) minimal side effects at active concentrations; and (4) the demonstrated capacity to be modified, or fine-tuned, for altered protease targeting. To date, the virus-derived serpin class of biologics has proven effective in a wide range of animal models and in one clinical trial in patients with unstable coronary disease. Here, we outline the known viral serpins and review prior studies with viral serpins, considering their potential for application as new sources for immune-, coagulation-, and apoptosis-modulating therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Serpinas , Animales , Humanos , Serpinas/uso terapéutico , Serpinas/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/farmacología , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/uso terapéutico , Serina Endopeptidasas , Serina Proteasas , Mamíferos/metabolismo
4.
EMBO Mol Med ; 15(9): e17376, 2023 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37534622

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induces uncontrolled lung inflammation and coagulopathy with high mortality. Anti-viral drugs and monoclonal antibodies reduce early COVID-19 severity, but treatments for late-stage immuno-thrombotic syndromes and long COVID are limited. Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINS) regulate activated proteases. The myxoma virus-derived Serp-1 protein is a secreted immunomodulatory serpin that targets activated thrombotic, thrombolytic, and complement proteases as a self-defense strategy to combat clearance. Serp-1 is effective in multiple animal models of inflammatory lung disease and vasculitis. Here, we describe systemic treatment with purified PEGylated Serp-1 as a therapy for immuno-coagulopathic complications during ARDS. Treatment with PEGSerp-1 in two mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 models in C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice reduced lung and heart inflammation, with improved outcomes. PEGSerp-1 significantly reduced M1 macrophages in the lung and heart by modifying urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), thrombotic proteases, and complement membrane attack complex (MAC). Sequential changes in gene expression for uPAR and serpins (complement and plasminogen inhibitors) were observed. PEGSerp-1 is a highly effective immune-modulator with therapeutic potential for severe viral ARDS, immuno-coagulopathic responses, and Long COVID.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria , Serpinas , Ratones , Animales , Humanos , Serpinas/uso terapéutico , Serpinas/metabolismo , Serpinas/farmacología , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Péptido Hidrolasas
5.
Cancer Res Commun ; 3(6): 952-968, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37377603

RESUMEN

Oncolytic viruses exploited for cancer therapy have been developed to selectively infect, replicate, and kill cancer cells to inhibit tumor growth. However, in some cancer cells, oncolytic viruses are often limited in completing their full replication cycle, forming progeny virions, and/or spreading in the tumor bed because of the heterogeneous cell types within the tumor bed. Here, we report that the nuclear export pathway regulates oncolytic myxoma virus (MYXV) infection and cytoplasmic viral replication in a subclass of human cancer cell types where viral replication is restricted. Inhibition of the XPO-1 (exportin 1) nuclear export pathway with nuclear export inhibitors can overcome this restriction by trapping restriction factors in the nucleus and allow significantly enhanced viral replication and killing of cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of XPO-1 significantly enhanced MYXV replication in restrictive human cancer cells and reduced the formation of antiviral granules associated with RNA helicase DHX9. Both in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrated that the approved XPO1 inhibitor drug selinexor enhances the replication of MYXV and kills diverse human cancer cells. In a xenograft tumor model in NSG mice, combination therapy with selinexor plus MYXV significantly reduced the tumor burden and enhanced the survival of animals. In addition, we performed global-scale proteomic analysis of nuclear and cytosolic proteins in human cancer cells to identify the host and viral proteins that were upregulated or downregulated by different treatments. These results indicate, for the first time, that selinexor in combination with oncolytic MYXV can be used as a potential new therapy. Significance: We demonstrated that a combination of nuclear export inhibitor selinexor and oncolytic MYXV significantly enhanced viral replication, reduced cancer cell proliferation, reduced tumor burden, and enhanced the overall survival of animals. Thus, selinexor and oncolytic MYXV can be used as potential new anticancer therapy.


Asunto(s)
Myxoma virus , Neoplasias , Virus Oncolíticos , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Myxoma virus/genética , Transporte Activo de Núcleo Celular , Proteómica , Virus Oncolíticos/genética
6.
EMBO Mol Med ; 15(6): e17144, 2023 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37158379

RESUMEN

In the practice of medicine, many fundamental biological pathways that require tight on/off control, such as inflammation and circulatory homeostasis, are regulated by serine proteinases, but we rarely consider the unique protease inhibitors that, in turn, regulate these proteases. The serpins are a family of proteins with a shared tertiary structure, whose members largely act as serine protease inhibitors, found in all forms of life, ranging from viruses, bacteria, and archaea to plants and animals. These proteins represent up to 2-10% of proteins in the human blood and are the third most common protein family.


