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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806426

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between statin use and cognitive change, as well as diagnostic conversion, in individuals with cognitively normal (CN) status, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD-dementia). METHODS: A multicenter cohort study with 1629 adults 48 to 91 years old with CN status, early MCI (EMCI), late MCI (LMCI), or AD-dementia at baseline followed prospectively for 24 months. Statin use was assessed at baseline, and cognition was measured over time with a composite memory score, a composite executive function score, and a global cognition score (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale). Conversion to a more impaired diagnostic category was determined by clinician assessment. Repeated measures linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between statin use and change in cognition over time. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations between statin use and time to diagnostic conversion. All models were stratified by baseline diagnostic group. RESULTS: Statin use was not associated with change in cognitive measures for CN, LMCI, or AD-dementia participants. Among EMCI participants, statin use was associated with a significantly slower rate of decline on the memory composite, but no other cognitive measure. Statin use was not associated with time to conversion for any diagnostic group. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support an association between statin use and diagnostic conversion but suggested a possible association between statin use and cognitive change in EMCI. Additional randomized clinical trials of statins may be warranted in the prodromal EMCI stage of AD.

2.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(5): 6435, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333246

RESUMEN

Objective. To develop a brief instrument for academic pharmacists or physicians to use in assessing postgraduate residents' knowledge of polypharmacy. Methods. Five clinicians used a modified Delphi process to create a 26-item multiple-choice test to assess knowledge of polypharmacy in geriatric primary care. The test was distributed to 74 participants: 37 internal medicine (MD) residents, six nurse practitioner (NP) residents, nine primary care attendings, 12 pharmacists and pharmacy residents, and 10 geriatrics attendings and fellows. Construct validity was assessed using factor analysis and item response theory. Overall group differences were examined using a Kruskal-Wallis test, and between group differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results. The response rate for the survey was 89%. Factor analysis resulted in a one factor solution. Item response theory modeling yielded a 12-item and six-item test. For the 12-item test, the mean scores of geriatricians and pharmacists (88%) were higher than those of MD and NP residents (58%) and primary care attendings (61%). No differences were found between MD and NP residents and primary care attendings. Findings for the six-item test were similar. Conclusion. Both the 12-item and six-item versions of this polypharmacy test showed acceptable internal consistency and known groups validity and could be used in other academic settings. The similar scores between MD and NP residents and primary care attendings, which were significantly lower than scores for pharmacists and geriatricians, support the need for increased educational interventions.

3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(7): 1220-1227, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972554

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are increasingly common and associated with adverse health effects. However, post-graduate education in polypharmacy and complex medication management for older adults remain limited. OBJECTIVE: The Initiative to Minimize Pharmaceutical Risk in Older Veterans (IMPROVE) polypharmacy clinic was created to provide a platform for teaching internal medicine (IM) and nurse practitioner (NP) residents about outpatient medication management and deprescribing for older adults. We aimed to assess residents' knowledge of polypharmacy and perceptions of this interprofessional education intervention. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study with an internal comparison group. PARTICIPANTS: IM residents and NP residents; Veterans ≥ 65 years and taking ≥ 10 medications. INTERVENTION: IMPROVE consists of a pre-clinic conference, shared medical appointment, individual appointment, and interprofessional precepting model. MAIN MEASURES: We assessed residents' performance on a pre-post knowledge test, residents' qualitative assessment of the educational impact of IMPROVE, and the number and type of medications discontinued or decreased. KEY RESULTS: The IMPROVE intervention group (n = 18) had a significantly greater improvement in test scores than the control group (n = 18) (14% ± 15% versus - 1.3% ± 16%) over a period of 6 months (Wilcoxon rank sum, p = 0.019). In focus groups, residents (n = 17) reported perceived improvements in knowledge and skills, noting that the experience changed their practice in other clinical settings. In addition, residents valued the unique interprofessional experience. Veterans (n = 71) had a median of 15 medications (IQR 12-19), and a median of 2 medications (IQR 1-3) was discontinued. Vitamins, supplements, and cardiovascular medications were the most commonly discontinued medications, and cardiovascular medications were the most commonly decreased in dose or frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, IMPROVE is an effective model of post-graduate primary care training in complex medication management and deprescribing that improves residents' knowledge and skills, and is perceived by residents to influence their practice outside the program.

