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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(7): 2605-2614, 2020 Jul 08.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667544

RESUMEN

This study aimed to track the prevalence of Food Insecurity (FI) and to study associated factors in households with children, women and older adults in the rural area of the city of Rio Grande, RS. This is a cross-sectional population-based study, with systematic sampling of 80% of permanently inhabited households. A short version of the Brazilian Scale of Food Insecurity (EBIA) was employed. The associated factors included data referring to the head of the household, as well as data referring to the household. The levels of prevalence and prevalence ratios and their respective confidence intervals were calculated for food insecurity through Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 1,627 domiciles interviewed, 26% were in an FI situation, and households that included three populations were higher. The most affected domiciles were those in which the head of the household had less than four years of schooling, with more residents, without animal husbandry, belonging to the lowest income quartile and receiving family grants ("Bolsa Família" Program). This study showed the relevance and magnitude of the FI problem in the rural region of Rio Grande since knowledge about the actual FI prevalence of this region is unknown.

2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(7): 2605-2614, Jul. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1133070

RESUMEN

Resumo O estudo objetivou rastrear a prevalência de Insegurança Alimentar (IA) e estudar fatores associados em domicílios com crianças, mulheres e idosos na área rural do município de Rio Grande, RS, em 2017. Foi um estudo transversal com amostragem sistemática de 80% dos domicílios permanentemente habitados. Utilizou-se uma versão reduzida da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar (EBIA). Os fatores associados contemplaram dados referentes ao chefe da família, além de dados referentes ao domicílio. Prevalências e Razões de Prevalências e seus respectivos Intervalos de Confiança foram calculadas para a IA por meio da Regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Dos 1.627 domicílios entrevistados, 26% se encontraram em situação de IA, sendo maior naqueles domicílios que continham as três populações. Os domicílios mais atingidos foram os que o chefe da família tinha menor escolaridade, maior número de moradores, sem criação de animais, pertencentes ao menor quartil de renda e que recebiam Bolsa Família. Esse estudo mostrou a importância e a dimensão do problema da IA na região rural de Rio Grande, já que o conhecimento da real prevalência de IA nessa região é desconhecido.


Abstract This study aimed to track the prevalence of Food Insecurity (FI) and to study associated factors in households with children, women and older adults in the rural area of the city of Rio Grande, RS. This is a cross-sectional population-based study, with systematic sampling of 80% of permanently inhabited households. A short version of the Brazilian Scale of Food Insecurity (EBIA) was employed. The associated factors included data referring to the head of the household, as well as data referring to the household. The levels of prevalence and prevalence ratios and their respective confidence intervals were calculated for food insecurity through Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 1,627 domiciles interviewed, 26% were in an FI situation, and households that included three populations were higher. The most affected domiciles were those in which the head of the household had less than four years of schooling, with more residents, without animal husbandry, belonging to the lowest income quartile and receiving family grants ("Bolsa Família" Program). This study showed the relevance and magnitude of the FI problem in the rural region of Rio Grande since knowledge about the actual FI prevalence of this region is unknown.

3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(6): 2093-2102, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520257

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the oral health, the use of dental services and associated factors among individuals aged 60 years, or more, living in the rural area. METHOD: This is a population-based, cross-sectional study carried out in the rural area of a medium-sized municipality in the extreme south of Brazil. The outcome was to have used dental services in the 12 months before the date of the interview. The analysis included a description of the sample, prevalence of the use of dental services for each category of independent variables and multivariate analysis through Poisson Regression. RESULTS: In total, 1,030 older adults were interviewed, of which 49.9% were totally edentulous patients, and 13.9% had dental visits in the last year. The probability of visits was higher in females, with a partner, higher schooling, of the highest economic levels and that reported some oral health problem. On the other hand, elderly who reported being former smokers or were current smokers had fewer visits. CONCLUSIONS: Health planning should be reorganized to prioritize population groups with more significant difficulties in the use of dental services.

