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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1185-1197, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282593

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between prenatal diagnostics (ultrasound examination and amniotic fluid Zika virus testing) and postnatal congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches were performed in 27 databases, including ClinicalTrials.gov, from inception to July 1, 2019, for articles with the keywords "Zika," "prenatal," "ultrasound," and "amniocentesis." METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: A total of 3,049 unique records were identified. Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts, and full texts for relevance; 84 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles describe 402 mother-fetus or mother-neonate dyads; 385 were included in the review of prenatal ultrasound examination, and 56 in the review of amniocentesis (39 in both). TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Among 195 fetuses with congenital Zika syndrome findings on prenatal ultrasound examination, postnatal congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities were reported for 153 (78%; 95% CI 7-84%). High proportions of microcephaly (76%; 95% CI 69-82%) and brain abnormalities (78%; 95% CI 69-86%) were confirmed postnatally. Among 190 fetuses without congenital Zika syndrome findings on prenatal ultrasound examination, 17% (95% CI 12-24%) had congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities identified postnatally. Structural congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities were identified postnatally in approximately equal proportions among dyads with and without Zika virus RNA detected in an amniotic fluid specimen (68% and 67%; 95% CI 52-82% and 95% CI 38-88%). In six pregnancies, Zika virus RNA was detected in amniotic fluid but not in a subsequent amniocentesis specimen. CONCLUSION: Prenatal ultrasound examination frequently detects structural findings associated with Zika virus infection; however, not all abnormalities are detected, and some may represent transient findings. As with other congenital infections, prenatal detection may vary with timing of infection, timing of ultrasound examination, technical expertise, and severity of abnormalities. The detection of Zika virus RNA in amniotic fluid in the included studies did not predict the risk for congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities in these cases, and clearance of Zika virus RNA from amniotic fluid appears possible after maternal infection. Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection remains a shared decision between patients and clinicians, and more data are needed to define clinical predictors that will inform these decisions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018080959.

2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954155

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, which include brain and eye abnormalities. The clinical importance of detection of Zika virus RNA in amniotic fluid is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of Zika virus RNA testing of amniotic fluid relative to other clinical specimens and to examine the association between Zika virus detection in amniotic fluid and Zika-associated birth defects. Our null hypothesis was that Zika virus detection in amniotic fluid was not associated with Zika-associated birth defects. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of women with amniotic fluid specimens submitted to Colombia's National Institute of Health as part of national Zika virus surveillance from January 2016 to January 2017. Specimens (maternal serum, amniotic fluid, cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and placental tissue) were tested for the presence of Zika virus RNA with the use of a singleplex or multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Birth defect information was abstracted from maternal prenatal and infant birth records and reviewed by expert clinicians. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the frequency of Zika-associated birth defects (defined as brain abnormalities [with or without microcephaly, but excluding neural tube defects and their associated findings] or eye abnormalities) by frequency of detection of Zika virus RNA in amniotic fluid. RESULTS: Our analysis included 128 women with amniotic fluid specimens. Seventy-five women (58%) had prenatally collected amniotic fluid; 42 women (33%) had amniotic fluid collected at delivery, and 11 women (9%) had missing collection dates. Ninety-one women had both amniotic fluid and other clinical specimens submitted for testing, which allowed for comparison across specimen types. Of those 91 women, 68 had evidence of Zika virus infection based on detection of Zika virus RNA in ≥1 specimen. Testing of amniotic fluid that was collected prenatally or at delivery identified 39 of these Zika virus infections (57%; 15 [22%] infections were identified only in amniotic fluid), and 29 infections (43%) were identified in other specimen types and not amniotic fluid. Among women who were included in the analysis, 89 had pregnancy outcome information available, which allowed for the assessment of the presence of Zika-associated birth defects. Zika-associated birth defects were significantly (P<.05) more common among pregnancies with Zika virus RNA detected in amniotic fluid specimens collected prenatally (19/32 specimens; 59%) than for those with no laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection in any specimen (6/23 specimens; 26%), but the proportion was similar in pregnancies with only Zika virus RNA detected in specimens other than amniotic fluid (10/23 specimens; 43%). Although Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with any Zika virus RNA detected in amniotic fluid specimens (ie, collected prenatally or at delivery; 21/43 specimens; 49%) than those with no laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection (6/23 specimens; 26%), this comparison did not reach statistical significance (P=.07). CONCLUSION: Testing of amniotic fluid provided additional evidence for maternal diagnosis of Zika virus infection. Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with Zika virus RNA that was detected in prenatal amniotic fluid specimens than women with no laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, but similar to women with Zika virus RNA detected in other, nonamniotic fluid specimen types.