Asunto(s)
Serpinas , Animales , Humanos , Serpinas/genética , Serpinas/química , Serpinas/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/farmacología , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/química , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/metabolismo , Serina Proteasas/metabolismo , Inflamación
7.
J Gen Virol ; 104(5)2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37195882

RESUMEN

Poxviridae is a family of enveloped, brick-shaped or ovoid viruses. The genome is a linear molecule of dsDNA (128-375 kbp) with covalently closed ends. The family includes the sub-families Entomopoxvirinae, whose members have been found in four orders of insects, and Chordopoxvirinae, whose members are found in mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. Poxviruses are important pathogens in various animals, including humans, and typically result in the formation of lesions, skin nodules, or disseminated rash. Infections can be fatal. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Poxviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/poxviridae.


Asunto(s)
Poxviridae , Animales , Humanos , Poxviridae/genética , Peces , Aves , Mamíferos , Reptiles , Genoma Viral , Replicación Viral , Virión
8.
Vaccine ; 41(20): 3171-3177, 2023 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37088603

RESUMEN

The widespread outbreak of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) recognized in 2022 poses new challenges for public healthcare systems worldwide. With more than 86,000 people infected, there is concern that MPXV may become endemic outside of its original geographical area leading to repeated human spillover infections or continue to be spread person-to-person. Fortunately, classical public health measures (e.g., isolation, contact tracing and quarantine) and vaccination have blunted the spread of the virus, but cases are continuing to be reported in 28 countries in March 2023. We describe here the vaccines and drugs available for the prevention and treatment of MPXV infections. However, although their efficacy against monkeypox (mpox) has been established in animal models, little is known about their efficacy in the current outbreak setting. The continuing opportunity for transmission raises concerns about the potential for evolution of the virus and for expansion beyond the current risk groups. The priorities for action are clear: 1) more data on the efficacy of vaccines and drugs in infected humans must be gathered; 2) global collaborations are necessary to ensure that government authorities work with the private sector in developed and low and middle income countries (LMICs) to provide the availability of treatments and vaccines, especially in historically endemic/enzootic areas; 3) diagnostic and surveillance capacity must be increased to identify areas and populations where the virus is present and may seed resurgence; 4) those at high risk of severe outcomes (e.g., immunocompromised, untreated HIV, pregnant women, and inflammatory skin conditions) must be informed of the risk of infection and be protected from community transmission of MPXV; 5) engagement with the hardest hit communities in a non-stigmatizing way is needed to increase the understanding and acceptance of public health measures; and 6) repositories of monkeypox clinical samples, including blood, fluids, tissues and lesion material must be established for researchers. This MPXV outbreak is a warning that pandemic preparedness plans need additional coordination and resources. We must prepare for continuing transmission, resurgence, and repeated spillovers of MPXV.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas , Embarazo , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , /prevención & control , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos , Vacunación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control
9.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36824761

RESUMEN

Nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins using XPO1 (exportin 1) plays a vital role in cell proliferation and survival. Many viruses also exploit this pathway to promote infection and replication. Thus, inhibiting XPO1-mediated nuclear export with selective inhibitors activates multiple antiviral and anti-inflammatory pathways. The XPO1 inhibitor, Selinexor, is an FDA-approved anticancer drug predicted to have antiviral function against many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Unexpectedly, we observed that pretreatment of cultured human cells with Selinexor actually enhanced protein expression and replication of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Knockdown of cellular XPO1 protein expression significantly enhanced the replication of coronaviruses in human cells. We further demonstrate that Selinexor treatment reduced the formation of unique cytoplasmic antiviral granules that include RNA helicase DHX9 in the virus-infected cells. These results, for the first time, show that the anti-cancer drug Selinexor enhances the replication of coronaviruses in human cells in vitro and thus should be further explored in vivo for the potential impact on the dual use for anticancer and antiviral therapy.

