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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 64, 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906688

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mental distress among university students in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing; however, the majority do not receive evidence-based psychological intervention. This calls for the provision of culturally adapted psychological therapy in higher education institutions in LMICs. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of Interpersonal Psychotherapy adapted for Ethiopia (IPT-E) among Wolaita Sodo University students and to assess the preliminary outcomes of IPT-E in reducing symptoms of mental distress and in improving functioning. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental single-group pre-post-test study design. As indicators of feasibility of IPT-E, we used consent, treatment completion and attrition. We used Client Satisfaction Questionnaire and semi-structured interview to measure the acceptability of the intervention, self-reporting IPT-E checklist to assess treatment adherence and World Health Organization Disability Assessment and Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 tools to assess functional impairment and mental distress, respectively. We used percentage, frequency, mean and standard deviation to summarize the demographic variables, feasibility and acceptability of IPT-E. We analyzed changes from pre- to post-tests of mental distress and functioning results using paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Independent sample t-test and one way-ANOVA used to assess the difference in mean score of in demographic variables at baseline and eight weeks. The qualitative data was analyzed with the support of open code 4.02. RESULTS: IPT-E was feasible (consent rate = 100%; completion rate = 92.31%; attrition rate = 7.69%; mean score of the sessions = 8 and mode of the session = 8). The total mean score of treatment satisfaction was 27.83 (SD = 4.47). After the delivery of IPT-E, symptoms of mental distress were decreased, functioning was improved and therapist adherence to the treatment model was 100% (i.e. treatment delivered according to the IPT-E guideline). CONCLUSION: IPT-E was feasible and acceptable to treat university students with mental distress in low-income country setting. The preliminary results also suggest promising viability of IPT-E in higher education institutions of low-income country setting for students with symptoms of anxiety and depression.


Asunto(s)
Psicoterapia Interpersonal , Etiopía , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Psicoterapia , Estudiantes , Universidades
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101023, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872862

RESUMEN

Currently, there is a need for more and better poultry health services in Ethiopia. However, nationwide data showing the weaknesses of poultry health services are scanty. Hence, availability of diagnostic, vaccination, and clinical services for poultry was assessed. Focus group discussions and household questionnaire survey were conducted with poultry keepers in 10 districts. Lack of poultry health experts, clinical services, drugs, vaccination, and knowledge and skills were identified as top five key findings. In total, 31.6% of respondents reported availability of poultry diagnosis service. Having flock size of 11-20 chickens had higher probabilities of accessing better diagnosis service (AOR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.12-3.64). Access to diagnosis was directly linked with the availability of veterinary clinics in their localities (AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.16-6.63). Moreover, low access to treatment services (22.98%) was reported and traditional remedies with priority index of 0.68 were reported to be the most commonly used. Chicken flocks with a history of disease occurrence were more likely to have a decision to go for modern treatment services (AOR = 4.26; 95% CI: 2.28-7.95). Only 35.7% of chicken keepers had their flocks vaccinated, and this was irregularly and randomly given, mainly against Newcastle disease. Only 52.9% of them were vaccinated by trained animal health experts. Chicken flocks with availability of veterinary clinics within 5 km were more likely (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.03-2.54) to have access to vaccination services. Only 53.0% of the chicken flocks had availability of clinics and chicken flocks in Tigray (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.03- 4.52) and Oromia (AOR = 5.74; 95%CI: 2.51-13.10) had better availability of clinics. Chicken flocks found in Bako district were less likely (AOR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.18-0.92). The low availability of diagnostic, vaccination, and clinical services shows that poultry health services in Ethiopia have not received attention despite its top national agenda. Hence, the existing low poultry health services need to be solved through public-private partnership, producing adequate poultry health experts, availing vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics in the local markets.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247312, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630891