4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(6): 2093-2102, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101027

RESUMEN

Resumo Este artigo objetiva avaliar a saúde bucal, a utilização de serviços odontológicos e os fatores associados entre indivíduos com 60 anos, ou mais, residentes em área rural. Estudo transversal, de base populacional, realizado na zona rural de um município de porte médio do extremo sul do Brasil. O desfecho foi ter utilizado serviços odontológicos nos 12 meses anteriores à data da entrevista. A análise abrangeu descrição da amostra, prevalência da utilização de serviços odontológicos para cada categoria das variáveis independentes e análise multivariada através da Regressão de Poisson. Foram entrevistados 1.030 idosos, sendo 49,9% edêntulos totais e tendo 13,9% consultado com dentista no último ano. A probabilidade de consultar foi maior em idosos do sexo feminino, com companheiros(as), com maior escolaridade, pertencentes aos melhores níveis econômicos e que referiram ter algum problema de saúde bucal. Por sua vez, idosos que relataram ser ex-fumantes ou fumantes consultaram menos. Planejamentos em saúde devem ser reorganizados com o intuito de priorizar grupos populacionais com maiores dificuldades na utilização dos serviços odontológicos.


Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the oral health, the use of dental services and associated factors among individuals aged 60 years, or more, living in the rural area. Method: This is a population-based, cross-sectional study carried out in the rural area of a medium-sized municipality in the extreme south of Brazil. The outcome was to have used dental services in the 12 months before the date of the interview. The analysis included a description of the sample, prevalence of the use of dental services for each category of independent variables and multivariate analysis through Poisson Regression. Results: In total, 1,030 older adults were interviewed, of which 49.9% were totally edentulous patients, and 13.9% had dental visits in the last year. The probability of visits was higher in females, with a partner, higher schooling, of the highest economic levels and that reported some oral health problem. On the other hand, elderly who reported being former smokers or were current smokers had fewer visits. Conclusions: Health planning should be reorganized to prioritize population groups with more significant difficulties in the use of dental services.

5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4655-4664, dez. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055729

RESUMEN

Abstract This article aims to identify the prevalence and factors associated with influenza vaccination in pregnant women. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a municipality in the southernmost region of Brazil, which included all women giving birth in 2016. The outcome was having received the vaccine against influenza during pregnancy. Sociodemographic, behavioral and prenatal care characteristics and morbidities were analyzed. The analysis included sample description, the prevalence of vaccination for each independent variable and a multivariate analysis. Two thousand six hundred ninety-four pregnant women were interviewed, of which 53.9% reported having been vaccinated. Factors associated with increased prevalence of vaccination were mother's higher schooling, prenatal care, tetanus vaccination and prenatal care performed in a public service. On the other hand, prenatal care onset after the first quarter reduced the prevalence of vaccination. The results point to the need to reinforce the importance of vaccination against influenza among pregnant women and among health professionals, regardless of the severity of the current epidemiological setting.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar a prevalência da imunização contra a gripe em mulheres grávidas e seus fatores associados. Estudo transversal realizado em um município no extremo sul do Brasil, que incluiu todas as mulheres que deram à luz no ano de 2016. O desfecho foi ter recebido a vacina contra a gripe durante a gravidez. Características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, do pré-natal e morbidades foram analisadas como fatores associados à vacinação. A análise constou de descrição da amostra, prevalência da vacinação para cada uma das variáveis independentes e análise multivariada. Foram entrevistadas 2.694 parturientes, das quais 53,9% informaram ter recebido a vacina. Os fatores associados a uma maior prevalência de imunização foram: maior escolaridade materna, realização do pré-natal, ter realizado a vacina antitetânica e fazer o pré-natal em um serviço público. Por outro lado, o início do pré-natal após o primeiro trimestre reduziu a prevalência de imunização. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de reforçar a importância da imunização contra a Influenza entre mulheres grávidas e entre profissionais da saúde, independentemente da gravidade do atual cenário epidemiológico.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Mujeres Embarazadas , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Atención Prenatal , Brasil , Toxoide Tetánico/administración & dosificación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Multivariante , Escolaridad
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(12): 4655-4664, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778515

