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Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430681


Pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) can compromise antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy and undermine the WHO targets to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. Thus, we examined the level of PDR in Harare, Zimbabwe. Eligible study participants were adults who were ART naive or individuals with previous ART exposure reinitiating treatment, recruited between October 2018 and February 2020 in a HIV ART treatment clinic, in Harare. HIV drug resistance tests were performed for all specimens with viral load ≥400 copies/mL and interpreted using the Stanford HIVDB Algorithm. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of proportions of PDR across ART-naive or prior ART-exposed participants. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 14. Overall, 120 samples were genotyped of whom 104 were ART naive and 16 reported previous ART exposure. The overall PDR frequency among all participants was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI): 22.5-39.6]. PDR to any non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) was reported in 29% (95% CI: 21.0-37.9). PDR to nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors were low, found in 3% (95% CI: 0.9-8.2) and 1% (95% CI: 0.02-4.52), respectively. PDR to NNRTIs [efavirenz/nevirapine (EFV/NVP)] was found in 17% (95% CI: 10.5-24.6) and was more than six times higher among people with previous ART exposure than ART-naive people: 63% versus 10%, p < .001. Our study shows that PDR to NNRTIs in Zimbabwe has remarkably increased from the 10.9% prevalence reported in the 2016 WHO survey. Addressing PDR at a national level is a critical need and will be facilitated by fast-tracking the transition to dolutegravir in first-line ART regimens.