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma constitutes a major public health problem and developmental challenges in the majority of developing and subtropical regions. The World Health Organization has set guidelines for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Ethiopia is providing school-based Mass Drug Administration (MDA) at the study areas of the Abbey and Didessa Valleys of western Ethiopian since 2015. Moreover, mass treatment was already done in the same villages 30 years ago. However, the current Schistosoma mansoni infection status among humans and snails in the study areas is not known. Hence, the present study aims to determine the current status. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the three communities; Chessega, Agallu Metti and Shimala in Schistosoma mansoni endemic areas of the Abbey and Didessa valleys in Western Ethiopia. Using the list of households obtained from the Kebele administration, a systematic sampling technique was used to select households in each village. RESULTS: Even though the area is under the Ethiopian national Mass Drug Administration campaign, the present study reports prevalence above 50%. Although the majority of the infections were moderate, we found that 13% had heavy infection, above 400 eggs per gram of stool, which is at the same level as before the treatment campaign 30 years ago. The infection was significantly higher among those below 12 years of age, among non-attending school-age children and daily laborers. CONCLUSION: Schistosoma mansoni infection is still a public health problem in the study areas, despite control efforts already 30 years ago and present mass treatment in the last years. We suggest making the mass treatment campaign just early after the rainy season, when the snails are washed away. This should be supplemented with provisions of clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and reduction of water contact and possible snail control efforts' to prevent reinfection.

4.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 7(1): 35, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514447

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite a high prevalence of antenatal depression in low- and middle-income countries, there is very little evidence for contextually adapted psychological interventions delivered in rural African settings. The aims of this study are (1) to examine the feasibility of procedures for a future fully powered efficacy trial of contextually adapted brief problem solving therapy (PST) for antenatal depression in rural Ethiopia, and (2) to investigate the acceptability, fidelity and feasibility of delivery of PST in routine antenatal care. METHODS: Design: A randomised, controlled, feasibility trial and mixed method process evaluation. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive women attending antenatal clinics in two primary care facilities in rural Ethiopian districts. Eligibility criteria: (1) disabling levels of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score of five or more and positive for the 10th disability item); (2) gestational age 12-34 weeks; (3) aged 16 years and above; (4) planning to live in the study area for at least 6 months; (5) no severe medical or psychiatric conditions. INTERVENTION: Four sessions of adapted PST delivered by trained and supervised antenatal care staff over a maximum period of eight weeks. CONTROL: enhanced usual care (EUC). SAMPLE SIZE: n = 50. Randomisation: individual randomisation stratified by intimate partner violence (IPV). Allocation: central phone allocation. Outcome assessors and statistician masked to allocation status. Primary feasibility trial outcome: dropout rate. Primary future efficacy trial outcome: change in PHQ-9 score, assessed 9 weeks after recruitment. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: anxiety symptoms, trauma symptoms, intimate partner violence, disability, healthcare costs at 9 weeks; postnatal outcomes (perinatal and neonatal complications, onset of breast feeding, child health) assessed 4-6 weeks postnatal. Other trial feasibility indicators: recruitment, number and duration of sessions attended. Audio-recording of randomly selected sessions and in-depth interviews with purposively selected participants, healthcare providers and supervisors will be analysed thematically to explore the acceptability and feasibility of the trial procedures and fidelity of the delivery of PST. DISCUSSION: The findings of the study will be used to inform the design of a fully powered efficacy trial of brief PST for antenatal depression in routine care in rural Ethiopia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol was registered in the Pan-African clinical trials registry, (PACTR): registration number: PACTR202008712234907 on 18/08/2020; URL: https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=9578 .

5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0238137, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471799

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence from high-income countries demonstrates that co-morbid mental disorders in people with epilepsy adversely affect clinical and social outcomes. However, evidence from low-income countries is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure the association between co-morbid mental disorders and quality of life and functioning in people with epilepsy. METHODS: A facility-based, community ascertained cross-sectional survey was carried out in selected districts of the Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Participants were identified in the community and referred to primary health care (PHC) clinics. Those diagnosed by PHC workers were recruited. Co-morbid mental disorders were measured using a standardised, semi-structured clinical interview administered by mental health professionals. The main outcome, quality of life, was measured using the Quality of Life in Epilepsy questionnaire (QOLIE-10p). The secondary outcome, functional disability, was assessed using the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-2). RESULTS: The prevalence of comorbid mental disorders was 13.9%. Comorbid mental disorders were associated with poorer quality of life (Adjusted (Adj.) ß -13.27; 95% CI -23.28 to-3.26) and greater disability (multiplier of WHODAS-2 score 1.62; 95% CI 1.05, 2.50) after adjusting for hypothesised confounding factors. Low or very low relative wealth (Adj. ß = -12.57, 95% CI -19.94 to-5.20), higher seizure frequency (Adj.ß coef. = -1.92, 95% CI -2.83 to -1.02), and poor to intermediate social support (Adj. ß coef. = -9.66, 95% CI -16.51 to -2.81) were associated independently with decreased quality of life. Higher seizure frequency (multiplier of WHODAS-2 score 1.11; 95% CI 1.04, 1.19) was associated independently with functional disability. CONCLUSION: Co-morbid mental disorders were associated with poorer quality of life and impairment, independent of level of seizure control. Integrated and comprehensive psychosocial care is required for better health and social outcomes of people with epilepsy.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Adulto , Comorbilidad/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Prevalencia , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 92, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415465