10.
Curr Opin Virol ; 57: 101286, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427482

RESUMEN

Poxviruses are a diverse family of double-stranded DNA viruses that cause mild-to-severe disease in selective hosts, including humans. Although most poxviruses are restricted to their hosts, some members can leap host species and cause zoonotic diseases and, therefore, are genuine threats to human and animal health. The recent global spread of monkeypox in humans suggests that zoonotic poxviruses can adapt to a new host, spread rapidly in the new host, and evolve to better evade host innate barriers. Unlike many other viruses, poxviruses express an extensive repertoire of self-defense proteins that play a vital role in the evasion of host innate and adaptive immune responses in their newest host species. The function of these viral immune modulators and host-specific cytokine responses can result in different host tropism and poxvirus disease progression. Here, we review the role of different cytokines that control poxvirus host tropism and adaptation.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Poxviridae , Poxviridae , Animales , Humanos , Tropismo Viral , Citocinas , Proteínas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo , Poxviridae/genética
11.
Cancer Cell ; 40(9): 973-985.e7, 2022 09 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027915

RESUMEN

Cytotoxicity of tumor-specific T cells requires tumor cell-to-T cell contact-dependent induction of classic tumor cell apoptosis and pyroptosis. However, this may not trigger sufficient primary responses of solid tumors to adoptive cell therapy or prevent tumor antigen escape-mediated acquired resistance. Here we test myxoma virus (MYXV)-infected tumor-specific T (TMYXV) cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T cell receptor (TCR), which systemically deliver MYXV into solid tumors to overcome primary resistance. In addition to T cell-induced apoptosis and pyroptosis, tumor eradication by CAR/TCR-TMYXV cells is also attributed to tumor cell autosis induction, a special type of cell death. Mechanistically, T cell-derived interferon γ (IFNγ)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling synergizes with MYXV-induced M-T5-SKP-1-VPS34 signaling to trigger robust tumor cell autosis. CAR/TCR-TMYXV-elicited autosis functions as a type of potent bystander killing to restrain antigen escape. We uncover an unexpected synergy between T cells and MYXV to bolster solid tumor cell autosis that reinforces tumor clearance.


Asunto(s)
Myxoma virus , Neoplasias , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos , Humanos , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva , Myxoma virus/fisiología , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos T , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos/genética , Linfocitos T
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 239: 108263, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598646

RESUMEN

Schistosomiasis is a devastating disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ), the current treatment of choice, is ineffective against immature worms and cannot prevent reinfection. The continued reliance on a single drug for treatment increases the risk of the development of PZQ-resistant parasites. Reports of PZQ insusceptibility lends urgency to the need for new therapeutics. Here, we report that Myxoma virus (MYXV), an oncolytic pox virus which is non-pathogenic in all mammals except leporids, infects and replicates in S. mansoni schistosomula, juveniles, and adult male and female worms. MYXV infection results in the shredding of the tegument and reduced egg production in vitro, identifying MYXV as the first viral pathogen of schistosomes. MYXV is currently in preclinical studies to manage multiple human cancers, supporting its use in human therapeutics. Our findings raise the exciting possibility that MYXV virus represents a novel and safe class of potential anthelmintic therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos , Myxoma virus , Virus Oncolíticos , Esquistosomiasis mansoni , Animales , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos , Praziquantel/farmacología , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/tratamiento farmacológico
13.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 33, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603308

RESUMEN

Recent years have seen rapid advances in the preclinical development and clinical evaluation of oncolytic (cancer-lysing) virus-based therapies, and these are emerging as treatment modality for some cancers. There are challenges to address, however, if we are to maximize the impact of these therapies in patients.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454928

RESUMEN

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly neoplasm. Oncolytic viruses have tumorolytic and immune response-boosting effects and present great potential for PDAC management. We used LIGHT-armed myxoma virus (vMyx-LIGHT) loaded ex vivo into human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) to evaluate murine PDAC treatment in conjunction with gemcitabine (GEM). The cytotoxicity of this treatment was confirmed in vitro using human and murine pancreatic cancer cell cultures, which were more sensitive to the combined approach and largely destroyed. Unlike cancer cells, ADSCs sustain significant viability after infection. The in vivo administration of vMyx-LIGHT-loaded ADSCs and gemcitabine was evaluated using immunocompetent mice with induced orthotopic PDAC lesions. The expression of virus-encoded LIGHT increased the influx of T cells to the tumor site. Shielded virus followed by gemcitabine improved tumor regression and survival. The addition of gemcitabine slightly compromised the adaptive immune response boost obtained with the shielded virus alone, conferring no survival benefit. ADSCs pre-loaded with vMyx-LIGHT allowed the effective transport of the oncolytic construct to PDAC lesions and yielded significant immune response; additional GEM administration failed to improve survival. In view of our results, the delivery of targeted/shielded virus in combination with TGF-ß ablation and/or checkpoint inhibitors is a promising option to improve the therapeutic effects of vMyx-LIGHT/ADSCs against PDAC in vivo.

