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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621759

RESUMEN

Adsorption-based extracorporeal therapies have been subject to technical developments and clinical application for close to five decades. More recently, new technological developments in membrane and sorbent manipulation have made it possible to deliver more biocompatible extracorporeal adsorption therapies to patients with a variety of conditions. There are several key rationales based on physicochemical principles and clinical considerations that justify the application and investigation of such therapies as evidenced by multiple ex-vivo, experimental, and clinical observations. Accordingly, unspecific adsorptive extracorporeal therapies have now been applied to the treatment of a wide array of conditions from poisoning to drug overdoses, to inflammatory states and sepsis, and acute or chronic liver and kidney failure. In response to the rapidly expanding knowledge base and increased clinical evidence, we convened an Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) consensus conference dedicated to such treatment. The data show that hemoadsorption has clinically acceptable short-term biocompatibility and safety, technical feasibility, and experimental demonstration of specified target molecule removal. Pilot studies demonstrate potentially beneficial effects on physiology and larger studies of endotoxin-based hemoadsorption have identified possible target phenotypes for larger randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Moreover, in a variety of endogenous and exogenous intoxications, removal of target molecules has been confirmed in vivo. However, some studies have raised concerns about harm or failed to deliver benefits. Thus, despite many achievements, modern hemoadsorption remains a novel and experimental intervention with limited data, and a large research agenda.

3.
J Hepatol ; 2024 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527522

RESUMEN

Patients with cirrhosis are prone to develop acute kidney injury (AKI), a complication associated with a markedly increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality, along with a risk of progression to chronic kidney disease. Whereas patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing any phenotype of AKI, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a specific form of AKI (HRS-AKI) in patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites, carries an especially high mortality risk. Early recognition of HRS-AKI is crucial since administration of splanchnic vasoconstrictors may reverse the AKI and serve as a bridge to liver transplantation, the only curative option. In 2023, a joint meeting of the International Club of Ascites (ICA) and the Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) was convened to develop new diagnostic criteria for HRS-AKI, to provide graded recommendations for the work-up, management and post-discharge follow-up of patients with cirrhosis and AKI, and to highlight priorities for further research.

4.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 92, 2024 03 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515121

RESUMEN

Acute kidney injury (AKI) often complicates sepsis and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In recent years, several important clinical trials have improved our understanding of sepsis-associated AKI (SA-AKI) and impacted clinical care. Advances in sub-phenotyping of sepsis and AKI and clinical trial design offer unprecedented opportunities to fill gaps in knowledge and generate better evidence for improving the outcome of critically ill patients with SA-AKI. In this manuscript, we review the recent literature of clinical trials in sepsis with focus on studies that explore SA-AKI as a primary or secondary outcome. We discuss lessons learned and potential opportunities to improve the design of clinical trials and generate actionable evidence in future research. We specifically discuss the role of enrichment strategies to target populations that are most likely to derive benefit and the importance of patient-centered clinical trial endpoints and appropriate trial designs with the aim to provide guidance in designing future trials.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Sepsis , Humanos , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesión Renal Aguda/complicaciones , Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Sepsis/complicaciones , Sepsis/terapia , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto
6.
Intensive Care Med ; 50(2): 247-257, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285051

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Acute kidney disease (AKD) is a significant health care burden worldwide. However, little is known about this complication after major surgery. METHODS: We conducted an international prospective, observational, multi-center study among patients undergoing major surgery. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of AKD (defined as new onset of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eCFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 present on day 7 or later) among survivors. Secondary endpoints included the relationship between early postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) (within 72 h after major surgery) and subsequent AKD, the identification of risk factors for AKD, and the rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in patients with pre-existing CKD. RESULTS: We studied 9510 patients without pre-existing CKD. Of these, 940 (9.9%) developed AKD after 7 days of whom 34.1% experiencing an episode of early postoperative-AKI. Rates of AKD after 7 days significantly increased with the severity (19.1% Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] 1, 24.5% KDIGO2, 34.3% KDIGO3; P < 0.001) and duration (15.5% transient vs 38.3% persistent AKI; P < 0.001) of early postoperative-AKI. Independent risk factors for AKD included early postoperative-AKI, exposure to perioperative nephrotoxic agents, and postoperative pneumonia. Early postoperative-AKI carried an independent odds ratio for AKD of 2.64 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.21-3.15). Of 663 patients with pre-existing CKD, 42 (6.3%) had worsening CKD at day 90. In patients with CKD and an episode of early AKI, CKD progression occurred in 11.6%. CONCLUSION: One in ten major surgery patients developed AKD beyond 7 days after surgery, in most cases without an episode of early postoperative-AKI. However, early postoperative-AKI severity and duration were associated with an increased rate of AKD and early postoperative-AKI was strongly associated with AKD independent of all other potential risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Lesión Renal Aguda/epidemiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/etiología , Enfermedad Aguda , Riñón , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etiología
7.
Intensive Care Med ; 50(1): 68-78, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172296