RESUMEN

West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases of veterinary and public health importance in Africa. Despite the existence of potential vectors and a wide range of hosts, the transmission of these diseases in domestic animals has not been well documented in the South Omo area of Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies produced against West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infections among cattle in the South Omo area. Between May and June 2019, blood samples were collected from 397 cattle and screened for IgG antibodies against WNV and RVFV infections using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall sero-prevalence of IgG antibody to WNV infection was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.67-6.88%), while it was 5.0% to RVFV infection (95% CI: 2.87-7.18). Compared to 1-3 years old cattle, those in the age group ≥ 7 years had significantly higher odds of being positive for WNV (AOR = 6.82; 95% CI: 1.72-26.99) and RVFV (AOR = 4.38; 95% CI: 1.08-17.88) infections. The occurrence of WNV and RVFV infections in cattle population in the present study area indicates the risk of transmission to humans. Strengthening the surveillance system and conducting further studies to identify active cases in domestic and wild animals as well as in humans is crucial to reduce the risk of possible outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/epidemiología , Virus de la Fiebre del Valle del Rift/fisiología , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/veterinaria , Virus del Nilo Occidental/fisiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/virología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/epidemiología , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/virología
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 54, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389207

RESUMEN

Poultry production contributes significantly to the livelihoods of Ethiopian farmers and to the national economy although it is hampered by different factors, including poultry diseases. There is scarcity of published evidences on the occurrence and impacts of poultry diseases although such evidences are important for policy makers in designing appropriate interventions. A total of 595 households were interviewed and 11 FGDs were conducted to collect data on the occurrence of diseases and the number of dead chickens in the last 12 months. Hence, respiratory diseases, sudden death, and eye-face-head diseases were mentioned in all of the FGDs as the most frequently occurring disease in the districts. Of households interviewed, 86.1% reported poultry disease occurrence in the last 12 months, and gastrointestinal, eye-face-head, and neurological diseases were identified to be the top three ranked diseases of chickens in the districts. Flocks with access to diagnostic services (Adj. OR = 4.16; P = 0.004) and/or access to animal health providers (Adj. OR = 10.50; P = 0.001) were more likely to report disease occurrence. In the studied population, the diseases resulted in deaths of 2219 chickens valued at 352,219.5 Birr (11,740.65 USD) and a mean crude mortality of 31.87%. Female-lead households (mean difference = 5.95%; P = 0.018) and multiple age units present on the farm (mean difference = 20.92%; P = < 0.000) had higher chicken mortality. Similarly, higher mortality was reported in flocks without access to diagnosis (mean difference = 9.97%; P = < 0.000) and vaccination (mean difference = 12.34%; P = < 0.000) services. The high occurrence of disease and mortalities might be explained by a lack of an organized poultry health service delivery system in the country. Therefore, a carefully designed health service delivery system addressing needs of poultry producers, supported by relevant policy and corresponding strategies, is recommended to address the indicated challenges. Moreover, private health providers with well-defined roles need to be engaged to successfully and sustainably solve the poultry disease problems.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Granjas/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/mortalidad , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Agricultores , Granjas/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/economía , Productos Avícolas , Vacunación/veterinaria
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 36, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413297