3.
J Pediatr ; 217: 196-198, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668481

RESUMEN

Neonatal withdrawal can be difficult to treat in infants with co-exposure to opiates and gabapentin. Because maternal self-report can underestimate exposures, we evaluated the effect of universal toxicology screening for gabapentin. Identification of co-exposure to opiates and gabapentin increased after implementation of toxicology screening, with implications for improved neonatal care.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 697-705, 2020 02 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860793

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung. METHODS: BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes. RESULTS: State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).


Asunto(s)
Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/patología , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/química , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Vitamina E/análisis , Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Fumar Cigarrillos , Aceite de Coco/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Limoneno/análisis , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
5.
Open J Obstet Gynecol ; 9(5): 698-706, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799062

RESUMEN

Background: Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy is known to cause birth defects and could also be linked to pregnancy loss. Case: A pregnant woman in Puerto Rico contracted ZIKV at 16 weeks gestation. ZIKV RNA persisted in serum from her initial test at 16 weeks through 24 weeks gestation, when fetal demise occurred, and was detected in placental tissue. Conclusion: Prolonged detection of ZIKV RNA in maternal serum was associated with ZIKV RNA detection in the placenta of a patient who experienced fetal demise. While detection of placenta ZIKV RNA does not establish that ZIKV conclusively caused the demise, these findings support emerging evidence that the placenta may serve as a reservoir for ZIKV, which may be associated with prolonged detection of ZIKV RNA in serum.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 985-989, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671085

RESUMEN

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, state and local health departments, and other public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a national outbreak of electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). As of October 22, 2019, 49 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and the U.S. Virgin Islands have reported 1,604 cases of EVALI to CDC, including 34 (2.1%) EVALI-associated deaths in 24 states. Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, this report updates data on patient characteristics and substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2) and describes characteristics of EVALI-associated deaths. The median age of EVALI patients who survived was 23 years, and the median age of EVALI patients who died was 45 years. Among 867 (54%) EVALI patients with available data on use of specific e-cigarette, or vaping, products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset, 86% reported any use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products, 64% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, and 52% reported use of both. Exclusive use of THC-containing products was reported by 34% of patients and exclusive use of nicotine-containing products by 11%, and for 2% of patients, no use of either THC- or nicotine-containing products was reported. Among 19 EVALI patients who died and for whom substance use data were available, 84% reported any use of THC-containing products, including 63% who reported exclusive use of THC-containing products; 37% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, including 16% who reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products. To date, no single compound or ingredient used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products has emerged as the cause of EVALI, and there might be more than one cause. Because most patients reported using THC-containing products before symptom onset, CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC. In addition, because the specific compound or ingredient causing lung injury is not yet known, and while the investigation continues, persons should consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Dronabinol/toxicidad , Femenino , Humanos , Lesión Pulmonar/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(36): 787-790, 2019 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513561

RESUMEN

On September 6, 2019, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website (https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr). As of August 27, 2019, 215 possible cases of severe pulmonary disease associated with the use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products (e.g., devices, liquids, refill pods, and cartridges) had been reported to CDC by 25 state health departments. E-cigarettes are devices that produce an aerosol by heating a liquid containing various chemicals, including nicotine, flavorings, and other additives (e.g., propellants, solvents, and oils). Users inhale the aerosol, including any additives, into their lungs. Aerosols produced by e-cigarettes can contain harmful or potentially harmful substances, including heavy metals such as lead, volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles, cancer-causing chemicals, or other agents such as chemicals used for cleaning the device (1). E-cigarettes also can be used to deliver tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis, or other drugs; for example, "dabbing" involves superheating substances that contain high concentrations of THC and other plant compounds (e.g., cannabidiol) with the intent of inhaling the aerosol. E-cigarette users could potentially add other substances to the devices. This report summarizes available information and provides interim case definitions and guidance for reporting possible cases of severe pulmonary disease. The guidance in this report reflects data available as of September 6, 2019; guidance will be updated as additional information becomes available.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(8): 1031-1036, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408424

