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1.
J Fish Biol ; 96(1): 74-82, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648362

RESUMEN

We investigated the feeding rates, agonistic behaviour and diet of two blenny species, Entomacrodus vomerinus and Ophioblennius trinitatis, by direct observation and gut content analysis. Both species coexist in small and shallow tide pools in the St Peter and St Paul's Archipelago, equatorial North Atlantic Ocean. The feeding rate of O. trinitatis was c. 55% higher than E. vomerinus. On the other hand, agonistic rate of O. trinitatis was negatively related to body size, whereas in E. vomerinus was positively related. Both species showed a high diet overlap, in which detritus was the most important food item (86% in O. trinitatis and 80% in E. vomerinus). Feeding activity was more intense during the morning for O. trinitatis but afternoon for E. vomerinus. These behavioural observations support the importance of temporal feeding partitioning as the main strategy allowing species co-existence in tide pools.

2.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855926

RESUMEN

Campos, BT, Penna, EM, Rodrigues, JGS, Mendes, TT, Maia-Lima, A, Nakamura, FY, Vieira, ÉLM, Wanner, SP, and Prado, LS. Influence of mental fatigue on physical performance, and physiological and perceptual responses of judokas submitted to the Special Judo Fitness Test. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Mentally fatigued athletes present impaired aerobic performance, strength endurance, and manual dexterity, despite no changes in anaerobic performance and maximal muscle strength and power. Noteworthy, the effect of mental fatigue on physical performance during high-intensity intermittent tests that require specific motor skills of fighting sports has not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to verify whether mental fatigue influences performance and physiological and perceptual responses of judokas subjected to a high-intensity intermittent test designed specifically and validated for judo. Each judoka performed 2 experimental trials-a control trial one and the other one after the induction of mental fatigue. These trials were scheduled in a random and balanced order. In both trials, lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations, the heart rate variability, and perceptual variables were collected after the initial treatment and after the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT). The initial treatment consisted of a 30-minute cognitive demanding task (Stroop Color test) or watching a movie (control) and was followed by the SJFT. The Stroop Color test increased the perceptions of mental fatigue and effort, without affecting motivation for subsequent testing. Unexpectedly, mentally fatigued athletes did not show reduced performance during the SJFT. Regarding the physiological variables, no significant differences were identified between the 2 experimental conditions. We conclude that physical performance measured during a specific test for judokas is not impaired by a previous 30-minute cognitive task that causes mental fatigue. In addition, this cognitive task did not influence the physiological changes induced by the specific physical test.

3.
J Fish Biol ; 95(3): 812-819, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198985

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the functional role of the highly generalist omnivore Melichthys niger in the remote St. Peter and St Paul's Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, where grazing herbivorous fishes are very scarce. We analysed patterns of distribution from zero to 30 m deep during three time intervals during the day and sampled different aspects of their feeding behaviour, including diel feeding rate, feeding substrate and diet. The density of M. niger increased with depth (26-30 m) and decreased by the end of the day. Although M. niger did not present a typical herbivore diel feeding pattern, they targeted the epilithic algal matrix as their primary feeding substrate, ingesting predominantly algae and detritus. The characteristic Caulerpa racemosa var. peltata from SPSPA was ingested only as detached fronds. We suggest that in the isolated SPSPA, the single species M. niger may perform a unique role as a link between benthic primary production and higher levels. Further studies on the trophic ecology of omnivorous species are necessary to better understand their roles in a reef system, especially in impoverished areas where they are likely to play a crucial role.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Peces/fisiología , Herbivoria , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Brasil , Dieta , Ecología , Islas
4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009426