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Ilofotase alfa is a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase with reno-protective effects that showed improved survival and reduced Major Adverse Kidney Events by 90 days (MAKE90) in sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) patients. REVIVAL, was a phase-3 trial conducted to confirm its efficacy and safety. METHODS: In this international double-blinded randomized-controlled trial, SA-AKI patients were enrolled < 72 h on vasopressor and < 24 h of AKI. The primary endpoint was 28-day all-cause mortality. The main secondary endpoint was MAKE90, other secondary endpoints were (i) days alive and free of organ support through day 28, (ii) days alive and out of the intensive care unit (ICU) through day 28, and (iii) time to death through day 90. Prior to unblinding, the statistical analysis plan was amended, including an updated MAKE90 definition. RESULTS: Six hundred fifty patients were treated and analyzed for safety; and 649 for efficacy data (ilofotase alfa n = 330; placebo n = 319). The observed mortality rates in the ilofotase alfa and placebo groups were 27.9% and 27.9% at 28 days, and 33.9% and 34.8% at 90 days. The trial was stopped for futility on the primary endpoint. The observed proportion of patients with MAKE90A and MAKE90B were 56.7% and 37.4% in the ilofotase alfa group vs. 64.6% and 42.8% in the placebo group. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] days alive and free of organ support were 17 [0-24] and 14 [0-24], number of days alive and discharged from the ICU through day 28 were 15 [0-22] and 10 [0-22] in the ilofotase alfa and placebo groups, respectively. Adverse events were reported in 67.9% and 75% patients in the ilofotase and placebo group. CONCLUSION: Among critically ill patients with SA-AKI, ilofotase alfa did not improve day 28 survival. There may, however, be reduced MAKE90 events. No safety concerns were identified.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Fosfatasa Alcalina , Sepsis , Humanos , Lesión Renal Aguda/tratamiento farmacológico , Lesión Renal Aguda/etiología , Fosfatasa Alcalina/uso terapéutico , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Sepsis/complicaciones , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico
8.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 39(3): 1005-1014, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37934273

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality across the life course, yet care for AKI remains mostly supportive. Raising awareness of this life-threatening clinical syndrome through education and advocacy efforts is the key to improving patient outcomes. Here, we describe the unique roles education and advocacy play in the care of children with AKI, discuss the importance of customizing educational outreach efforts to individual groups and contexts, and highlight the opportunities created through innovations and partnerships to optimize lifelong health outcomes. METHODS: During the 26th Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) consensus conference, a multidisciplinary group of experts discussed the evidence and used a modified Delphi process to achieve consensus on recommendations on AKI research, education, practice, and advocacy in children. RESULTS: The consensus statements developed in response to three critical questions about the role of education and advocacy in pediatric AKI care are presented here along with a summary of available evidence and recommendations for both clinical care and research. CONCLUSIONS: These consensus statements emphasize that high-quality care for patients with AKI begins in the community with education and awareness campaigns to identify those at risk for AKI. Education is the key across all healthcare and non-healthcare settings to enhance early diagnosis and develop mitigation strategies, thereby improving outcomes for children with AKI. Strong advocacy efforts are essential for implementing these programs and building critical collaborations across all stakeholders and settings.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Humanos , Niño , Enfermedad Aguda , Escolaridad , Lesión Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Consenso
9.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 20(2): 137-146, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37653237