RESUMEN

This article aims to identify the prevalence and factors associated with influenza vaccination in pregnant women. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a municipality in the southernmost region of Brazil, which included all women giving birth in 2016. The outcome was having received the vaccine against influenza during pregnancy. Sociodemographic, behavioral and prenatal care characteristics and morbidities were analyzed. The analysis included sample description, the prevalence of vaccination for each independent variable and a multivariate analysis. Two thousand six hundred ninety-four pregnant women were interviewed, of which 53.9% reported having been vaccinated. Factors associated with increased prevalence of vaccination were mother's higher schooling, prenatal care, tetanus vaccination and prenatal care performed in a public service. On the other hand, prenatal care onset after the first quarter reduced the prevalence of vaccination. The results point to the need to reinforce the importance of vaccination against influenza among pregnant women and among health professionals, regardless of the severity of the current epidemiological setting.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Análisis Multivariante , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Toxoide Tetánico/administración & dosificación , Adulto Joven
7.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 28(3): e2018197, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664363

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze prevalence of positive self-perception of diet and association with sociodemographic and behavioral factors, morbidity, self-perception of health and weight, and body weight care, in the city of Rio Grande, RS, Brazil, in 2016. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study conducted with adults and elderly people resident in the city of Rio Grande using 13 indicators of healthy eating and positive self-perception of diet (outcome); Poisson regression was used. RESULTS: the sample consisted of 1,243 individuals, 72.4% of whom reported positive self-perception of diet; indicators such as weekly consumption of greens or vegetables (PR=133 - 95%CI 1.22;1.45) and fruit (PR=1.35 - 95%CI 1.22;1.48) were positively associated with the outcome; no significant difference was found between sexes. CONCLUSION: positive self-perception of diet is associated with healthy eating indicators among adults and the elderly and can be useful in epidemiological surveys.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoimagen , Adulto Joven
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(9): 3469-3482, 2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508765

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (STD-KQ). A convenience sample of 429 students of a Brazilian public university participated in the study. Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested one factor solution (variance explained = 61.1%, eigenvalue = 7.2), confirmed by the confirmatory analysis (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.04; Comparative Fit Index = 0.91; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.90; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual = 0.05). Five items feature charges less than 0.30 and wer eliminated. The instrument demonstrated internal consistency (Composite reliability = 0.97; Cronbach's alpha = 0.83) and temporal stability (Pearson correlation = 0.86; kappa = 0.16) over a brief period. The knowledge significantly varies by age, sex and course of study. In conclusion, this study highlights the satisfactory psychometric proprieties of the Brazilian version of STD-KQ in university students.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3469-3482, set. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019684

RESUMEN

Resumo Este estudo analisou as propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Questionário sobre Conhecimento de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis (STD-KQ). Participou uma amostra de conveniência de 429 estudantes de uma universidade pública brasileira. A análise fatorial exploratória sugere uma estrutura com um fator (variância explicada = 61,1%; eigenvalue = 7,2), sendo corroborada pela análise confirmatória (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0,04; Comparative Fit Index = 0,91; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0,90; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual = 0,05). Cinco itens apresentaram carga menor que 0,30 e por isso foram excluídos. O instrumento demonstrou consistência interna (confiabilidade composta = 0,97; alfa de Cronbach = 0,83) e estabilidade temporal (correlação de Pearson = 0, 86; kappa = 0,16) para um curto período. O conhecimento significativamente variou conforme a idade, o sexo e o curso. Concluindo, o presente estudo destaca as satisfatórias propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do STD-KQ em estudantes universitários.