RESUMEN

Ramos, GP, Nakamura, FY, Penna, EM, Mendes, TT, Mahseredjian, F, Lima, AM, Garcia, ES, Prado, LS, and Coimbra, CC. Comparison of physical fitness and anthropometrical profiles among Brazilian female soccer national teams from U15 to senior categories. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study aimed to compare anthropometric and physical fitness of Brazilian female national team soccer players from the U15 to senior categories, and to compare the physical performance between selected and nonselected players. Subjects included 231 athletes (U15, n = 46, U17, n = 49, U20, n = 98, and Senior, n = 38). Body mass, height, sum of skinfolds, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m linear sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 were assessed. The U15 players were shorter than all other groups (p < 0.01) and lighter than U20 players (p < 0.01). Regarding physical tests, Senior athletes presented higher SJ compared with U20, and both showed higher CMJ and SJ compared with the U15 and U17 (p < 0.05). Senior athletes were also faster than players of all other categories in 20-m sprint (p < 0.01) and covered the greatest distance in the Yo-Yo IR1 (p < 0.05). U20 were better in the Yo-Yo IR1 than the younger groups (p < 0.05). When comparing selected and nonselected players, no differences were identified in anthropometric measures (p > 0.05). However, selected players from U17, U20, and Senior teams showed better performance in Yo-Yo IR1 than nonselected ones (p < 0.05). Finally, selected senior athletes also presented higher CMJ and SJ than nonselected players (p < 0.05). These results suggest that, although there is a tendency for maintenance in anthropometric measures from the age of 15 years, there are substantial improvements in speed, lower-body power, and aerobic capacity from U20 age group. In addition, it seems that intermittent aerobic fitness contributes to the selection of players to international tournaments in national teams.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0209510, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726225

RESUMEN

Exhaustive exercise in a hot environment can impair performance. Higher epinephrine plasma levels occur during exercise in heat, indicating greater sympathetic activity. This study examined the influence of exercise in the heat on stress levels. Nine young healthy men performed a maximal progressive test on a cycle ergometer at two different environmental conditions: hot (40°C) and normal (22°C), both between 40% and 50% relative humidity. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected pre-test and post-test. Before exercise there were no significant changes in salivary biomarkers (salivary IgA: p = 0.12; α-amylase: p = 0.66; cortisol: p = 0.95; nitric oxide: p = 0.13; total proteins: p = 0.07) or blood lactate (p = 0.14) between the two thermal environments. Following exercise, there were significant increases in all variables (salivary IgA 22°C: p = 0.04, 40°C: p = 0.0002; α-amylase 22°C: p = 0.0002, 40°C: p = 0.0002; cortisol 22°C: p = 0.02, 40°C: p = 0.0002; nitric oxide 22°C: p = 0.0005, 40°C: p = 0.0003, total proteins 22°C: p<0.0001, 40°C: p<0.0001 and; blood lactate 22°C: p<0.0001, 40°C: p<0.0001) both at 22°C and 40°C. There was no significant adjustment regarding IgA levels between the two thermal environments (p = 0.74), however the levels of α-amylase (p = 0.02), cortisol (p<0.0001), nitric oxide (p = 0.02) and total proteins (p = 0.01) in saliva were higher in the hotter conditions. Blood lactate was lower under the hot environment (p = 0.01). In conclusion, enduring hot temperature intensified stressful responses elicited by exercise. This study advocates that hot temperature deteriorates exercise performance under exhaustive stress and effort conditions.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 172: 326-333, 2019 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721876

RESUMEN

Excess heavy metal concentrations in mining areas is a worldwide problem due to their toxicity and persistence. Applying amendments to those areas is a cost-effective remediation technique that would aid revegetation efforts. The aim of this work was to study the ability of sewage sludge-derived biochar (SSB), wood charcoal powder (hereafter named wood biochar - WB), raw sewage sludge (SS), and their blending (WB/SS) to improve soil properties and to immobilize Cd, Pb, and Zn after their addition to heavy-metal contaminated soils from a Zn-mining area. Biochar was prepared from dried sewage sludge and a greenhouse experiment was set using different amendment doses (WB = 30 and 60 g kg-1, SS = 10 and 20 g kg-1). Addition of wood biochar and sewage sludge-derived biochar to soils led to increased leachate and soil pH. Biochar materials were responsible for the greatest reduction of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability. The use of sewage sludge-derived biochar or the combination of sewage sludge with wood biochar in mining areas are potential alternatives for reusing and aggregating value to these locally available wastes, offering an opportunity to solve both soil remediation and waste disposal problems at once.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/química , Metales Pesados/análisis , Aguas del Alcantarillado/química , Suelo/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Minería , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8480468, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800679

