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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100425], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230367

RESUMEN

Background: Executive Function (EF) is a potential mechanism linking physical activity (PA) and mental health. However, evidence regarding the association between free-living PA and EF is limited with mixed results. Across two studies, we examined associations between accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and facets of EF in different age groups (Study 1) and at different times of day (Study 2). Method: In Study 1, we tested the association between MVPA and verbal fluency across seven days in 285 participants (children, adults, older adults). In Study 2, we tested between- and within-person associations between MVPA and working memory (afternoon, evening, next morning) across three 18-day bursts in 64 preadolescents. Results: Study 1 showed no association between MVPA and verbal fluency overall, but there was an interaction by age group: a positive association was evident in older adults only. In Study 2, we observed a positive between-person association between MVPA and subsequent afternoon and next morning working memory, but not within-person. In the evening, MVPA was not related to working memory. Conclusions: The association between free-living PA and EF differs between age groups and times of day. Future research should consider these factors when examining the association and its role for mental health.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Cognición , Ejercicio Físico , Salud Mental , Psicología , Psicología Clínica , Neurología
2.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 24(1): 100425, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38089542

RESUMEN

Background: Executive Function (EF) is a potential mechanism linking physical activity (PA) and mental health. However, evidence regarding the association between free-living PA and EF is limited with mixed results. Across two studies, we examined associations between accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and facets of EF in different age groups (Study 1) and at different times of day (Study 2). Method: In Study 1, we tested the association between MVPA and verbal fluency across seven days in 285 participants (children, adults, older adults). In Study 2, we tested between- and within-person associations between MVPA and working memory (afternoon, evening, next morning) across three 18-day bursts in 64 preadolescents. Results: Study 1 showed no association between MVPA and verbal fluency overall, but there was an interaction by age group: a positive association was evident in older adults only. In Study 2, we observed a positive between-person association between MVPA and subsequent afternoon and next morning working memory, but not within-person. In the evening, MVPA was not related to working memory. Conclusions: The association between free-living PA and EF differs between age groups and times of day. Future research should consider these factors when examining the association and its role for mental health.

3.
Nutr Health ; 25(3): 179-184, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347450

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identifying when and where people overeat is important for intervention design, yet little is known about how unhealthy behaviours unfold in real life. AIM: To track the activities, social contexts and locations that co-occur with unhealthy snacking. METHODS: Sixty-four adults (49F, mean age = 38.6 years) used electronic diaries to record snacking, location, social context and current activity every waking hour over 7 days. The proportion of snacking episodes that co-occurred with each location/activity/context was calculated by group and individual. RESULTS: Over the group, snacking was most frequent whilst socialising (19.9% of hours spent socialising) or using the TV/computer (19.7%), when with friends (16.7%) and when at home (15.3%). All intra-class correlation statistics for cued behaviour were low, indicating the importance of within-person variability. There were marked individual differences between people in what constituted a 'typical' context for snacking. CONCLUSIONS: People show substantial differences in the contexts in which they snack. Tailoring interventions to these individual patterns of behaviour may improve intervention efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Individualidad , Bocadillos/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Señales (Psicología) , Evaluación Ecológica Momentánea , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
4.
Health Psychol ; 36(4): 356-364, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28192005

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Laboratory eating studies and cross-sectional surveys indicate individuals with inefficient executive function (EF) consume more unhealthy snacks than others. However, the importance of EF in determining snacking behavior in the "real world" has not been established. Contemporary behavioral and self-control theories posit EF as a dynamic resource fluctuating over time. Consequently, a test of the relevance of EF to behavior within individuals is required. This study tested within- and between-person effects of real-time variability in objectively measured inhibitory control (a core facet of EF) on subsequent snacking behavior in daily life. METHOD: A community sample of 64 adults recorded snacking behavior and completed a short Go/No-Go test (assessing inhibitory control) hourly over 7 consecutive days, yielding a total well-powered sample of 6,284 data-points. Generalized linear mixed models using lagged effects examined within-person and between-person effects of inhibitory control efficiency on snacking behavior. RESULTS: When Go/No-Go test responses were 100 ms slower than the person-mean (indicating periods of poorer inhibitory control), snack consumption in the following hour was 25.67% higher, Exp (γ) = 1.26, p = .002, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06, 1.49]. Between-individuals, person-mean reaction time (RT) did not predict snack consumption, Exp (γ) = 1.02, p = .965, 95% CI [0.71, 1.46]. CONCLUSIONS: RT variability in inhibitory control efficiency is highly relevant to snacking behavior within individuals. Inhibitory control is an important driver of snacking in everyday life and an important target for interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Inhibición Psicológica , Autocontrol , Bocadillos/psicología , Adulto , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Front Neurosci ; 10: 386, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601977