RESUMEN

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical condition with various causes and is associated with increased mortality. Despite advances in supportive care, AKI increases not only the risk of premature death compared with the general population but also the risk of developing chronic kidney disease and progressing towards kidney failure. Currently, no specific therapy exists for preventing or treating AKI other than mitigating further injury and supportive care. To address this unmet need, novel therapeutic interventions targeting the underlying pathophysiology must be developed. New and well-designed clinical trials with appropriate end points must be subsequently designed and implemented to test the efficacy of such new interventions. Herein, we discuss predictive and prognostic enrichment strategies for patient selection, as well as primary and secondary end points that can be used in different clinical trial designs (specifically, prevention and treatment trials) to evaluate novel interventions and improve the outcomes of patients at a high risk of AKI or with established AKI.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Pronóstico , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Selección de Paciente
10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
11.
Blood Purif ; : 1, 2023 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38038238

RESUMEN

The development of new extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques has led to increased application in clinical practice but also inconsistencies in nomenclature and misunderstanding. In November 2022, an international consensus conference was held to establish consensus on the terminology of EBP therapies. It was agreed to define EBP therapies as techniques that use an extracorporeal circuit to remove and/or modulate circulating substances to achieve physiological homeostasis, including support of the function of specific organs and/or detoxification. Specific acute EBP techniques include renal replacement therapy, isolated ultrafiltration, hemoadsorption, and plasma therapies, all of which can be applied in isolation and combination. This paper summarizes the proposed nomenclature of EBP therapies and serves as a framework for clinical practice and future research.

12.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 435, 2023 11 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946280

RESUMEN

Drug-induced kidney disease (DIKD) accounts for about one-fourth of all cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients, especially in critically ill setting. There is no standard definition or classification system of DIKD. To address this, a phenotype definition of DIKD using expert consensus was introduced in 2015. Recently, a novel framework for DIKD classification was proposed that incorporated functional change and tissue damage biomarkers. Medications were stratified into four categories, including "dysfunction without damage," "damage without dysfunction," "both dysfunction and damage," and "neither dysfunction nor damage" using this novel framework along with predominant mechanism(s) of nephrotoxicity for drugs and drug classes. Here, we briefly describe mechanisms and provide examples of drugs/drug classes related to the categories in the proposed framework. In addition, the possible movement of a patient's kidney disease between certain categories in specific conditions is considered. Finally, opportunities and barriers to adoption of this framework for DIKD classification in real clinical practice are discussed. This new classification system allows congruencies for DIKD with the proposed categorization of AKI, offering clarity as well as consistency for clinicians and researchers.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Humanos , Lesión Renal Aguda/inducido químicamente , Lesión Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Enfermedad Crítica , Consenso
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37982597

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Airway stenting is a standard treatment option for tracheo-bronchial obstruction and other conditions like tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF). METHODS: To prevent stent migration, a percutaneous fixation strategy called the "hitch-stitch" was described in 2016 as an efficient technique. We describe an extended experience of the "hitch-stitch" for silicone stents in high tracheal stenting situations and expanding indications to metal stents. RESULTS: Seventy-four percutaneous stitches were placed in 54 patients (36 males and 18 females). The mean age of the patients was 42 (±19) years. The indication for stenting was tracheal stenosis in 63/74 (85%) cases and TEF in 11/74 (15%) cases. Silicone stents were used in 56/74 (75.5%) cases while self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) were used in 18/74 (24.5%) cases. The majority of the stents (62/74, 85%) were high tracheal stents. The "hitch-stitch" as an anti-migration strategy had a high success rate, with distal stent migration in only 2 cases (2.7%) as the stitch had given way-these were repositioned and hitched with double stitches. Minor complications included delayed skin healing (2.8%) and suture site infection (1.4%), which was successfully managed with oral antibiotics. Stitch removal was easy with no complications. CONCLUSION: In this large series of percutaneous "hitch-stitch" as a stent migration prevention strategy, long-term data shows it is safe and effective in an expanded cohort of silicone stents. Its extended utility is the successful application to metal stents, especially in TEF, where the consequences can be deleterious. It is simple to do, with minimal extra requirements and not associated with any significant complications.