RESUMEN

Ischemic stroke is a neurovascular disorder caused by reduced or blockage of blood flow to the brain, which may permanently affect motor and cognitive abilities. The diagnostic of stroke is performed using imaging technologies, clinical evaluation, and neuropsychological protocols, but no blood test is available yet. In this work, we analyzed amino acid concentrations in blood plasma from poststroke patients in order to identify differences that could characterize the stroke etiology. Plasma concentrations of sixteen amino acids from patients with chronic ischemic stroke (n = 73) and the control group (n = 16) were determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentration data was processed by Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) to classify patients with stroke and control. The amino acid analysis generated a first model able to discriminate ischemic stroke patients from control group. Proline was the most important amino acid for classification of the stroke samples in PLS-DA, followed by lysine, phenylalanine, leucine, and glycine, and while higher levels of methionine and alanine were mostly related to the control samples. The second model was able to discriminate the stroke subtypes like atherothrombotic etiology from cardioembolic and lacunar etiologies, with lysine, leucine, and cysteine plasmatic concentrations being the most important metabolites. Our results suggest an amino acid biosignature for patients with chronic stroke in plasma samples, which can be helpful in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics of these patients.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/sangre , Isquemia Encefálica/sangre , Plasma/metabolismo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/sangre , Anciano , Isquemia Encefálica/patología , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/patología
9.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(7): 3021-3031, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402700

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Investigate the biochemistry of in vivo healthy oral tissues through Raman spectroscopy. We aimed to characterize the biochemical features of healthy condition in oral subsites (buccal mucosa, lip, tongue, and gingiva) of healthy subjects. More specifically, we investigated Raman spectral characteristics and biochemical content of in vivo healthy tissues on Brazilian population. This characterization can be used to better define normal tissue and improve the detection of oral premalignant conditions in future studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For spectroscopic analysis a Raman spectrometer (Kaiser Optical Systems imaging spectrograph Holospec, f / 1.8i-NIR) coupled with a laser 785 nm, 60 mW was used. Raman measurements were obtained by means of an optical fiber (EMVision fiber optic probe) coupled between the laser and the spectrometer. Three spectra per site were acquired from the lip, buccal mucosa, tongue, and gingiva of ten healthy volunteers. This resulted in 30 spectra per oral sub-site and in total 120 spectra. RESULTS: We report detailed biochemical information on these subsites and their relative composition based on deconvolution studies of their spectra. Finally, we also report classification efficiency of 61, 83, 41, and 93% for buccal, gingiva, lip, and tongue respectively after applying multivariate statistical tools. CONCLUSIONS: We quantitated the contribution of various biochemicals in terms of percentage, and this will enable comparison not only across anatomical sites but also across studies. Raman spectroscopy can rapidly probe tissue biochemistry of healthy oral regions. Moreover, the study suggests the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy combined with signal processing and multivariate analysis methods to differentiate the oral sites in healthy conditions and compare with pathological conditions in future studies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The spectral characterization of the healthy condition of oral tissues by a noninvasive, label-free, and real-time analytical techniques is important to create a spectral reference for future diagnosis of pathological conditions.