RESUMEN

Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. They do this by supporting the volition, planning, performance monitoring, and inhibition necessary to enact intentions and override urges to engage in health damaging behavior. Here, we focus firstly on evidence suggesting that health-enhancing behaviors can induce improvements in executive function. We then switch our focus to findings linking executive function to the consistent performance of health-promoting behaviors and the avoidance of health risk behaviors. We suggest that executive function, health behavior, and disease processes are interdependent. In particular, we argue that a positive feedback loop may exist whereby health behavior-induced changes in executive function foster subsequent health-enhancing behaviors, which in turn help sustain efficient executive functions and good health. We conclude by outlining the implications of this reciprocal relationship for intervention strategies, the design of research studies, and the study of healthy aging.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 1006, 2014 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25261200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The cognitive processes responsible for effortful behavioural regulation are known as the executive functions, and are implicated in several factors associated with behaviour control, including focussing on tasks, resisting temptations, planning future actions, and inhibiting prepotent responses. Similar to muscles, the executive functions become fatigued following intensive use (e.g. stressful situations, when tired or busy, and when regulating behaviour such as quitting smoking). Therefore, an individual may be more susceptible to engaging in unhealthy behaviours when their executive functions are depleted. In the present study we investigate associations between the executive functions, snack food consumption, and sedentary behaviour in real time. We hypothesise that individuals may be more susceptible to unhealthy snacking and sedentary behaviours during periods when their executive functions are depleted. We test this hypothesis using real-time objective within-person measurements. METHODS/DESIGN: A sample of approximately 50 Scottish adults from varied socio-economic, working, and cultural backgrounds will participate in the three phases of the SNAcking, Physical activity, Self-regulation, and Heart rate Over Time (SNAPSHOT) study. Phase one will require participants to complete home-based questionnaires concerned with diet, eating behaviour, and physical activity (≈1.5 hours to complete). Phase two will constitute a 2-3 hour psychological laboratory testing session during which trait-level executive function, general intelligence, and diet and physical activity intentions, past behaviour, and automaticity will be measured. The final phase will involve a 7-day ambulatory protocol during which objective repeated assessments of executive function, snacking behaviour, physical activity, mood, heart rate, perceived energy level, current context and location will be measured during participants' daily routines. Multi-level regression analysis, accounting for observations nested within participants, will be used to investigate associations between fluctuations in the executive functions and health behaviours. DISCUSSION: Data from the SNAPSHOT study will provide ecologically valid information to help better understand the temporal associations between self-regulatory resources (executive functions) and deleterious health behaviours such as snacking and sedentary behaviour. If we can identify particular periods of the day or locations where self-regulatory resources become depleted and produce suboptimal health behaviour, then interventions can be designed and targeted accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Conducta Sedentaria , Adulto , Afecto , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos de Investigación , Escocia , Bocadillos , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
Geospat Health ; 8(2): 569-72, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24893034

RESUMEN

Active school travel is in decline. An understanding of the potential determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute may help to inform interventions aimed at reversing these trends. The purpose of this study was to identify the physical environmental factors associated with health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute. Data were collected in 2009 on 166 children commuting home from school in Scotland. Data on location and physical activity were measured using global positioning systems (GPS) and accelerometers, and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS). Multi-level logistic regression models accounting for repeated observations within participants were used to test for associations between each land-use category (road/track/path, other man-made, greenspace, other natural) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thirty-nine children provided 2,782 matched data points. Over one third (37.1%) of children's school commute time was spent in MVPA. Children commuted approximately equal amounts of time via natural and man-made land-uses (50.2% and 49.8% respectively). Commuting via road/track/path was associated with increased likelihood of MVPA (Exp(B)=1.23, P <0.05), but this association was not seen for commuting via other manmade land-uses. No association was noted between greenspace use and MVPA, but travelling via other natural land-uses was associated with lower odds of MVPA (Exp(B)=0.32, P <0.05). Children spend equal amounts of time commuting to school via man-made and natural land-uses, yet man-made transportation route infrastructure appears to provide greater opportunities for achieving health-enhancing physical activity levels.


Asunto(s)
Acelerometría , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Transportes , Acelerometría/métodos , Niño , Ambiente , Humanos , Actividad Motora , Escocia/epidemiología , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 8: 1044, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25628552

RESUMEN

Physically active lifestyles contribute to better executive function. However, it is unclear whether high levels of executive function lead people to be more active. This study uses a large sample and multi-wave data to identify whether a reciprocal association exists between physical activity and executive function. Participants were 4555 older adults tracked across four waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. In each wave executive function was assessed using a verbal fluency test and a letter cancelation task and participants reported their physical activity levels. Fixed effects regressions showed that changes in executive function corresponded with changes in physical activity. In longitudinal multilevel models low levels of physical activity led to subsequent declines in executive function. Importantly, poor executive function predicted reductions in physical activity over time. This association was found to be over 50% larger in magnitude than the contribution of physical activity to changes in executive function. This is the first study to identify evidence for a robust bidirectional link between executive function and physical activity in a large sample of older adults tracked over time.

