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1.
Nat Chem Biol ; 13(2): 168-173, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918558

RESUMEN

Quantitation of drug target engagement in single cells has proven to be difficult, often leaving unanswered questions in the drug development process. We found that intracellular target engagement of unlabeled new therapeutics can be quantitated using polarized microscopy combined with competitive binding of matched fluorescent companion imaging probes. We quantitated the dynamics of target engagement of covalent BTK inhibitors, as well as reversible PARP inhibitors, in populations of single cells using a single companion imaging probe for each target. We then determined average in vivo tumor concentrations and found marked population heterogeneity following systemic delivery, revealing single cells with low target occupancy at high average target engagement in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Proteínas Tirosina Quinasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinasas/metabolismo , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Humanos , Estructura Molecular , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/química , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Especificidad por Sustrato , Células Tumorales Cultivadas
2.
J Nat Prod ; 79(8): 1962-70, 2016 08 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498895

RESUMEN

Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Catepsina K/antagonistas & inhibidores , Líquenes/química , Péptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Péptidos/farmacología , Antipaína/química , Antipaína/farmacología , Productos Biológicos/síntesis química , Productos Biológicos/química , Colombia Británica , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Estructura Molecular , Resonancia Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Péptidos/química
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(64): 9953-6, 2016 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27439765

RESUMEN

Herein we describe the synthesis of several fluorescent analogues of the clinically approved microtubule destabilizing agent vinblastine. The evaluated probes are the most potent described and provides the first example of uptake, distribution and live cell imaging using this well known antimitotic agent.


Asunto(s)
Colorantes Fluorescentes/análisis , Vinblastina/análisis , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/fisiología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Colorantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Colorantes Fluorescentes/farmacología , Humanos , Microscopía Fluorescente/métodos , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Vinblastina/metabolismo , Vinblastina/farmacología
4.
Bioconjug Chem ; 27(1): 257-63, 2016 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26684717

RESUMEN

Herein we describe the development and application of a bioorthogonal fluorogenic chelate linker that can be used for facile creation of labeled imaging agents. The chelate linker is based on the trans-cyclooctene(TCO)-tetrazine(Tz) chemistry platform and incorporates deferoxamine (DFO) as a (89)Zr PET tracer and a BODIPY fluorophore for multimodal imaging. The rapid (<3 min) ligation between mAb-TCO and Tz-BODIPY-DFO chelator is monitored using fluorescence and allows for determination of labeling completion. Utilizing BODIPY as the linker between mAb and DFO facilitates in chelator quantification using spectrophotometry, allowing for an alternative to traditional methods (mass and isotope dilution assay). Radiolabeling with (89)Zr to form (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab was found to be quantitative after incubation at room temperature for 1 h (1.5 mCi/mg specific activity). The cell binding assay using HER2+ (BT474) and HER2- (BT20) cell lines showed significant binding to (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab (6.45 ± 1.87% in BT474 versus 1.47 ± 0.39% in BT20). In vivo PET imaging of mice bearing BT20 or BT474 xenografts with (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab showed high tumor conspicuity, and biodistribution confirmed excellent, specific probe uptake of 237.3 ± 14.5% ID/g in BT474 xenografts compared to low, nonspecific probe uptake in BT20 xenografts (16.4 ± 5.6% ID/g) 96 h p.i. . Ex vivo fluorescence (465ex/520em) of selected tissues confirmed superb target localization and persistence of the fluorescence of (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab. The described platform is universally adaptable for simple antibody labeling.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales/química , Quelantes/química , Colorantes Fluorescentes/química , Imagen Multimodal/métodos , Animales , Compuestos de Boro/química , Deferoxamina/química , Femenino , Colorantes Fluorescentes/síntesis química , Colorantes Fluorescentes/farmacocinética , Humanos , Ratones Desnudos , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/métodos , Radioisótopos/química , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Distribución Tisular , Trastuzumab , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto , Circonio/química
5.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0130323, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26115179

RESUMEN

Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide which is associated with extraordinary stress-tolerance capacity in certain species of unicellular and multicellular organisms. In mammalian cells, presence of intra- and extracellular trehalose has been shown to confer improved tolerance against freezing and desiccation. Since mammalian cells do not synthesize nor import trehalose, the development of novel methods for efficient intracellular delivery of trehalose has been an ongoing investigation. Herein, we studied the membrane permeability of engineered lipophilic derivatives of trehalose. Trehalose conjugated with 6 acetyl groups (trehalose hexaacetate or 6-O-Ac-Tre) demonstrated superior permeability in rat hepatocytes compared with regular trehalose, trehalose diacetate (2-O-Ac-Tre) and trehalose tetraacetate (4-O-Ac-Tre). Once in the cell, intracellular esterases hydrolyzed the 6-O-Ac-Tre molecules, releasing free trehalose into the cytoplasm. The total concentration of intracellular trehalose (plus acetylated variants) reached as high as 10 fold the extracellular concentration of 6-O-Ac-Tre, attaining concentrations suitable for applications in biopreservation. To describe this accumulation phenomenon, a diffusion-reaction model was proposed and the permeability and reaction kinetics of 6-O-Ac-Tre were determined by fitting to experimental data. Further studies suggested that the impact of the loading and the presence of intracellular trehalose on cellular viability and function were negligible. Engineering of trehalose chemical structure rather than manipulating the cell, is an innocuous, cell-friendly method for trehalose delivery, with demonstrated potential for trehalose loading in different types of cells and cell lines, and can facilitate the wide-spread application of trehalose as an intracellular protective agent in biopreservation studies.