Asunto(s)
Mucosa Bucal , Espectrometría Raman , Brasil , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/diagnóstico por imagen
10.
Food Chem ; 273: 144-150, 2019 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292360

RESUMEN

This work developed an analytical method to differentiate conventional and omega-3 fat acids enriched eggs by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate supervised classification with Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Forty samples of enriched eggs and forty samples of different types of common eggs from different batches were used to build the model. Firstly, gas chromatography was employed to analyze fatty acid profiles in egg samples. Raman spectra of the yolk extracts were recorded in the range from 3100 to 990 cm-1. PLS-DA model was able to correctly classify samples with nearly 100% success rate. This model was validated estimating appropriate figures of merit. Predictions uncertainties were also estimated by bootstrap resampling. The most discriminant Raman modes were identified based on VIP (variables importance in projection) scores. This method has potential to assist food industries and regulatory agencies for food quality control, allowing detecting frauds and enabling faster and reliable analyzes.


Asunto(s)
Huevos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometría Raman/métodos , Cromatografía de Gases , Análisis Discriminante , Yema de Huevo/química , Calidad de los Alimentos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180450, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011530

RESUMEN

Abstract This study evaluated the capacity of adsorbent biochar derived from pequi husks to remove glyphosate (commercial formulation) in aqueous medium under three pH conditions (5.5, 7.0 and 8.0). This biochar presented a mean yield of 33.1% ± 2.66% and a high amount of surface particles of small dimensions endowing it with high surface area. The results showed that removal is proportional to pH increase in the range of 5.5 to 8.0. Adsorption assays performed at pH 7 and 8 fitted better to the Langmuir pseudo-first order kinetics model with fast adsorption in the first 15 to 30 minutes. The results for the acidic pH range fit none of the adopted models satisfactorily. The results obtained suggest that adsorbent can be used as an efficient and inexpensive alternative for the adsorption of glyphosate present in commercial formulations from aqueous matrices.

12.
J Hum Kinet ; 64: 99-109, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429903

RESUMEN

Judo is a high-intensity intermittent combat sport which causes cardiac adaptations both morphologically and related to the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Therefore, this study aims to verify the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) at rest with performance in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) and whether groups with different RR values at rest show different performance in the SJFT and during post-test recovery. Sixteen judo athletes with 7.2 ± 3.9 years of training experience participated in the study. Before and after the SJFT execution HRV and lactate measurements were conducted. For HRV analysis, we used the mean interval RR, the standard deviation of the RR interval (SDNN), the root mean square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD), the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) in normalized and absolute units. The sample was split into two groups (low RR and high RR) to verify if this variable could differentiate between specific performance. For the SDNN, a significant and moderate correlation (r = 0.53) was found with the total number of throws and throws in the series A (r = 0.56) and B (r = 0.54) and for the RMSSD a correlation with throws during series B (r = 0.59) in the SJFT. However, the groups did not differ in performance and recovery. Therefore, HRV is related to intermittent judo performance; however, it cannot differentiate between judokas at different levels of performance.

13.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 77(1): 1521244, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252632

RESUMEN

Antarctic climate is challenging, since the cold, wind and sensory monotony are stressful stimuli to individuals. Moreover, camp activities and heavy clothes may contribute to increase physiological strain. Thus, we aimed to characterise the physiological demand of a 24-day period in the Antarctic field and then to evaluate the effect of this expedition on the aerobic fitness in individuals with heterogeneous initial aerobic fitness (as determined by estimating maximum oxygen consumption - V̊O2MAX). Before and after the 24-day period in Antarctica, 7 researchers and 2 mountaineers were subjected to incremental tests to estimate their V̊O2MAX. Field effort was characterised by measuring heart rate (HR). During the field trips, their HR remained 33.4% of the recording time between 50-60% HRMAX, 22.3% between 60-70% HRMAX, and only 1.4% between 80 and 90% HRMAX. The changes in estimated V̊O2MAX during the expedition depended on the pre-expedition aerobic fitness. The post-expedition V̊O2MAX increased by 5.9% and decreased by 14.3%in individuals with lower (researchers) and higher (mountaineers) initial V̊O2MAX, respectively. We concluded that physical effort in the Antarctic field is characterised as predominantly of low- to moderate-intensity. This effort represented an effective training load for individuals with lower initial V̊O2MAX, but not for those with higher V̊O2MAX.


