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1.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 759-767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884277

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency of international concern and has affected management plans of many autoimmune disorders. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies are pivotal in the management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), potentially placing patients at an increased risk of contracting infections such as COVID-19. The optimal management strategy of NMOSD during the COVID-19 era remains unclear. Here, however, we examined the evidence of NMOSD disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) use during the present period and highlighted different scenarios including treatment of relapses as well as initiation and maintenance of DMTs in order to optimize care of NMOSD patients in the COVID-19 era.

2.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 651-662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801722

RESUMEN

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health challenge of global concern since December 2019, when the virus was recognized in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China and epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic. Given the novelty of COVID-19 and the lack of specific anti-virus therapies, the current management is essentially supportive. There is an absence of consensus on guidelines or treatment strategies for complex disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the risk of infections is higher than in the general population. This is due to the overall impairment of the immune system typical of autoimmune diseases, in addition to accumulation of disabilities, and the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and the recommended disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). DMTs have different modes of action, but all modulate and interfere with the patient's immune response, thereby raising concerns about adverse effects, such as an increased susceptibility to infections. In this review, we analyze the evidence for use of DMTs during the current critical period and ratify an algorithmic approach for management to optimize care between keeping DMTs, with their infection hazards, or coming off them, with the risk of disease activation. We also provide an algorithmic approach to the management of breakthrough activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780230

RESUMEN

Background: An association between antiepileptic drugs, low bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, and abnormalities in bone metabolism has been suggested for a longer period, although conclusive evidence has not been reported. Methods: Thirty epileptic patients and 30 matched healthy subjects participated in the study. Measurements of serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, parathormone, and alkaline phosphatase were done for included subjects. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was also performed. Results: Serum calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D were significantly lower, whereas serum parathormone and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in epileptic patients compared to control subjects. Bone mineral density (BMD) abnormalities were detected in 22 patients (73.4%). A statistically significant difference in DEXA scan measurements at different regions was detected between epileptic patients and control subjects. Epileptic patients receiving enzyme inducer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) had significantly lower serum (calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D) and lower BMD values compared to those receiving enzyme inhibitors. Results of BMD were positively correlated with serum calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D, while negatively correlated with serum alkaline phosphatase and duration of therapy. Conclusions: Abnormal bone health is common in epileptic patients. These abnormalities may be attributed to prolonged intake of AEDs especially enzyme inducers.

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