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1.
J Interprof Care ; 30(6): 726-731, 2016 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27797633

RESUMEN

Effective interprofessional practice requires interprofessional education that facilitates learners' achievement of competency in the interprofessional domains. Unfortunately, educators currently have a limited number of tools to identify the level of competency of their learners. Previous investigations by some of the authors described the initial characteristics of a tool based on the Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice. Building on this work, this study describes a multi-institutional, three-part study refining this tool. The series of studies further established the validity, reliability, and usability of the assessment tool. Based on the data derived from this study, we created a shorter, more easily utilised version of the tool that retains previous psychometric strengths. This article describes a tool that consists of two domains, one linked to interprofessional interaction and one linked to interprofessional values. It is believed that this assessment tool may help educators define competence in interprofessional practice and guide assessment of both programmes and learners.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Personal de Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autoevaluación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Med Humanit ; 42(1): 57-62, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26744356

RESUMEN

The role of art in medicine is complex, varied and uncertain. To examine one aspect of the relationship between art and medicine, investigators analysed the interactions between a professional artist and five adult patients with head and neck cancer as they cocreated portraits in a clinical setting. The artist and four members of an interdisciplinary team analysed the portraits as well as journal entries, transcripts of portrait sessions and semistructured interviews. Over the course of 5 months, 24 artworks evolved from sittings that allowed both the patients and the artist to collaborate around stories of illness, suffering and recovery. Using narrative inquiry and qualitative arts-based research techniques five emergent themes were identified: embracing uncertainties; developing trusting relationships; engaging in reflective practices; creating shared stories; and empowerment. Similar themes are found in successful physician-patient relationships. This paper will discuss these findings and potential implications for healthcare and medical education.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/psicología , Narración , Pinturas , Participación del Paciente , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Retratos como Asunto , Estrés Psicológico/rehabilitación , Incertidumbre , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Confianza
4.
Am J Geriatr Pharmacother ; 10(5): 296-302, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22921881

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Statins are well-known for their cardiovascular benefits. However, the cognitive effects of statins are not well understood. We hypothesized that individuals with preexisting dementia would be more vulnerable to statin-related cognitive effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on cognition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) discontinuation and rechallenge in individuals with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) on statins at baseline. METHODS: A 12-week prospective, open-label study was conducted in a geriatric clinic setting. Eighteen older subjects underwent a 6-week withdrawal phase of statins followed by a 6-week rechallenge. The primary outcome measure was cognition, measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); secondary outcome measures were the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, Instrumental ADL (IADL) scale, and fasting cholesterol. The change in outcome measures was assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA and paired t tests. RESULTS: At the end of the intervention, there was a significant difference across time for MMSE score (P = 0.018), and total cholesterol (P = 0.0002) and a trend toward change across time for ADL (P = 0.07) and IADL (P = 0.06) scale scores. Further analyses using paired t tests indicated improvement in MMSE scores (Δ1.9 [3.0], P = 0.014) with discontinuation of statins and a decrease in MMSE scores (Δ1.9 [2.7], P = 0.007) after rechallenge. Total cholesterol increased with statin discontinuation (P = 0.0003) and decreased with rechallenge (P = 0.0007). The CERAD score did not show a change across time (P = 0.31). There was a trend toward improvement in ADL (P = 0.07) and IADL (P = 0.06) scale scores with discontinuation of statins, but no change with rechallenge. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study found an improvement in cognition with discontinuation of statins and worsening with rechallenge. Statins may adversely affect cognition in patients with dementia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/fisiopatología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/etiología , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/efectos adversos , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis de Varianza , Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 23(4): 250-6, 2011 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22073381

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and tolerability of acamprosate has been tested in the treatment of pathological gambling (PG). Acamprosate is known to reduce alcohol craving and use in persons with alcohol dependence, and it has been hypothesized that the drug would have a similar effect in individuals with PG. METHODS: Participants with DSM-IV criteria for PG received acamprosate in an 8-week, open-label trial following a 2-week observation. The primary efficacy measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for PG (Y-BOCS-PG). Secondary efficacy measures included the Gambling Severity Assessment Scale (GSAS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Improvement and Severity Scales, a patient self-rated global rating, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Timeline Follow Back (TLFB). The study was conducted at 2 sites. RESULTS: Twenty-six participants (11 men, 15 women) had at least 1 post-baseline visit and were included in the analysis. Twenty participants (77%) completed the protocol. Significant improvement was observed in Y-BOCS-PG and GSAS scores, both CGI scales, a patient self-rated global scale, all 3 SDS subscales, and number of gambling episodes. Seventeen participants (65%) were considered responders (ie, achieved "much" or "very much" improvement). Improvements on the HDRS, in money wagered, and in time spent gambling were not significant. Few adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that acamprosate is well tolerated and may be effective in the treatment of PG.


Asunto(s)
Juego de Azar/tratamiento farmacológico , Psicotrópicos/uso terapéutico , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Acamprosato , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Taurina/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 134(5): 528-35, 2008 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18490576

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prophylactic treatment with the antidepressant citalopram hydrobromide, compared with placebo, could prevent major depressive disorder in patients undergoing therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENTS: Thirty-six subjects were randomized, and 23 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomized to receive 40 mg of citalopram hydrobromide or matching placebo (herein after, citalopram group and placebo group, respectively) for 12 weeks with a final visit at 16 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, psychiatric interview, and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) and Clinician Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales. RESULTS: The numbers of subjects who met predefined cutoff criteria for depression during the 12 weeks of active study were 5 of 10 (50%) taking placebo and 2 of 12 (17%) taking citalopram (Fisher exact test, P = .17). No patients in the citalopram group became suicidal, compared with 2 in the placebo group. Global mood state at the conclusion of the study as measured by the CGI-S scale was rated as at least mildly ill in 15% of those receiving citalopram compared with 60% in the placebo group (Fisher exact test, P = .04). Quality of life, measured by the UW-QOL, deteriorated in both groups from baseline but less so in the citalopram group. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports data from the first depression prevention trial in HNC and suggests that prophylactic treatment may decrease the incidence of depression during HNC therapy. The clinical significance of the reduction in depression was best demonstrated by the CGI-S scale, which showed a notable difference in global psychiatric and physical well-being.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos de Segunda Generación/uso terapéutico , Citalopram/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/prevención & control , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/etiología , Femenino , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Suicidio/prevención & control
8.
Acad Psychiatry ; 25(4): 193-200, 2001 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11744535

RESUMEN

The challenge of teaching good communication skills and psychotherapy to medical students was addressed through development of a clerkship seminar that stressed the practical application of psychotherapeutic techniques to the difficult and/or psychiatric patient. Clinical vignettes from television programs such as "ER" were used to illustrate encounters with extremely emotional or personality-disordered patients. Students also examined the dynamic meaning of these encounters, their own countertransference, and their ability to tolerate emotional interchanges with such patients. In addition, the vignettes were used to examine and apply Buckman's model for breaking bad news to patients who have undergone a significant loss. Seventy-two third-year medical students participated and completed pre- and post-seminar questionnaires to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward psychotherapeutic techniques. Students significantly improved in knowledge of countertransference, boundary setting, and how to break bad news. Attitudes toward breaking bad news and recognizing strong countertransference also improved. Some differences in post-seminar knowledge and attitudes were found between male and female students.

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