Asunto(s)
Expediciones , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Regiones Antárticas , Pesos y Medidas Corporales , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aptitud Física
14.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(5): 347-351, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-977835

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study involved an analysis of the impact of mental fatigue on heart rate recovery (HRR), subjective measures of fatigue and intermittent running performance in handball players. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at (1) examining the effects of an induced state of mental fatigue on the aerobic performance of handball players, as measured by the Yo-Yo IR1 test, and (2) exploring possible changes in heart rate regulation through HRR analysis. METHODS: Twelve handball players (age: 17.50 ± 3.63 years; 5 ± 2.2 years of practice) undertook a Yo-Yo IR1 test on two occasions, separated by an interval of at least 72 hours. The Yo-Yo IR1 test was preceded by a 30-min treatment, consisting of the Stroop Color-Word Test, to induce mental fatigue. Participants in the control condition watched an emotionally neutral video. RESULTS: Higher ratings of mental fatigue and mental effort following the Stroop Test were observed for the experimental group. No differences in motivation were observed between conditions. Moreover, the induction of mental fatigue impaired running performance and led to a higher RPE during the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Notwithstanding, no changes in HRR or blood lactate levels were observed across conditions. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results suggest that mental fatigue impairs intermittent running performance, without affecting HRR values. Level of Evidence III; Case-Control study.


INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo envolveu uma análise do impacto da fadiga mental sobre a recuperação da frequência cardíaca (RFC), medidas subjetivas de fadiga e desempenho de corrida intermitente em jogadores de handebol. OBJETIVO: Este estudo visou (1) examinar os efeitos de um estado induzido de fadiga mental no desempenho aeróbico de jogadores de handebol, medido pelo teste Yo-Yo IR1 e (2) explorar possíveis alterações na regulação da frequência cardíaca através da análise da RFC. MÉTODOS: Doze jogadores de handebol (idade: 17,50 ± 3,63 anos, 5 ± 2,2 anos de prática) realizaram um teste Yo-Yo IR1 em duas ocasiões, com pelo menos 72 horas de intervalo. O teste Yo-Yo IR1 foi precedido por tratamento de 30 minutos que consistiu no teste Stroop Color-Word para induzir estado de fadiga mental. Os participantes na condição de controle assistiram a um vídeo emocionalmente neutro. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas taxas mais elevadas de fadiga mental e esforço mental após o teste Stroop para o grupo experimental. Não foram observadas diferenças na motivação entre as condições. Além disso, a indução de fadiga mental prejudicou o desempenho de corrida e levou a maior PSE durante o teste Yo-Yo IR1. Não obstante, não foram observadas alterações na RFC nem nas concentrações de lactato sanguíneo entre as condições. CONCLUSÃO: Em conjunto, esses resultados sugerem que a fadiga mental afeta o desempenho de corrida intermitente, sem alterar os valores de RFC. Nível de Evidência III; Estudo de caso-controle.