Abstract This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (STD-KQ). A convenience sample of 429 students of a Brazilian public university participated in the study. Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested one factor solution (variance explained = 61.1%, eigenvalue = 7.2), confirmed by the confirmatory analysis (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.04; Comparative Fit Index = 0.91; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.90; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual = 0.05). Five items feature charges less than 0.30 and wer eliminated. The instrument demonstrated internal consistency (Composite reliability = 0.97; Cronbach's alpha = 0.83) and temporal stability (Pearson correlation = 0.86; kappa = 0.16) over a brief period. The knowledge significantly varies by age, sex and course of study. In conclusion, this study highlights the satisfactory psychometric proprieties of the Brazilian version of STD-KQ in university students.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 114-121, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279609

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection usually causes self-limited acute hepatitis. In immunosuppressed patients, HEV-3 infection can rapidly progress to chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. In southern Brazil, data on HEV seroprevalence are scarce. METHODS: Testing for HEV RNA and antibodies (anti-HEV) was performed for 320 HIV-infected patients followed at the HIV/AIDS Service of the Federal University of Rio Grande between 2012 and 2013, as well as 281 blood donor samples obtained in 2015. Variables associated with anti-HEV positivity were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: HIV and blood donor groups showed similar HEV seroprevalence (6.7% and 7.1%, respectively). Risk factors associated with anti-HEV detection were older age, marital status, a higher number of sexual partners, poor sanitation, and alcohol use (HIV group), and living in a rural area (blood donors). HEV RNA was detected in eight serum samples from HIV-infected patients and in one blood donor, who was also positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgG. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rates of HEV infection were comparable between HIV-seropositive patients who were not severely immunocompromised and blood donors. The blood donor's HEV isolate showed high similarity with swine HEV strains from Brazilian herds in the same region, thus indicating a potential risk of foodborne and parenteral transmission via blood transfusion.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre , Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Virus de la Hepatitis E/genética , Hepatitis E/epidemiología , Adulto , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Anticuerpos Antihepatitis/sangre , Hepatitis E/complicaciones , Hepatitis E/virología , Virus de la Hepatitis E/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(1): 45-52, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698239

RESUMEN

A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,246 adults and senior men and women in Pelotas (RS), Brasil to evaluate the negative self-perception of health among Primary Health Care users. The prevalence of negative self-perception of health was reported by 41.6% of respondents. Women, those who were unemployed, who reported a diagnosis of three or more chronic noncommunicable diseases, who were food insecure and did not engage in physical activity reported a higher proportion of negative self-perceived health. Users with at least higher education level and those whose households had four or more residents were less predisposed to the outcome. The high prevalence of negative self-perceived health in this population, as well as the associations found, indicate the need for a better understanding of the influence of these factors on the search for care and, consequently, on adherence to treatment.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Estado de Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud , Autoimagen , Adulto , Brasil , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(1): 45-52, ene. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-974816

RESUMEN

Resumo Com o objetivo de avaliar a autopercepção negativa da saúde entre usuários da atenção básica de saúde, foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1246 adultos e idosos, de ambos os sexos, em Pelotas, RS. A prevalência da autopercepção negativa da saúde foi referida por 41,6% dos entrevistados. As mulheres, aqueles que não estavam trabalhando, que referiram diagnóstico de três ou mais doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, que estavam em insegurança alimentar e não praticavam atividade física relataram em maior proporção, a autopercepção negativa da saúde. Enquanto que os usuários com no mínimo o ensino superior e aqueles cujos domicílios tinham quatro ou mais moradores foram menos predispostos ao desfecho. A elevada prevalência de autopercepção negativa da saúde nessa população, bem como as associações encontradas, indicam a necessidade de maior entendimento sobre a influência desses fatores na procura pelo atendimento e, consequentemente, na adesão ao tratamento.


Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,246 adults and senior men and women in Pelotas (RS), Brasil to evaluate the negative self-perception of health among Primary Health Care users. The prevalence of negative self-perception of health was reported by 41.6% of respondents. Women, those who were unemployed, who reported a diagnosis of three or more chronic noncommunicable diseases, who were food insecure and did not engage in physical activity reported a higher proportion of negative self-perceived health. Users with at least higher education level and those whose households had four or more residents were less predisposed to the outcome. The high prevalence of negative self-perceived health in this population, as well as the associations found, indicate the need for a better understanding of the influence of these factors on the search for care and, consequently, on adherence to treatment.