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Africa's economic transformation relies on a radical transformation of its higher education institutions. The establishment of regional higher education Centres of Excellence (CoE) across Africa through a World Bank support aims to stimulate the needed transformation in education and research. However, excellence is a vague, and often indiscriminately used concept in academic circles. More importantly, the manner in which aspiring institutions can achieve academic excellence is described inadequately. The main objective of this paper is to describe the core processes of excellence as a prerequisite to establishing academic CoE in Africa. METHODS: The paper relies on our collaborative discussions and real-world insight into the pursuit of academic excellence, a narrative review using Pubmed search for a contextual understanding of CoEs in Africa supplemented by a Google search for definitions of CoEs in academic contexts. RESULTS: We identified three key, synergistic processes of excellence central to institutionalizing academic CoEs: participatory leadership, knowledge management, and inter-disciplinary collaboration. (1) Participatory leadership encourages innovations to originate from the different parts of the organization, and facilitates ownership as well as a culture of excellence. (2) Centers of Excellence are future-oriented in that they are constantly seeking to achieve best practices, informed by the most up-to-date and cutting-edge research and information available. As such, the process by which centres facilitate the flow of knowledge within and outside the organization, or knowledge management, is critical to their success. (3) Such centres also rely on expertise from different disciplines and 'engaged' scholarship. This multidisciplinarity leads to improved research productivity and enhances the production of problem-solving innovations. CONCLUSION: Participatory leadership, knowledge management, and inter-disciplinary collaborations are prerequisites to establishing academic CoEs in Africa. Future studies need to extend our findings to understand the processes key to productivity, competitiveness, institutionalization, and sustainability of academic CoEs in Africa.

9.
Proteome Sci ; 18(1): 10, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292280

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world's most problematic infectious diseases. The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is contained by the immune system in people with latent TB infection (LTBI). No overt disease symptoms occur. The environmental and internal triggers leading to reactivation of TB are not well understood. Non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria (NTM) can also cause TB-like lung disease. Comparative analysis of blood plasma proteomes from subjects afflicted by these pathologies in an endemic setting may yield new differentiating biomarkers and insights into inflammatory and immunological responses to Mtb and NTM. METHODS: Blood samples from 40 human subjects in a pastoral region of Ethiopia were treated with the ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigen cocktail to stimulate anti-Mtb and anti-NTM immune responses. In addition to those of active TB, LTBI, and NTM cohorts, samples from matched healthy control (HC) subjects were available. Following the generation of sample pools, proteomes were analyzed via LC-MS/MS. These experiments were also performed without antigen stimulation steps. Statistically significant differences using the Z-score method were determined and interpreted in the context of the proteins' functions and their contributions to biological pathways. RESULTS: More than 200 proteins were identified from unstimulated and stimulated plasma samples (UPSs and SPSs, respectively). Thirty-four and 64 proteins were differentially abundant with statistical significance (P < 0.05; Benjamini-Hochberg correction with an FDR < 0.05) comparing UPS and SPS proteomic data of four groups, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of such proteins via the Gene Ontology Resource was indicative of changes in cellular and metabolic processes, responses to stimuli, and biological regulations. The m7GpppN-mRNA hydrolase was increased in abundance in the LTBI group compared to HC subjects. Charged multivesicular body protein 4a and platelet factor-4 were increased in abundance in NTM as compared to HC and decreased in abundance in NTM as compared to active TB. C-reactive protein, α-1-acid glycoprotein 1, sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 16, and vitamin K-dependent protein S were also increased (P < 0.05; fold changes≥2) in SPSs and UPSs comparing active TB with LTBI and NTM cases. These three proteins, connected in a STRING functional network, contribute to the acute phase response and influence blood coagulation. CONCLUSION: Plasma proteomes are different comparing LTBI, TB, NTM and HC cohorts. The changes are augmented following prior blood immune cell stimulation with the ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigen cocktail. The results encourage larger-cohort studies to identify specific biomarkers to diagnose NTM infection, LTBI, and to predict the risk of TB reactivation.

10.
Vet Med (Auckl) ; 11: 119-130, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244452

RESUMEN

Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF) and West Nile fever (WNF) are re-emerging mosquito-borne zoonotic diseases that cause public health and economic crises. Ethiopia shares borders with South Sudan and Kenya, where these diseases are often documented. The free movement of animals and humans across these borders expects to increase the spread of these diseases. The current study was conducted to assess the occurrence of these diseases in the Gambella region of Ethiopia. Methodology: We collected a total of 368 cattle serum samples from the Lare district on the border of South Sudan and measured the presence of IgG antibody against RVF and WNF virus infections using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results: The prevalence of anti-RVF virus IgG antibody was 7.6% (95% CI: 5.3-10.82%), while that of anti-WNF virus IgG antibody was 5.4% (95% CI: 3.52-8.29%). In this study higher seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to RVF virus infection was observed comparing to the WNF virus in cattle. There was no significant association between the prevalence and the cattle age, sex or sampled locations. Conclusion: The detection of IgG antibody to RVF and WNF virus infections in the Gambella region warrants further study of active case findings and the dynamics of transmission.