INTRODUCCIÓN: En el presente estudio se analizó el impacto de la fatiga mental en la recuperación de la frecuencia cardíaca (RFC), las medidas subjetivas de fatiga y el rendimiento intermitente en atletas de handball. OBJETIVO: los objetivos de este estudio fueron (1) examinar los efectos de un estado inducido de fatiga mental en el rendimiento aeróbico de atletas de handball, medida por el Yo-Yo IR1, y (2) explorar las posibles alteraciones en la regulación de la frecuencia cardíaca a través del análisis RFC. MÉTODOS: Doce atletas (edad: 17,50 ± 3,63 años, 5 ± 2,2 años de práctica) realizaron un test Yo-Yo IR1 en dos ocasiones, separados por un intervalo de al menos 72 horas. El test Yo-Yo IR1 fue precedido por un tratamiento de 30 minutos, consistente en el Stroop Color-Word Test, para inducir un estado de fatiga mental. Los participantes en la condición de control asistieron un video emocionalmente neutro. RESULTADOS: Se observaron altas percepciones de fatiga y esfuerzo mental después del test de Stroop para el grupo experimental. No se observaron diferencias de motivación entre las condiciones. Además, la inducción de fatiga mental perjudicó el desempeño de carrera y llevó a un mayor PSE durante el test Yo-Yo IR1. No obstante, no se observaron alteraciones en la RFC y en las concentraciones de lactato sanguíneo entre las condiciones. CONCLUSIÓN: En conjunto, estos resultados sugieren que la fatiga mental afecta el rendimiento intermitente de la carrera, sin alterar los valores de FCR. Nivel de Evidencia III; Estudio de caso-control.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Deportes , Rendimiento Atlético , Fatiga Mental/complicaciones , Atletas/psicología , Carrera , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Tolerancia al Ejercicio , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(2): 647-658, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412422

RESUMEN

The urban suburbs of Brazilian cities have grown without an adequate sanitation infrastructure. Different social groups try to overcome these shortcomings seeking local sanitation alternatives at individual or community levels, contrasting with the universal model of sewage networks. This study was developed in the suburban neighborhood of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to analyze the installation process of the sewage system under a territorial approach. Data facilitated the construction of territorial schemes related to conflicts during the implementation of sewage networks in this neighborhood, where middle class groups and favela residents coexist with environmental preservation areas, beaches and commercial activities. This work revealed the need for contextualized sanitation information made available by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and state sewage collection company, which conceal these conflicts or the representation of residents about their sanitation problems. Overlapping territorial managing functions should be considered as one of the factors responsible for the conflicts identified in the neighborhood. Further studies are suggested as methodological complementation and data update.


Asunto(s)
Saneamiento/métodos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Brasil , Ambiente , Humanos , Saneamiento/normas , Administración de Residuos/normas
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(2): 647-658, Fev. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890520

RESUMEN

Resumo O crescimento das periferias de grandes cidades do Brasil vem ocorrendo sem que disponham de infraestrutura de saneamento adequada. Diferentes grupos sociais procuram superar estas deficiências, buscando alternativas locais de saneamento, individuais ou comunitárias, que se contrapõem ao modelo universal de redes de coleta de esgoto. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no bairro do Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, a fim de analisar o processo de instalação do sistema de esgotamento sanitário, sob uma abordagem territorial. Os dados permitiram a construção de esquemas territoriais relacionados a conflitos durante a implantação da estrutura de esgotamento sanitário neste bairro, onde convivem grupos populacionais de classe média e moradores de favelas, áreas de preservação ambiental, praias e atividades comerciais. Foi levantada a necessidade de contextualização das informações sobre saneamento, disponibilizadas pelo IBGE e pela companhia estadual de saneamento, que não refletiam estes conflitos ou a representação dos moradores sobre seus problemas de saneamento. A sobreposição das atribuições de gestão dos territórios deve, ainda, ser considerada como um dos fatores responsáveis por parte dos conflitos levantados no bairro. Novos estudos são sugeridos como complementação metodológica e atualização de dados.


ABSTRACT The urban suburbs of Brazilian cities have grown without an adequate sanitation infrastructure. Different social groups try to overcome these shortcomings seeking local sanitation alternatives at individual or community levels, contrasting with the universal model of sewage networks. This study was developed in the suburban neighborhood of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to analyze the installation process of the sewage system under a territorial approach. Data facilitated the construction of territorial schemes related to conflicts during the implementation of sewage networks in this neighborhood, where middle class groups and favela residents coexist with environmental preservation areas, beaches and commercial activities. This work revealed the need for contextualized sanitation information made available by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and state sewage collection company, which conceal these conflicts or the representation of residents about their sanitation problems. Overlapping territorial managing functions should be considered as one of the factors responsible for the conflicts identified in the neighborhood. Further studies are suggested as methodological complementation and data update.