RESUMEN

Recent public health emergencies have highlighted the unique vulnerabilities of pregnant women and infants to emerging health threats and the critical role of public health surveillance. Surveillance systems can collect critical data to measure the impact of a disease or disaster and can be used to inform clinical guidance and prevention strategies. These systems can also be tailored to collect data on vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and their infants. Novel surveillance systems to assess risks and outcomes of pregnant women and infants have been established during public health emergencies but typically cease data collection once the public health response has ended, limiting our ability to collect data to understand longer-term outcomes. State-based birth defects surveillance systems are not available in all states, and no national surveillance system linking pregnancy exposure data to longitudinal outcomes for infants and children exists. In this report, we describe ongoing surveillance efforts to monitor congenital syphilis, Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. We describe the need and rationale for an ongoing integrated surveillance system to monitor pregnant women and their infants and to detect emerging threats. We also discuss how data collected through this type of system can better position federal, state, and local health departments to more rapidly and comprehensively respond to the next public health emergency.

11.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 144(2): 225-231, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467853

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of stillbirth and neonatal death reporting and testing for Ebola virus during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Sierra Leone. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using information from the Sierra Leone National Ebola Laboratory database to identify stillbirths and neonatal deaths that had been tested for Ebola virus from July 2, 2014, to October 18, 2015. Outcomes included the percentage of all tested deaths attributable to stillbirths and neonatal deaths, the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths attributable to Ebola virus, and the annualized rate of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. RESULTS: In total, 1726 stillbirths and 4708 neonatal deaths were tested for Ebola virus, representing 2.6% and 7.2% of the total deaths tested (n=65 585), respectively. Of these, 25 stillbirths and neonatal deaths tested positive, accounting for 0.3% of EVD cases. In 2015, the annualized total number of reported stillbirths was higher than expected (3079 vs 1634), whereas reported neonatal deaths were lower (6351 vs 7770). CONCLUSIONS: Stillbirth and neonatal death reporting and testing improved over time. Systematic recording of these indicators might be used alongside retrospective surveillance to respond to the adverse effects of EVD on maternal and child health and guide response efforts for subsequent outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Muerte Perinatal , Mortinato/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sierra Leona/epidemiología
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1882-1889, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070773

RESUMEN

Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) was identified following a large Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil in 2015. Two children with clinical presentations consistent with CZS, ages 7 and 8 years old, are described. Both mothers lived in Cambodia, a region with known ZIKV, during their pregnancies and reported fever and rash in the second trimester. The infants were born with severe microcephaly. Testing for congenital infection at birth and genetic testing were unremarkable. In 2017, serologic testing for both mothers were consistent with prior ZIKV infection. Review of infant neuroimaging demonstrated ventriculomegaly, severe cerebral atrophy, and subcortical calcifications consistent with CZS. Given the maternal symptoms suggesting ZIKV infection during pregnancy and the combination of clinical and radiological features unique to CZS, CZS is strongly suspected in these children, suggesting that CZS occurred before the 2013-2014 French Polynesia outbreak. As such, CZS should be considered in older children with congenital microcephaly of unknown etiology and a history consistent with possible ZIKV exposure.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología , Virus Zika , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Preescolar , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Facies , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/etiología , Fenotipo , Embarazo , Síndrome , Carga Viral , Ensayo de Placa Viral , Virus Zika/fisiología
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(32): 898-902, 2018 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114001