11.
Virol J ; 17(1): 179, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198743

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although, there is a variable burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women infected with HIV in developing countries, there are few studies that attempted to surmise such variable evidences. This review aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of HPV genotype distribution and risk factors contributing to HPV infection among women infected with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies conducted in developing countries and reported HPV prevalence. We searched electronic databases: PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, ScienceDirect, Excerpta Medical Database from Elsevier, Web of science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and allied Health Sciences and Google scholar databases to retrieve primary studies published in English language till 11th August 2019. We used random-effects model to estimate the pooled prevalence of HPV genotypes, and funnel plot to assess publication bias. The registration number of this review study protocol is CRD42019123549. RESULTS: We included nineteen studies with a total of 8,175 participants in this review. The prevalence of HPV was extremely heterogeneous across the studies (χ2= 3782.80, p value < 0.001, I2 = 99.6%). The estimated pooled prevalence of all HPV genotypes was 63.0% (95% CI: 48.0-78.0) while the pooled prevalence of high risk and low risk HPV genotypes were 51.0% (95% CI: 38.0-63.0) and 28.0% (95% CI: 12.0-43.0), respectively. The pooled prevalence of HPV genotype 16 was 20%, while genotype 18 and 52 were 15% and 13%, respectively. Different risk factors reported for HPV infection and the frequently reported were low CD4 count below 200 cells/mm3 and high HIV viral load. CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of HPV among HIV infected women in low- and middle-income countries was considerable and the proportion of high risk HPV genotypes were high when compared with low risk genotypes. Therefore, it is essential for the HPV prevention program to prevent the double burden of HPV and HIV in women.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 750, 2020 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050903

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Mapping the genetic diversity of MTBC in high TB burden country like Ethiopia is important to understand principles of the disease transmission and to strengthen the regional TB control program. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates circulating in the South Omo, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: MTBC isolates (N = 156) were genetically analyzed using spacer oligotyping (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Major lineages and lineages were identified using MTBC databases. Logistic regression was used to correlate patient characteristics with strain clustering. RESULTS: The study identified Euro-American (EA), East-African-Indian (EAI), Indo-Oceanic (IO), Lineage_7/Aethiops vertus, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium africanum major lineages in proportions of 67.3% (105/156), 22.4% (35/156), 6.4% (10/156), 1.9% (3/156), 1.3% (2/156) and 0.6% (1/156), respectively. Lineages identified were Delhi/CAS 23.9% (37/155), Ethiopia_2 20.6% (32/155), Haarlem 14.2% (22/155), URAL 14.2%(22/155), Ethiopia_3 8.4% (13/155), TUR 6.5% (10/155), Lineage_7/Aethiops vertus 1.9% (3/155), Bovis 1.3% (2/155), LAM 1.3% (2/155), EAI 0.6% (1/155), X 0.6% (1/155) and Ethiopia H37Rv-like strain 0.6% (1/155). Of the genotyped isolates 5.8% (9/155) remained unassigned. The recent transmission index (RTI) was 3.9%. Orphan strains compared to shared types (AOR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25) were associated with reduced odds of clustering. The dominant TB lineage in pastoral areas was EAI and in non-pastoral areas was EA. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological data, highly diverse MTBC strains and a low RTI in South Omo, provide information contributing to the TB Control Program of the country.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alelos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Repeticiones de Minisatélite/genética , Epidemiología Molecular , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Mycobacterium bovis/aislamiento & purificación , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Esputo/microbiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 1225-1236, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884383

RESUMEN

Background: Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in South Omo area of Ethiopia. Although Jinka University (JKU) is located in South Omo Zone, there is no information regarding the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of students toward YF. The current study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of JKU students toward YF and factors associated with the overall knowledge and attitude about the disease. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected regular program JNU students. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of socio-demographic factors with overall knowledge and attitude scores. Results: A total of 322 students (61.2% males, mean age of 20.7 years) participated in this study. Of these, 94.1% joined the University from places other than South Omo area and 86.0% (277/322) ever heard about YF. 9.6% were found to have a high level of overall knowledge about YF. High overall knowledge of YF was associated with being born and grown up in South Omo area (AOR=3.91; 95% CI: 1.28, 11.98) and being a student of a social science discipline (AOR=3.52; 95% CI: 1.22, 10.13). 48.8% of the participants had favorable overall attitude toward YF. Being a second-year student (AOR=1.96; 95% CI: 1.14-3.37), being born and grown up in South Omo area (AOR=5.13; 95% CI: 1.32-19.98), and having high overall knowledge of YF (AOR=13.24; 95% CI: 3.69, 47.44) were associated with favorable overall attitude toward YF. On the other hand, only 5.8% of the participants reported that they were vaccinated for YF. Conclusion: The low level of knowledge and low vaccination coverage of JKU students to YF, especially among those students from other parts of the country, calls for urgent awareness creation during admission and making vaccination available.