18.
Lasers Med Sci ; 33(3): 609-617, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29308552

RESUMEN

This research work mainly deals with studying qualitatively the changes in the dermal collagen of two forms of striae distensae (SD) namely striae rubrae (SR) and striae albae (SA) when compared to normal skin (NS) using confocal Raman spectroscopy. The methodology includes an in vivo human skin study for the comparison of confocal Raman spectra of dermis region of SR, SA, and NS by supervised multivariate analysis using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to determine qualitatively the changes in dermal collagen. These groups are further analyzed for the extent of hydration of dermal collagen by studying the changes in the water content bound to it. PLS-DA score plot showed good separation of the confocal Raman spectra of dermis region into SR, SA, and NS data groups. Further analysis using loading plot and S-plot indicated the participation of various components of dermal collagen in the separation of these groups. Bound water content analysis showed that the extent of hydration of collagen is more in SD when compared to NS. Based on the results obtained, this study confirms the active involvement of dermal collagen in the formation of SD. It also emphasizes the need to study quantitatively the role of these various biochemical changes in the dermal collagen responsible for the variance between SR, SA, and NS.


Asunto(s)
Colágeno/metabolismo , Dermis/metabolismo , Espectrometría Raman/métodos , Estrías de Distensión/diagnóstico , Estrías de Distensión/metabolismo , Adulto , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Agua/metabolismo
19.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 30(2): 208-215, 2018 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276857

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on heart rate variability, subjective measures of fatigue, and swimming performance in young athletes. METHODS: Sixteen swimmers [15.45 (0.51) y old, 7.35 (2.20) y of swimming experience] performed a 1500-m time trial on 2 occasions separated by an interval of at least 72 hours. The 1500-m swimming was preceded by a 30-minute treatment that consisted of performing the Stroop Color and Word test to induce mental fatigue (experimental trial) or watching an emotionally neutral video (control trial). RESULTS: Participants reported higher ratings of mental fatigue and mental effort following the Stroop test when compared with the control trial, but no differences in motivation were observed. The induction of mental fatigue impaired swimming performance, as evidenced by a slower time (1.2%) to complete the 1500-m trial. No intertrial differences were identified for rating of perceived exertion during the swimming test or in heart rate variability after the Stroop and swimming tests. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that induction of mental fatigue impairs 1500-m swimming performance without changing heart rate variability.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Fatiga Mental , Natación/psicología , Adolescente , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Test de Stroop
20.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 19(2): 753-760, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983836

RESUMEN

This research work mainly deals with the application of confocal Raman spectroscopic technique to study in vivo human skin penetration of sunscreen products, as there are a lot of controversies associated with their skin penetration. Healthy human volunteers were tested for penetration of two commercial sunscreen products into their volar forearm skin for a period of 2 h. Measurements were taken before and after application of these sunscreen products. All the confocal Raman spectra were pre-processed and then subjected to multivariate two-dimensional principal component analysis and classical least squares analysis to determine the skin penetration of these sunscreens in comparison to the "sunscreen product spectrum" which was considered as the control. Score plots of principal component analysis of confocal Raman spectra indicated clear separation between the spectra before and after application of sunscreen products. Loading plots showed the maximum differences in the spectral region from 1590 to 1626 cm-1 where the characteristic peak of the pure sunscreen products was observed. Classical least squares analysis has shown a significant penetration to a depth of 10 µm in the volar forearm skin of healthy human volunteers for both these sunscreen products. The results confirm that the penetration of these tested sunscreen products was restricted to stratum corneum and also prove that confocal Raman spectroscopy is a simple, fast, nondestructive, and noninvasive semi-quantitative analytical technique for these studies.


Asunto(s)
Piel/metabolismo , Protectores Solares/farmacocinética , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Análisis Multivariante , Análisis de Componente Principal , Absorción Cutánea , Espectrometría Raman/métodos , Adulto Joven
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