4.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 10: 2042098618815431, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719279

RESUMEN

Polypharmacy is common among older adults and is associated with adverse outcomes. Polypharmacy increases the likelihood of receiving a potentially inappropriate medication (PIM). PIMs have traditionally been defined as medications that have either no benefit (e.g. therapeutic duplication) or increased risk (e.g. altered pharmacodynamics/kinetics with aging). A growing literature supports the notion that these represent only a subset of the potential risks of medications prescribed to older adults. Different authors have proposed new sets of criteria for evaluating medication appropriateness. This narrative review had two objectives: 1) to summarize the contents of these criteria in order to obtain preliminary information about where clinical consensus exists regarding appropriateness; 2) The second was to describe studies examining the risks and benefits of medications identified by the criteria to determine the strength of the evidence supporting the derivation of these criteria. We identified 13 articles sharing overlapping criteria for evaluating appropriateness including: (1) delayed time to benefit; (2) altered benefit-harm ratios in the face of competing risks; (3) effects that do not match patients' goals; and (4) nonadherence. The similarities across the articles suggested strong clinical consensus; however, the articles presented little data directly supporting these criteria. Additional studies provide evidence for the proof of concept that average estimates of benefit and harm derived from randomized controlled trials may differ from the benefits and harms experienced by older persons. However, more data are required to characterize the benefits and harms of medications in the context of the regimen as a whole and the individual's health status.

5.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(6): 1123-1127, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697698

RESUMEN

Older adults are prescribed a growing number of medications. Polypharmacy, commonly considered the receipt of five or more medications, is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. There is a debate about the reason(s) why. On one side is the assertion that older persons are being prescribed too many medications, with the number of medications increasing the risk of adverse events. On the other side is the observation that polypharmacy is associated both with overprescribing of inappropriate medications and underprescribing of appropriate medications. This leads to the concept of "inappropriate" vs "appropriate" polypharmacy, with the latter resulting from the prescription of many correct medications to persons with multiple chronic conditions. Few studies have examined the health outcomes associated with adding and/or removing medications to address this debate directly. The criteria used to identify underutilized medications are based on results of randomized controlled trials that may not be generalizable to older adults. Several randomized controlled trials and many more observational studies provide evidence that these criteria overestimate medication benefits and underestimate harms. In addition, evidence suggests that the marginal effects of medications added to an already complex regimen differ from their effects when considered individually. Although in selected circumstances adding medications results in benefit to patients, patients with multimorbidity and frailty/disability have susceptibilities that can decrease the likelihood of medication benefit and increase the likelihood of harms. The identification of appropriate polypharmacy requires more robust criteria to evaluate the net effects of complex medication regimens.

6.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 45(3-4): 232-242, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886490

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between sleep disturbance and cognitive decline or clinical conversion in individuals with normal cognition (CN), as well as those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD-dementia). METHODS: Secondary analysis of 1,629 adults between 48 and 91 years of age with up to 24 months of follow-up from the ADNI (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative), a longitudinal cohort study. RESULTS: Sleep disturbance was not associated with decline in memory, executive function, or global cognition. The presence of sleep disturbance did not significantly increase the risk of diagnostic conversion in CN, early MCI, or late MCI participants. CONCLUSION: This study investigated the effect of sleep disturbance on cognitive decline using several outcomes and does not support the hypothesis that sleep disturbance predicts subsequent cognitive decline.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva , Función Ejecutiva , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Estadística como Asunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Fed Pract ; 35(11): 40-47, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766331

RESUMEN

An interprofessional polypharmacy clinic for intensive management of medication regimens helps high-risk patients manage their medications.

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