9.
J Phys Act Health ; 11(2): 320-9, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23364470

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Walking cadence has shown promise for estimating walking intensity in healthy adults. Auditory cues have been shown to improve gait symmetry in populations with movement disorders. We investigated the walking cadence-energy expenditure relationship in unilateral transtibial amputees (TTAs), and the potential of music cues for regulating walking cadence and improving gait symmetry. METHODS: Seventeen unilateral TTAs performed 2 5-min treadmill walking trials, followed by 2 5-min overground walking trials (self-regulated "brisk" intensity, and while attempting to match a moderate-tempo digital music cue). RESULTS: Walking cadence significantly (P < .001) and accurately (R(2) = .55, SEE = 0.50 METs) predicted energy expenditure, and a cadence of 86 steps·min(-1) was equivalent to a 3-MET intensity. Although most participants were able to match cadence to prescribed music tempo, gait symmetry was not improved during the music-guided condition, compared with the self-regulated condition. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the utility of walking cadence for monitoring and regulating walking intensity in adults with lower limb prosthesis. Cadence has similar or superior accuracy as an indicator of walking intensity in this population, compared with the general population, and adults with a unilateral TTA are capable of walking at moderate intensity and above for meaningful bouts of time.


Asunto(s)
Amputación Quirúrgica , Miembros Artificiales , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Marcha/fisiología , Caminata/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Señales (Psicología) , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Música , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Controles Informales de la Sociedad
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 9: 65, 2012 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22647194

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite strong support for predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) substantial variance in both intention and behavior is unaccounted for by the model's predictors. The present study tested the extent to which habit strength augments the predictive validity of the TPB in relation to a currently under-researched behavior that has important health implications, namely children's active school travel. METHOD: Participants (N = 126 children aged 8-9 years; 59 % males) were sampled from five elementary schools in the west of Scotland and completed questionnaire measures of all TPB constructs in relation to walking to school and both walking and car/bus use habit. Over the subsequent week, commuting steps on school journeys were measured objectively using an accelerometer. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the predictive utility of the TPB and habit strength in relation to both intention and subsequent behavior. RESULTS: The TPB accounted for 41 % and 10 % of the variance in intention and objectively measured behavior, respectively. Together, walking habit and car/bus habit significantly increased the proportion of explained variance in both intention and behavior by 6 %. Perceived behavioral control and both walking and car/bus habit independently predicted intention. Intention and car/bus habit independently predicted behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The TPB significantly predicts children's active school travel. However, habit strength augments the predictive validity of the model. The results indicate that school travel is controlled by both intentional and habitual processes. In practice, interventions could usefully decrease the habitual use of motorized transport for travel to school and increase children's intention to walk (via increases in perceived behavioral control and walking habit, and decreases in car/bus habit). Further research is needed to identify effective strategies for changing these antecedents of children's active school travel.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Hábitos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Transportes/métodos , Caminata , Niño , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Escocia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Prev Med ; 54(5): 316-8, 2012 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22405706

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a school-based intervention called Travelling Green (TG) on children's walking to and from school and total daily physical activity. METHOD: A quasi-experiment with 166 Scottish children (8-9 years) was conducted in 2009. One group (n=79) received TG and another group (n=87) acted as a comparison. The intervention lasted 6 weeks and consisted of educational lessons and goal-setting tasks. Steps and MVPA (daily, a.m. commute, p.m. commute, and total commute) were measured for 5 days pre- and post-intervention using accelerometers. RESULTS: Mean steps (daily, a.m., p.m., and total commute) decreased from pre- to post-intervention in both groups (TG by 901, 49, 222, and 271 steps/day and comparison by 2528, 205, 120, and 325 steps/day, respectively). No significant group by time interactions were found for a.m., p.m., and total commuting steps. A medium (partial eta squared=0.09) and significant (p<0.05) group by time interaction was found for total daily steps. MVPA results were similar to step results. CONCLUSIONS: TG has a little effect on walking to and from school. However, for total daily steps and daily MVPA, TG results in a smaller seasonal decrease than for children who do not receive the intervention.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico/métodos , Estudiantes/psicología , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Caminata , Actigrafía/métodos , Niño , Documentación , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Femenino , Objetivos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/prevención & control , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Servicios de Salud Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Escocia , Deportes/fisiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Natación/fisiología , Factores de Tiempo , Caminata/fisiología , Caminata/psicología , Caminata/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Biol Psychol ; 87(1): 152-60, 2011 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21382435