15.
mBio ; 13(2): e0346121, 2022 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352978

RESUMEN

Myxoma virus (MYXV) is naturally found in rabbit Sylvilagus species and is known to cause lethal myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2019, an MYXV strain (MYXV strain Toledo [MYXV-Tol]) causing myxomatosis-like disease in Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) was identified. MYXV-Tol acquired a recombinant region of ∼2.8 kb harboring several new genes, including a novel host range gene (M159) that we show to be an orthologous member of the vaccinia virus C7 host range family. Here, to test whether M159 alone has enabled MYXV to alter its host range to Iberian hares, several recombinant viruses were generated, including an MYXV-Tol ΔM159 (knockout) strain. While MYXV-Tol underwent fully productive infection in hare HN-R cells, neither the wild-type MYXV-Lau strain (lacking M159) nor vMyxTol-ΔM159 (deleted for M159) was able to infect and replicate, showing that the ability of MYXV-Tol to infect these cells and replicate depends on the presence of M159. Similar to other C7L family members, M159 was shown to be expressed as an early/late gene but was translocated into the nucleus at later time points, indicating that further studies are needed to elucidate its role in the nucleus. Finally, in rabbit cells, the M159 protein did not contribute to increased replication but was able to upregulate the replication levels of MYXV in nonpermissive and semipermissive human cancer cells, suggesting that the M159-targeted pathway is conserved across mammalian species. Altogether, these observations demonstrate that the M159 protein plays a critical role in determining the host specificity of MYXV-Tol in hare and human cells by imparting new host range functions. IMPORTANCE The coevolution of European rabbit populations and MYXV is a textbook example of an arms race between a pathogen and a host. Recently, a recombinant MYXV (MYXV-Tol) crossed the species barrier by jumping from leporid species to another species, causing lethal myxomatosis-like disease. Given the highly pathogenic nature of this new virus in hares and the incidences of other poxvirus cross-species spillovers into other animals, including humans, it is important to understand how and why MYXV-Tol was able to become virulent in a new host species. The results presented clearly demonstrate that M159 is the key factor allowing MYXV-Tol replication in hare cells by imparting new host range functions. These results have the potential to improve current knowledge about the virulence of poxviruses and provide a platform to better understand the new MYXV-Tol, rendering the virus capable of leaping into a new host species.


Asunto(s)
Liebres , Myxoma virus , Virus , Animales , Especificidad del Huésped , Myxoma virus/genética , Proteínas , Conejos , Virulencia/genética , Replicación Viral
16.
Oncotarget ; 13: 490-504, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251496

RESUMEN

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy of plasma cells that remains incurable despite significant progress with myeloablative regimens and autologous stem cell transplantation for eligible patients and, more recently with T cell redirected immunotherapy. Recently, we reported that ex vivo virotherapy with oncolytic myxoma virus (MYXV) improved MM-free survival in an autologous-transplant Balb/c mouse model. Here, we tested the Vk*MYC transplantable C57BL/6 mouse MM model that more closely recapitulates human disease. In vitro, the murine bortezomib-resistant Vk12598 cell line is fully susceptible to MYXV infection. In vivo results demonstrate: (i) autologous bone marrow (BM) leukocytes armed ex vivo with MYXV exhibit moderate therapeutic effects against MM cells pre-seeded into recipient mice; (ii) Cyclophosphamide in combination with BM/MYXV delays the onset of myeloma in mice seeded with Vk12598 cells; (iii) BM/MYXV synergizes with the Smac-mimetics LCL161 and with immune checkpoint inhibitor α-PD-1 to control the progression of established MM in vivo, resulting in significant improvement of survival rates and decreased of tumor burden; (iv) Survivor mice from (ii) and (iii), when re-challenged with fresh Vk12598 cells, developed acquired anti-MM immunity. These results highlight the utility of autologous BM grafts armed ex vivo with oncolytic MYXV alone or in combination with chemotherapy/immunotherapy to treat drug-resistant MM in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Mieloma Múltiple , Myxoma virus , Viroterapia Oncolítica , Virus Oncolíticos , Animales , Médula Ósea , Bortezomib/farmacología , Ciclofosfamida , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/métodos , Humanos , Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Mieloma Múltiple/terapia , Viroterapia Oncolítica/métodos , Receptor de Muerte Celular Programada 1 , Trasplante Autólogo
17.
Oncogene ; 41(8): 1100-1113, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034965