RESUMEN

Ensuring access to and promoting use of effective contraception have been identified as important strategies for preventing unintended pregnancy (1). The importance of ensuring resources to prevent unintended pregnancy in the context of public health emergencies was highlighted during the 2016 Zika virus outbreak when Zika virus infection during pregnancy was identified as a cause of serious birth defects (2). Accordingly, CDC outlined strategies for state, local, and territorial jurisdictions to consider implementing to ensure access to contraception (3). To update previously published contraceptive use estimates* among women at risk for unintended pregnancy† and to estimate the number of women with ongoing or potential need for contraceptive services,§,¶ data on contraceptive use were collected during September-December 2016 through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Results from 21 jurisdictions indicated that most women aged 18-49 years were at risk for unintended pregnancy (range across jurisdictions = 57.4%-76.8%). Estimates of the number of women with ongoing or potential need for contraceptive services ranged from 368 to 617 per 1,000 women aged 18-49 years. The percentage of women at risk for unintended pregnancy using a most or moderately effective contraceptive method** ranged from 26.1% to 65.7%. Jurisdictions can use this information to estimate the number of women who might seek contraceptive services and to plan and evaluate efforts to increase contraceptive use. This information is particularly important in the context of public health emergencies, such as the recent Zika virus outbreak, which have been associated with increased risk for adverse maternal-infant outcomes (2,4-6) and have highlighted the importance of providing women and their partners with resources to prevent unintended pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Urgencias Médicas , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Embarazo no Planeado , Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(31): 868-871, 2018 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091965

RESUMEN

Zika virus infection can occur as a result of mosquitoborne or sexual transmission of the virus. Infection during pregnancy is a cause of fetal brain abnormalities and other serious birth defects (1,2). CDC has updated the interim guidance for men with possible Zika virus exposure who 1) are planning to conceive with their partner, or 2) want to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus at any time (3). CDC now recommends that men with possible Zika virus exposure who are planning to conceive with their partner wait for at least 3 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or their last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) before engaging in unprotected sex. CDC now also recommends that for couples who are not trying to conceive, men can consider using condoms or abstaining from sex for at least 3 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or their last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) to minimize their risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus. All other guidance for Zika virus remains unchanged. The definition of possible Zika virus exposure remains unchanged and includes travel to or residence in an area with risk for Zika virus transmission (https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/world-map-areas-with-zika) or sex without a condom with a partner who traveled to or lives in an area with risk for Zika virus transmission. CDC will continue to update recommendations as new information becomes available.


Asunto(s)
Consejo Dirigido , Atención Preconceptiva , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(1): 18-22, 2018 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324733

RESUMEN

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4). To assess the effects of these recommendations, CDC analyzed the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* to examine antibiotic prescriptions filled by pregnant women with UTIs. Among 482,917 pregnancies in 2014, 7.2% of women had an outpatient UTI diagnosis during the 90 days before the date of last menstrual period (LMP) or during pregnancy. Among pregnant women with UTIs, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics during the first trimester were nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Given the potential risks associated with use of some of these antibiotics in early pregnancy and the potential for unrecognized pregnancy, women's health care providers should be familiar with the ACOG recommendations and consider the possibility of early pregnancy when treating women of reproductive age.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Sector Privado , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Embarazo , Primer Trimestre del Embarazo , Estados Unidos
16.
J Infect Dis ; 216(suppl_10): S875-S883, 2017 12 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267909

RESUMEN

For >60 years, Zika virus (ZIKV) has been recognized as an arthropod-borne virus with Aedes species mosquitoes as the primary vector. However in the past 10 years, multiple alternative routes of ZIKV transmission have been identified. We review the available data on vector and non-vector-borne modes of transmission and interventions undertaken, to date, to reduce the risk of human infection through these routes. Although much has been learned during the outbreak in the Americas on the underlying mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-vector-borne ZIKV infections, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the relative incidence of, and risk from, these modes compared to mosquito transmission. Additional research is urgently needed on the risk, pathogenesis, and effectiveness of measures to mitigate non-vector-borne ZIKV transmission.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión , Virus Zika/fisiología , Américas , Animales , Humanos , Incidencia , Riesgo , Virus Zika/patogenicidad , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
17.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 26(11): 1141-1145, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29140769

RESUMEN

Previous outbreaks suggest that pregnant women with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are at increased risk for severe disease and death. Healthcare workers who treat pregnant women with EVD are at increased risk of body fluid exposure. Despite the absence of pregnant women with EVD in the United States, CDC activated the Maternal Health Team (MHT), a functional unit dedicated to emergency preparedness and response issues, on October 18, 2014. We describe major activities of the MHT. A high-priority MHT activity was to publish guiding principles early in the response. The MHT also prepared guidance documents, provided guidance and technical support for hospital preparedness, and addressed inquiries. We analyzed maternal health inquiries received through CDC-INFO, MHT, and CDC's Medical Investigations Team from August 2014 to December 2015. Internal call logs used to capture, monitor, and track inquiries for the three data sources were merged. Inquiries not related to maternal health issues and duplicates were removed. Each inquiry was categorized by route (email/phone), inquirer type, and topic. In total, 201 inquiries were received from clinicians, public health professionals, and the public. The predominant topic was related to infection control for high-risk situations such as labor and delivery. During the Ebola response, most inquiries were received via email rather than telephone, a notable shift compared to the H1N1 emergency response. Lessons learned during the H1N1 and Ebola responses are currently informing CDC's Zika Response, an unprecedented emergency response primarily focused on reproductive health issues.