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of concurrent physical and mental challenge on stress hormones and indicators of vascular function in firefighters. Twelve professional firefighters exercised at 60% VO(2max) while participating in a computerized Fire Strategies and Tactics Drill (FSTD-fire strategies condition [FSC]), and again at the same intensity without the mental challenge (EAC). No differences in the amount of work performed between conditions existed, although the FSC resulted in greater perceptions of overall workload. Epinephrine and norepinephrine demonstrated significant interaction effects with elevated levels during the FSC. Cortisol responses were significantly elevated across time and for the FSC. Positive correlations were found between cortisol and interleukin-6, endothelin-1, and thromboxane-B(2), and a negative correlation between interleukin-6 and thromboxane-B(2). These results suggest that concurrent challenges results in exacerbated responses of stress hormones and suggests mechanisms that could contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular events among firefighters.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Empleo/psicología , Incendios , Hormonas/sangre , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico/sangre , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Catecolaminas/sangre , Epinefrina , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Norepinefrina , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Estadística como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo
15.
BMC Public Health ; 11: 958, 2011 Dec 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22208498

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The school commute is a prime opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, active commuting has decreased over the past 40 years. Strategies that increase walking to school are therefore needed. Travelling Green (TG) is a school-based active travel resource aimed at increasing children's walking to school. The resource consists of a curriculum-based program of lessons and goal setting activities. A previous study found that children who received the TG intervention increased self-reported distance travelled to school by active modes and reduced the distance travelled by inactive modes. This study was limited by self-reported outcome measures, a small sample, and no follow-up measures. A more robust evaluation of TG is required to address these limitations. This paper describes the rationale and methods for such an evaluation of Travelling Green, and describes the piloting of various active commuting measures in primary school children. METHODS/DESIGN: Measures of active commuting were piloted in a sample of 26 children (aged 8-9 years) over one school week. These measures were subsequently used in an 18-month quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of TG on commuting behaviour. Participants were 166 children (60% male) aged 8-9 years from 5 primary schools. Two schools (n = 79 children) received TG in September/October 2009. Three schools (n = 87 children) acted as a comparison group, and subsequently received TG at a later date. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Personal and environmental determinants of active commuting were measured via parent and child questionnaires, as were factors related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the construct of habit. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention and at 5 and 12 months follow-up. DISCUSSION: The piloted protocol was practical and feasible and piloted measures were reliable and valid. All study data, including 5 and 12 month follow-up, have been collected and processed. Data analysis is ongoing. Results will indicate whether TG successfully increases active commuting in a sample of Scottish school children and will inform future efforts in school active travel promotion.


Asunto(s)
Documentación/métodos , Educación en Salud/métodos , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Transportes/métodos , Viaje , Caminata/fisiología , Adulto , Niño , Curriculum , Docentes , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Padres/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Escocia , Autoinforme , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Appl Ergon ; 41(3): 376-81, 2010 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19793579

RESUMEN

Firefighters are subjected to a combination of physical and mental challenges in the course of their occupational responsibilities. However, due to the ecological factors involved with firefighting, it makes it extremely difficult to examine physiological and psychological changes that occur as a result of these combined challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a computer-based Fire Strategies and Tactics Drill (FSTD) in eliciting psychological and physiological measures of stress in professional firefighters. In one session, participants exercised at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min (exercise alone condition, EAC), and in the other session the firefighter exercised for an equal amount of time and responded to the FSTD (dual challenge condition; DCC) while exercising. Cardiorespiratory (heart rate [HR], respiration rate [RR], minute ventilation [V(E)], oxygen consumption [VO(2)], ventilatory efficiency [V(E)/VO(2)], and respiratory exchange ratio [RER]) and psychometric measures (State Anxiety Inventory [SAI] and Ratings of Perceived Exertion [RPE]) were obtained throughout the experimental protocols. The NASA Task Load Index was used to assess perceived physical and mental load during each condition. The results demonstrated that the participants perceived overall workload to be higher in the DCC. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no differences between the EAC and DCC for VO(2) or RER, but the DCC did elicit significantly greater elevations in HR, RR, V(E), and V(E)/VO(2) compared to the EAC. These results suggest that the FSTD utilized in this study provides an effective method for examining the physiological and psychological responses of firefighters in a research laboratory environment.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Simulación por Computador , Empleo/psicología , Incendios , Capacitación en Servicio , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Respiratorios , Adulto , Humanos , Mississippi
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