14.
Kidney Int Rep ; 8(11): 2333-2344, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38025217

RESUMEN

Introduction: Drug-induced acute kidney injury (DI-AKI) is a frequent adverse event. The identification of DI-AKI is challenged by competing etiologies, clinical heterogeneity among patients, and a lack of accurate diagnostic tools. Our research aims to describe the clinical characteristics and predictive variables of DI-AKI. Methods: We analyzed data from the Drug-Induced Renal Injury Consortium (DIRECT) study (NCT02159209), an international, multicenter, observational cohort study of enriched clinically adjudicated DI-AKI cases. Cases met the primary inclusion criteria if the patient was exposed to at least 1 nephrotoxic drug for a minimum of 24 hours prior to AKI onset. Cases were clinically adjudicated, and inter-rater reliability (IRR) was measured using Krippendorff's alpha. Variables associated with DI-AKI were identified using L1 regularized multivariable logistic regression. Model performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC). Results: A total of 314 AKI cases met the eligibility criteria for this analysis, and 271 (86%) cases were adjudicated as DI-AKI. The majority of the AKI cases were recruited from the United States (68%). The most frequent causal nephrotoxic drugs were vancomycin (48.7%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (18.2%), and piperacillin/tazobactam (17.8%). The IRR for DI-AKI adjudication was 0.309. The multivariable model identified age, vascular capacity, hyperglycemia, infections, pyuria, serum creatinine (SCr) trends, and contrast media as significant predictors of DI-AKI with good performance (ROC AUC 0.86). Conclusion: The identification of DI-AKI is challenging even with comprehensive adjudication by experienced nephrologists. Our analysis identified key clinical characteristics and outcomes of DI-AKI compared to other AKI etiologies.

15.
Nephron ; 147(12): 782-787, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37793364

RESUMEN

Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is frequently used for fluid management of critically ill patients with acute or chronic kidney failure. There is significant practice variation worldwide in fluid management during CRRT. Multiple clinical studies have suggested that both the magnitude and duration of fluid overload are associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Therefore, timely and effective fluid management with CRRT is paramount in managing critically ill patients with fluid overload. While the optimal method of fluid management during CRRT is still unclear and warrants further investigation, observational data have suggested a U-shape relationship between net ultrafiltration rate and mortality. Furthermore, recent clinical data have underpinned a significant gap in prescribed versus achieved fluid balance during CRRT, which is also associated with mortality. This review uses a case-based approach to discuss two fluid management strategies based on net ultrafiltration rate and fluid balance goals during CRRT and harmonizes operational definitions.


Asunto(s)
Desequilibrio Ácido-Base , Lesión Renal Aguda , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal Continuo , Desequilibrio Hidroelectrolítico , Humanos , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal/métodos , Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Equilibrio Hidroelectrolítico , Desequilibrio Hidroelectrolítico/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Blood Purif ; : 1-14, 2023 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37703868

RESUMEN

In order to develop a standardized nomenclature for the mechanisms and materials utilized during extracorporeal blood purification, a consensus expert conference was convened in November 2022. Standardized nomenclature serves as a common language for reporting research findings, new device development, and education. It is also critically important to support patient safety, allow comparisons between techniques, materials, and devices, and be essential for defining and naming innovative technologies and classifying devices for regulatory approval. The multidisciplinary conference developed detailed descriptions of the performance characteristics of devices (membranes, filters, and sorbents), solute and fluid transport mechanisms, flow parameters, and methods of treatment evaluation. In addition, nomenclature for adsorptive blood purification techniques was proposed. This report summarizes these activities and highlights the need for standardization of nomenclature in the future to harmonize research, education, and innovation in extracorporeal blood purification therapies.