13.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(3): e2018197, 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039799

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar a prevalência de autopercepção positiva da alimentação e sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais, morbidades, autopercepção da saúde e do peso e cuidados com o peso corporal, no município de Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, em 2016. Métodos: estudo transversal realizado com adultos e idosos residentes no município. Foram aplicados 13 indicadores de alimentação saudável e autopercepção de alimentação (desfecho). Empregou-se regressão de Poisson. Resultados: a amostra foi de 1.243 indivíduos, dos quais 72,4% referiram autopercepção positiva da alimentação. Indicadores como consumo semanal de verduras ou legumes (RP=1,33 - IC95% 1,22;1,45) e frutas (RP=1,35 - IC95% 1,22;1,48) foram positivamente associados ao desfecho. Não houve diferença significativa entre os sexos. Conclusão: a autopercepção de alimentação positiva se associa com indicadores de alimentação entre adultos e idosos, podendo ser útil em estudos epidemiológicos.


Objetivo: investigar la prevalencia de autopercepción positiva de la alimentación, sus factores sociodemográficos y comportamentales, morbilidades, autopercepción de la salud/peso y cuidados con el peso corporal en el municipio de Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, en 2016. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado con adultos y ancianos residentes en el municipio de Rio Grande; se aplicaron 13 indicadores de alimentación saludable y autopercepción de la alimentación; se utilizó la regresión de Poisson. Resultados: la muestra fue de 1.243 individuos, 72,4% refirió autopercepción positiva de la alimentación; indicadores como consumo semanal de verduras o legumbres (RP=1,33 - IC95% 1,22;1,45) y frutas (RP=1,35 - IC95% 1,22;1,48) fueron positivamente asociadas al desenlace (p<0,001); no hubo diferencia significativa entre los sexos. Conclusión: la autopercepción positiva de la alimentación se asocia con indicadores de alimentación entre adultos y ancianos pudiendo ser útil en estudios epidemiológicos.


Objective: to analyze prevalence of positive self-perception of diet and association with sociodemographic and behavioral factors, morbidity, self-perception of health and weight, and body weight care, in the city of Rio Grande, RS, Brazil, in 2016. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted with adults and elderly people resident in the city of Rio Grande using 13 indicators of healthy eating and positive self-perception of diet (outcome); Poisson regression was used. Results: the sample consisted of 1,243 individuals, 72.4% of whom reported positive self-perception of diet; indicators such as weekly consumption of greens or vegetables (PR=133 - 95%CI 1.22;1.45) and fruit (PR=1.35 - 95%CI 1.22;1.48) were positively associated with the outcome; no significant difference was found between sexes. Conclusion: positive self-perception of diet is associated with healthy eating indicators among adults and the elderly and can be useful in epidemiological surveys.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Consumo de Alimentos , Dieta/psicología , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(8): 2587-2597, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137128

RESUMEN

The scope of the study was to evaluate the temporal trend and spatial distribution of congenital syphilis (CS) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. All cases reported by the SINASC/DATASUS between 2001 and 2012 were included. The number of live births was obtained from DATASUS. Incidence rates of CS were grouped according to micro-regions of IBGE and analyzed for the entire period and for triennia. The spatial correlation was analyzed by the global Moran index (I) and the local index. 3,613 cases were reported. Between 2007 and 2012 89 neonates (3.6%) died. Rates varied from to 1.03 in 2001 to 5.1 cases per 1000 live births in 2012, with an annual increase of 0.84 cases per 1000 live births (p < 0.01) and 93.88% of explained variance. The micro-regions were spatially independent (I = 0.06; p = 0.25), with Porto Alegre having the highest incidence (4.19 cases / 1000 live births) and Jaguarão the lowest (0.23 cases / 1000 live births). Micro-regions with significant local spatial dependence were observed. The increase in cases of CS highlights poor prenatal quality care. Identification of the micro-regions with the highest incidence is essential to focus public policy on this health problem.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Atención Prenatal/normas , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Sífilis Congénita/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Embarazo , Análisis Espacial
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(8): 2587-2597, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-952723