16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008549, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881913

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIK) and yellow fever (YF) are becoming major public health threats in East African countries including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no reliable information about the epidemiology of CHIK. This study aimed to assess a community-based sero-prevalence of CHIK and YF in the South Omo Valley, an endemic area for YF. METHODS: Between February and June 2018, blood samples were collected from study participants and screened for IgG antibody against CHIK virus (CHIKV) and YF virus (YFV) infections using ELISA. Data were computerized using Epi Data Software v.3.1 and analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 360 participants (51.7% males, age range from 6 to 80, mean age ± SD = 31.95 ± 14.05 years) participated in this study. The overall sero-prevalence of IgG antibody was 43.6% (157/360) against CHIKV, while it was 49.5% (155/313) against YFV. Out of 155 samples which were positive for IgG antibody to YFV, 93 (60.0%) were positive for IgG antibody to CHIKV. Out of 158 samples which were negative for IgG antibody to YFV, 64(40.5%) were positive for IgG antibody to CHIKV. There was a significant positive correlation between IgG antibodies to CHIKV and YFV (sr = 0.82; P<0.01). Residency in the Debub Ari district (AOR = 8.47; 95% CI: 1.50, 47.74) and travel history to sylvatic areas (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.81) were significantly and positively associated with high sero-prevalence of IgG antibody to CHIKV and YFV, respectively. CONCLUSION: High sero-prevalence of IgG antibody to CHIKV shows the circulation of the virus in the present study area. A low sero-prevalence of IgG antibody to YFV in YF vaccine received individuals is highly concerning from a public health point of view as waning of immune response to YFV infection could result in a periodic outbreaks of YF in endemic areas.Nevertheless, the present study has not investigated for possible cross-reactivity of antibody to CHIKV with other alphaviruses like O'nyong-nyong virus and antibody to YFV with other flaviviruses like Dengue fever virus and this warrants further studies in the present study area.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Fiebre Chikungunya/sangre , Fiebre Amarilla/sangre , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Fiebre Chikungunya/virología , Virus Chikungunya/inmunología , Virus Chikungunya/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Fiebre Amarilla/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235411, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822368

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delayed treatment initiation of Tuberculosis patients results in increased infectivity, poor treatment outcome, and increased mortality. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the delay in new adult pulmonary Tuberculosis patients to initiate treatment in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors associated with treatment initiation delay among new adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 875 new adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients were recruited from 21 health facilities from October 2018 to October 2019. Health facilities were selected by simple random sampling technique and tuberculosis cases from the health facilities were consecutively enrolled. Data were collected using structured questionnaire within the first 2 weeks of treatment initiation. Delay was categorized as patient, health system and total delays. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the odds of delays to initiate treatment. A p-value of less than 0.05 was reported as statistically significant. RESULTS: The median patient, health system and total delays were 30, 18 and 62 days, respectively. Rural residence, being poor, visiting non-formal medication sources, being primary health care and the private clinic had higher odds of patient delay whereas being HIV positive had lower odds of patient delay. Illiteracy, first visit to primary health care and private clinic had higher odds of health system delay whereas a visit to health facility one time and have no patient delay had lower odds of health system delay. CONCLUSION: The median patient delay was higher than the median health system delay before initiating treatment. Hence, improved awareness of the community and involving the informal medication sources in the tuberculosis pathways would reduce patient delay. Similarly, improved cough screening and diagnostic efficiency of the lower health facilities would shorten health system delay.