17.
Cardiorenal Med ; 13(1): 324-331, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37757781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The administration of iodinated contrast medium during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures has always been associated with the fear of causing acute kidney injury (AKI) or an exacerbation of chronic kidney disease. This has led, on the one hand, to the deterrence, when possible, of the use of contrast medium (preferring other imaging methods with the risk of loss of diagnostic power), and on the other hand, to the trialling of multiple prophylaxis protocols in an attempt to reduce the risk of kidney injury. SUMMARY: A literature review on contrast-induced (CI)-AKI risk mitigation strategies was performed, focussing on the recognition of individual risk factors and on the most recent evidence regarding prophylaxis. KEY MESSAGES: Nephrologists can contribute significantly in the CI-AKI context, from the early stages of the decision-making process to stratifying patients by risk, individualising prophylaxis measures based on the risk profile, and ensuring appropriate evaluation of kidney function and damage post-procedure to improve care.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Medios de Contraste , Humanos , Medios de Contraste/efectos adversos , Nefrólogos , Factores de Riesgo , Riñón/diagnóstico por imagen , Lesión Renal Aguda/inducido químicamente , Lesión Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesión Renal Aguda/prevención & control
18.
Adv Ther ; 40(11): 4805-4816, 2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37615850

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Retrospective studies report that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) may reduce the severity of COVID-19, but prospective data on de novo treatment with ACEIs are limited. The RAMIC trial was a randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, allocation-concealed clinical trial to examine the efficacy of de novo ramipril versus placebo for the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: Eligible participants were aged 18 years and older with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, recruited from urgent care clinics, emergency departments, and hospital inpatient wards at eight sites in the USA. Participants were randomly assigned to daily ramipril 2.5 mg or placebo orally in a 2:1 ratio, using permuted block randomization. Analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or invasive mechanical ventilation by day 14. RESULTS: Between 27 May 2020 and 19 April 2021, a total of 114 participants (51% female) were randomized to ramipril (n = 79) or placebo (n = 35). The overall mean (± SD) age and BMI were 45 (± 15) years and 33 (± 8) kg/m2. Two participants in the ramipril group required ICU admission and one died, compared with none in the placebo group. There were no significant differences between ramipril and placebo in the primary endpoint (ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or death) (3% versus 0%, p = 1.00) or adverse events (27% versus 29%, p = 0.82). The study was terminated early because of a low event rate and subsequent Emergency Use Authorization of therapies for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: De novo ramipril was not different compared with placebo in improving or worsening clinical outcomes from COVID-19 but appeared safe in non-critically ill patients with COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04366050.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Ramipril/uso terapéutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Prospectivos , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Método Doble Ciego , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 19(12): 807-818, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37580570

RESUMEN

Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a common complication of acute illnesses, affects the health of individuals in community, acute care and post-acute care settings. Although the recognition, prevention and management of AKI has advanced over the past decades, its incidence and related morbidity, mortality and health care burden remain overwhelming. The rapid growth of digital technologies has provided a new platform to improve patient care, and reports show demonstrable benefits in care processes and, in some instances, in patient outcomes. However, despite great progress, the potential benefits of using digital technology to manage AKI has not yet been fully explored or implemented in clinical practice. Digital health studies in AKI have shown variable evidence of benefits, and the digital divide means that access to digital technologies is not equitable. Upstream research and development costs, limited stakeholder participation and acceptance, and poor scalability of digital health solutions have hindered their widespread implementation and use. Here, we provide recommendations from the Acute Disease Quality Initiative consensus meeting, which involved experts in adult and paediatric nephrology, critical care, pharmacy and data science, at which the use of digital health for risk prediction, prevention, identification and management of AKI and its consequences was discussed.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Nefrología , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Enfermedad Aguda , Consenso , Lesión Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesión Renal Aguda/etiología , Cuidados Críticos
20.
Lung India ; 40(4): 368-400, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37417095

RESUMEN

Over the past decade, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become an indispensable tool in the diagnostic armamentarium of the pulmonologist. As the expertise with EBUS-TBNA has evolved and several innovations have occurred, the indications for its use have expanded. However, several aspects of EBUS-TBNA are still not standardized. Hence, evidence-based guidelines are needed to optimize the diagnostic yield and safety of EBUS-TBNA. For this purpose, a working group of experts from India was constituted. A detailed and systematic search was performed to extract relevant literature pertaining to various aspects of EBUS-TBNA. The modified GRADE system was used for evaluating the level of evidence and assigning the strength of recommendations. The final recommendations were framed with the consensus of the working group after several rounds of online discussions and a two-day in-person meeting. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations encompassing indications of EBUS-TBNA, pre-procedure evaluation, sedation and anesthesia, technical and procedural aspects, sample processing, EBUS-TBNA in special situations, and training for EBUS-TBNA.

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