Asunto(s)
Trehalosa/metabolismo , Acetilación , Animales , Permeabilidad de la Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Disacáridos/efectos adversos , Disacáridos/química , Disacáridos/metabolismo , Femenino , Hepatocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Hepatocitos/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Ratas , Trehalosa/efectos adversos , Trehalosa/química
6.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e107991, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268119

RESUMEN

Androgen ablation therapy causes a temporary reduction in tumor burden in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately the malignancy will return to form lethal castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). The androgen receptor (AR) remains transcriptionally active in CRPC in spite of castrate levels of androgens in the blood. AR transcriptional activity resides in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Possible mechanisms of continued AR transcriptional activity may include, at least in part, expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR that lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). Current therapies that target the AR LBD, would not be effective against these AR variants. Currently no drugs are clinically available that target the AR NTD which should be effective against these AR variants as well as full-length AR. Niphatenones were originally isolated and identified in active extracts from Niphates digitalis marine sponge. Here we begin to characterize the mechanism of niphatenones in blocking AR transcriptional activity. Both enantiomers had similar IC50 values of 6 µM for inhibiting the full-length AR in a functional transcriptional assay. However, (S)-niphatenone had significantly better activity against the AR NTD compared to (R)-niphatenone. Consistent with niphatenones binding to and inhibiting transactivation of AR NTD, niphatenones inhibited AR splice variant. Niphatenone did not affect the transcriptional activity of the related progesterone receptor, but slightly decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity and covalently bound to GR activation function-1 (AF-1) region. Niphatenone blocked N/C interactions of AR without altering either AR protein levels or its intracellular localization in response to androgen. Alkylation with glutathione suggests that niphatenones are not a feasible scaffold for further drug development.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/farmacología , Éteres de Glicerilo/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Masculino , Metribolona/farmacología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Estructura Terciaria de Proteína , Receptores Androgénicos/química , Receptores Androgénicos/fisiología , Estereoisomerismo , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos
7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(29): 7531-4, 2014 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24915832

RESUMEN

We have developed a series of new ultrafluorogenic probes in the blue-green region of the visible-light spectrum that display fluorescence enhancement exceeding 11,000-fold. These fluorogenic dyes integrate a coumarin fluorochrome with the bioorthogonal trans-cyclooctene(TCO)-tetrazine chemistry platform. By exploiting highly efficient through-bond energy transfer (TBET), these probes exhibit the highest brightness enhancements reported for any bioorthogonal fluorogenic dyes. No-wash, fluorogenic imaging of diverse targets including cell-surface receptors in cancer cells, mitochondria, and the actin cytoskeleton is possible within seconds, with minimal background signal and no appreciable nonspecific binding, opening the possibility for in vivo sensing.


Asunto(s)
Cumarinas/química , Colorantes Fluorescentes/química , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/química , Línea Celular
9.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 12(5): 621-31, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23443807

RESUMEN

Androgen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor and a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer. Antiandrogens compete with physiologic ligands for androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (LBD). High-throughput screening of a marine natural product library for small molecules that inhibit androgen receptor transcriptional activity yielded the furanoditerpenoid spongia-13(16),-14-dien-19-oic acid, designated terpene 1 (T1). Characterization of T1 and the structurally related semisynthetic analogues (T2 and T3) revealed that these diterpenoids have antiandrogen properties that include inhibition of both androgen-dependent proliferation and androgen receptor transcriptional activity by a mechanism that involved competing with androgen for androgen receptor LBD and blocking essential N/C interactions required for androgen-induced androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Structure-activity relationship analyses revealed some chemical features of T1 that are associated with activity and yielded T3 as the most potent analogue. In vivo, T3 significantly reduced the weight of seminal vesicles, which are an androgen-dependent tissue, thereby confirming the on-target activity of T3. The ability to create analogues of diterpenoids that have varying antiandrogen activity represents a novel class of chemical compounds for the analysis of androgen receptor ligand-binding properties and therapeutic development.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Diterpenos/farmacología , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/química , Andrógenos/metabolismo , Animales , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Unión Proteica , Dominios y Motivos de Interacción de Proteínas , Receptores Androgénicos/química , Transcripción Genética
10.
J Med Chem ; 55(1): 503-14, 2012 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22148427

RESUMEN

Extracts of the marine sponge Niphates digitalis collected in Dominica showed strong activity in a cell-based assay designed to detect antagonists of the androgen receptor (AR) that could act as lead compounds for the development of a new class of drugs to treat castration recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). Assay-guided fractionation showed that niphatenones A (3) and B (4), two new glycerol ether lipids, were the active components of the extracts. The structures of 3 and 4 were elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data and confimed via total synthesis. Biological evaluation of synthetic analogues of the niphatenones has shown that the enantiomers 7 and 8 are more potent than the natural products in the screening assay and defined preliminary SAR for the new AR antagonist pharmacophore, including the finding that the Michael acceptor enone functionality is not required for activity. Niphatenone B (4) and its enantiomer 8 blocked androgen-induced proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation of PC3 prostate cancer cells that do not express functional AR, consistent with activity as AR antagonists. Use of the propargyl ether 44 and Click chemistry showed that niphatenone B binds covalently to the activation function-1 (AF1) region of the AR N-terminus domain (NTD).


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/química , Éteres de Glicerilo/química , Poríferos/química , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Animales , Antineoplásicos/síntesis química , Antineoplásicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Éteres de Glicerilo/síntesis química , Éteres de Glicerilo/aislamiento & purificación , Éteres de Glicerilo/farmacología , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Conformación Molecular , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Estereoisomerismo , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Transcripción Genética/efectos de los fármacos
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