RESUMEN

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. We report here that programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is constitutively expressed in cancer cells to maintain and expand CSC through a novel mechanism in addition to promoting cancer cell immune evasion. We discovered that PD-L1 interacts with receptor Frizzled 6 to activate ß-catenin signaling and increase ß-catenin-targeted gene expression, such as a putative stem cell marker leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5. Blockage of PD-L1 function, using a specific small hairpin RNA or a specific antibody, inhibits disease progression by reducing the CSC population in both colorectal and breast tumors. Moreover, ß-catenin conversely regulates PD-L1 expression through a ß-catenin complex binding site in the PD-L1 promoter. Our discoveries reveal that besides assistant tumor cell immune escaping, PD-L1 and ß-catenin signaling form a positive feedback loop to promote cancer progression through CSC maintenance and expansion.


Asunto(s)
beta Catenina
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053501

RESUMEN

Cancers that metastasize to the lungs represent a major challenge in both basic and clinical cancer research. Oncolytic viruses are newly emerging options but successful delivery and choice of appropriate therapeutic armings are two critical issues. Using an immunocompetent murine K7M2-luc lung metastases model, the efficacy of MYXV armed with murine LIGHT (TNFSF14/CD258) expressed under virus-specific early/late promoter was tested in an advanced later-stage disease K7M2-luc model. Results in this model show that mLIGHT-armed MYXV, delivered systemically using ex vivo pre-loaded PBMCs as carrier cells, reduced tumor burden and increased median survival time. In vitro, when comparing direct infection of K7M2-luc cancer cells with free MYXV vs. PBMC-loaded virus, vMyx-mLIGHT/PBMCs also demonstrated greater cytotoxic capacity against the K7M2 cancer cell targets. In vivo, systemically delivered vMyx-mLIGHT/PBMCs increased viral reporter transgene expression levels both in the periphery and in lung tumors compared to unarmed MYXV, in a tumor- and transgene-dependent fashion. We conclude that vMyx-mLIGHT, especially when delivered using PBMC carrier cells, represents a new potential therapeutic strategy for solid cancers that metastasize to the lung.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771615

RESUMEN

Cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite many signs of progress, currently available cancer treatments often do not provide desired outcomes for too many cancers. Therefore, newer and more effective therapeutic approaches are needed. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have emerged as a novel cancer treatment modality, which selectively targets and kills cancer cells while sparing normal ones. In the past several decades, many different OV candidates have been developed and tested in both laboratory settings as well as in cancer patient clinical trials. Many approaches have been taken to overcome the limitations of OVs, including engineering OVs to selectively activate anti-tumor immune responses. However, newer approaches like the combination of OVs with current immunotherapies to convert "immune-cold" tumors to "immune-hot" will almost certainly improve the potency of OVs. Here, we discuss strategies that are explored to further improve oncolytic virotherapy.

20.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 23: 434-447, 2021 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786436

RESUMEN

Poxviruses have been used extensively as vaccine vectors for human and veterinary medicine and have recently entered the clinical realm as immunotherapies for cancer. We present a comprehensive method for producing high-quality lots of the poxvirus Parapoxvirus ovis (OrfV) for use in preclinical models of vaccinology and cancer therapy. OrfV is produced using a permissive sheep skin-derived cell line and is released from infected cells by repeated freeze-thaw combined with sonication. We present two methods for isolation and purification of bulk virus. Isolated virus is concentrated to high titer using polyethylene glycol to produce the final in vivo-grade product. We also describe methods for quantifying OrfV infectious virions and determining genomic copy number to evaluate virus stocks. The methods herein will provide researchers with the ability to produce high-quality, high-titer OrfV for use in preclinical studies, and support the translation of OrfV-derived technologies into the clinic.

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