Asunto(s)
Tiempo de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/administración & dosificación , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Comorbilidad , Etiopía , Femenino , Hospitales Privados/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 456, 2020 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delayed treatment initiation of tuberculosis (TB) increases disease progression and development of complications which may lead to a higher level of infectiousness, clinical severity and increased mortality. But published evidences that investigated the effect of delayed initiation of treatment on clinical severity and level of infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis patients is scarce in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of delayed treatment initiation of new adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients with clinical severity and level of infectiousness. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study design, a total of 875 newly diagnosed adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients were recruited from 21 health facilities from October 2018 to October 2019. Health facilities and study participants were selected by a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using questionnaires through face-to-face interviews of patients within the first 2 weeks of treatment initiation. Clinical severity was assessed by Bandim tuberculosis score and level of infectiousness was assessed by smear positivity or lung cavitations. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software program. Logistic regression analysis was used to ascertain the association of delay with clinical severity and level of infectiousness. P-BMC Public Health of less than 0.05 was reported as being statistically significant. RESULTS: Those who had initiated treatment without delay and those who have initiated treatment after a medium delay of 31 to 60 days were significantly associated with decreased clinical score compared to those who initiated treatment after a delay of more than two months. Compared with patients who have initiated treatment within one month, the level of infectiousness was greater for delay of 30-60 days and above 60 days. Patients having more than 3 family members have higher level of infectiousness as compared to those who have a maximum of 3 family members. Whereas, patients having at least two rooms and being HIV negative had lower levels of infectiousness compared to their counter patients. CONCLUSION: Narrowing the gap between their initial occurrence of TB symptoms and treatment initiation is the way forward to improve clinical courses of TB patients and to reduce the level of infectiousness of TB to other people from these patients.


Asunto(s)
Progresión de la Enfermedad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Riesgo , Autoinforme , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Microbiologyopen ; 9(8): e1067, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510864

RESUMEN

Consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products represents a common source of nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. Little is known on the status of Salmonella and their antimicrobial susceptibility in poultry farms in Ethiopia. This study investigated the prevalence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of nontyphoidal Salmonella among poultry farms in Adama and Modjo towns. Three hundred thirty-four cloacal swabs, 384 fecal droppings of birds, 59 feed, 59 floor swabs, and 36 stools from in-contact humans were collected and processed for Salmonella isolation. Isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Seventeen (28.8%) of the farms and 24 (2.9%) of the samples from poultry farms and 2.8% (1/36) of stool samples of humans in-contact with poultry were positive for Salmonella. Most of the isolates (n = 21) were recovered from fecal droppings of birds while the remaining isolates were recovered from floor swab samples (n = 2) and cloacal swab sample (n = 1). Only three Salmonella serovars: S. Haifa (n = 14, 56%), S. Anatum (n = 7; 28%), and S. Give (n = 4; 16%) were detected. Poultry farms in Adama town, large flock sized farms, and farms that used antimicrobials were significantly associated with the occurrence of Salmonella (p < .05). Twenty (80%) and 19 (76%) of Salmonella isolates were resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline, respectively. Nineteen (76%) of the isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Detection of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella in poultry farms suggests the need for detailed epidemiological and molecular studies to establish sources of acquisition of resistant Salmonella strains.

20.
Int J Reprod Med ; 2020: 2915628, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523965

RESUMEN

Background: High fertility remains one of the most important public health issues hampering the health and welfare of mothers and the survival of their children in developing nations. In Ethiopia, the high fertility rate has been seen for a long historical period with some pocket areas of high fertility still showing poor improvement. Hence, this study was aimed at determining the magnitude of high fertility status (number of children ever born alive ≥ 5) and associated factors among women of the reproductive age group in Wonago district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected 512 women in Wonago district. Data were collected using a pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was entered into EpiData version 3.1 and then analyzed by SPSS version 25. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data, and the adjusted odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval was computed, and a significant association was declared at p value ≤ 0.05. Result: This study revealed that 354 (69.1%) of the respondents have high fertility. High fertility is independently associated with residing in rural area [AOR = 4.88, 95% CI: 3.21, 7.86], desire for children [AOR = 6.97, 95% CI: 3.24, 11.40], history of under-five child mortality [AOR =5.32, 95% CI: 2.59, 8.43], poor knowledge of contraception [AOR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.66, 4.04], and low wealth tertile [AOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.58]. On the other hand, women with age at first birth above 18 years [AOR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.68] and those with birth interval ≥ 24 months [AOR = 0, 26, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.49] were less likely to have high fertility. Conclusion and Recommendation. The substantial number of women in the study area has high fertility status far away from the country's costed implementation plan of reducing the total fertility rate to 3.0. Considering these, much is needed to be done among poor, rural residents, who have not yet attained their desired number of children, and on enhancing the knowledge of mothers towards contraceptive methods.

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