Asunto(s)
/organización & administración , Epidemias/prevención & control , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/prevención & control , Salud Materna , Mujeres Embarazadas , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Humanos , Embarazo , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(44): 1230-1235, 2017 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121000

RESUMEN

Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities (1). To support state and territory response to the threat of Zika, CDC's Interim Zika Response Plan outlined activities for vector control; clinical management of exposed pregnant women and infants; targeted communication about Zika virus transmission among women and men of reproductive age; and primary prevention of Zika-related adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes by prevention of unintended pregnancies through increased access to contraception.* The most highly effective,† reversible contraception includes intrauterine devices and implants, known as long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). On September 28, 2016, the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs (AMCHP) and CDC facilitated a meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, of representatives from 15 states to identify state-led efforts to implement seven CDC-published strategies aimed at increasing access to contraception in the context of Zika virus (2). Qualitative data were collected from participating jurisdictions. The number of states reporting implementation of each strategy ranged from four to 11. Participants identified numerous challenges, particularly for strategies implemented less frequently. Examples of barriers were discussed and presented with corresponding approaches to address each barrier. Addressing these barriers could facilitate increased access to contraception, which might decrease the number of unintended pregnancies affected by Zika virus.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Gobierno Local , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Gobierno Estatal , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Embarazo no Planeado , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(41): 1089-1099, 2017 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049277

RESUMEN

CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants with possible congenital Zika virus infection (1) in response to recently published updated guidance for health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure (2), unknown sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests for congenital Zika virus infection, and recognition of additional clinical findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection. All infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus exposure* during pregnancy should receive a standard evaluation at birth and at each subsequent well-child visit including a comprehensive physical examination, age-appropriate vision screening and developmental monitoring and screening using validated tools (3-5), and newborn hearing screen at birth, preferably using auditory brainstem response (ABR) methodology (6). Specific guidance for laboratory testing and clinical evaluation are provided for three clinical scenarios in the setting of possible maternal Zika virus exposure: 1) infants with clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome regardless of maternal testing results, 2) infants without clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome who were born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection,† and 3) infants without clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome who were born to mothers without laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection. Infants in the first two scenarios should receive further testing and evaluation for Zika virus, whereas for the third group, further testing and clinical evaluation for Zika virus are not recommended. Health care providers should remain alert for abnormal findings (e.g., postnatal-onset microcephaly and eye abnormalities without microcephaly) in infants with possible congenital Zika virus exposure without apparent abnormalities at birth.


Asunto(s)
Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Infección por el Virus Zika/congénito , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Estados Unidos , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Infección por el Virus Zika/terapia
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(29): 781-793, 2017 Jul 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749921

RESUMEN

CDC has updated the interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure in response to 1) declining prevalence of Zika virus disease in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) and 2) emerging evidence indicating prolonged detection of Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Zika virus cases were first reported in the Americas during 2015-2016; however, the incidence of Zika virus disease has since declined. As the prevalence of Zika virus disease declines, the likelihood of false-positive test results increases. In addition, emerging epidemiologic and laboratory data indicate that, as is the case with other flaviviruses, Zika virus IgM antibodies can persist beyond 12 weeks after infection. Therefore, IgM test results cannot always reliably distinguish between an infection that occurred during the current pregnancy and one that occurred before the current pregnancy, particularly for women with possible Zika virus exposure before the current pregnancy. These limitations should be considered when counseling pregnant women about the risks and benefits of testing for Zika virus infection during pregnancy. This updated guidance emphasizes a shared decision-making model for testing and screening pregnant women, one in which patients and providers work together to make decisions about testing and care plans based on patient preferences and values, clinical judgment, and a balanced assessment of risks and expected outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Estados Unidos
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