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar a tendência temporal e a distribuição espacial da Sífilis Congênita (SC) no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Todos os casos notificados pelo Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação entre 2001 e 2012 foram incluídos. Os números de nascidos vivos foram obtidos do SINASC/DATASUS. As taxas de incidência de SC foram agrupados conforme as microrregiões do IBGE e analisados para todo o período e em triênios. A correlação espacial foi analisada pelo índice de Moran global (I) e local. Foram notificados 3.613 casos. Entre 2007 e 2012 morreram 89 neonatos (3,6%). As taxas de SC variaram de 1,03 em 2001 a 5,1 casos por 1.000 nascidos vivos em 2012, com um incremento anual de 0,84 casos por 1.000 nascidos vivos (p < 0,01) e 93,88% da variação explicada. As microrregiões foram espacialmente independentes (I = 0,06; p = 0,25), tendo Porto Alegre a maior incidência (4,19 casos/1.000 nascidos vivos) e Jaguarão a menor (0,23 casos/1.000 nascidos vivos). Observaram-se microrregiões com dependência espacial local significativa. O aumento dos casos de SC salienta um déficit na qualidade do pré-natal. A identificação das microrregiões com maior incidência é essencial para focalizar as políticas públicas sobre esse tema.


Abstract The scope of the study was to evaluate the temporal trend and spatial distribution of congenital syphilis (CS) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. All cases reported by the SINASC/DATASUS between 2001 and 2012 were included. The number of live births was obtained from DATASUS. Incidence rates of CS were grouped according to micro-regions of IBGE and analyzed for the entire period and for triennia. The spatial correlation was analyzed by the global Moran index (I) and the local index. 3,613 cases were reported. Between 2007 and 2012 89 neonates (3.6%) died. Rates varied from to 1.03 in 2001 to 5.1 cases per 1000 live births in 2012, with an annual increase of 0.84 cases per 1000 live births (p < 0.01) and 93.88% of explained variance. The micro-regions were spatially independent (I = 0.06; p = 0.25), with Porto Alegre having the highest incidence (4.19 cases / 1000 live births) and Jaguarão the lowest (0.23 cases / 1000 live births). Micro-regions with significant local spatial dependence were observed. The increase in cases of CS highlights poor prenatal quality care. Identification of the micro-regions with the highest incidence is essential to focus public policy on this health problem.

16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD006458, 2017 12 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265171

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Airway oedema (swelling) and mucus plugging are the principal pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution (≥ 3%) may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. This is an update of a review first published in 2008, and previously updated in 2010 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic (≥ 3%) saline solution in infants with acute bronchiolitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, and Web of Science on 11 August 2017. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 8 April 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials using nebulised hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as an active intervention and nebulised 0.9% saline, or standard treatment as a comparator in children under 24 months with acute bronchiolitis. The primary outcome for inpatient trials was length of hospital stay, and the primary outcome for outpatients or emergency department trials was rate of hospitalisation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias in included studies. We conducted random-effects model meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We used mean difference (MD), risk ratio (RR), and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) as effect size metrics. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 26 new trials in this update, of which 9 await classification due to insufficient data for eligibility assessment, and 17 trials (N = 3105) met the inclusion criteria. We included a total of 28 trials involving 4195 infants with acute bronchiolitis, of whom 2222 infants received hypertonic saline.Hospitalised infants treated with nebulised hypertonic saline had a statistically significant shorter mean length of hospital stay compared to those treated with nebulised 0.9% saline (MD -0.41 days, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.07; P = 0.02, I² = 79%; 17 trials; 1867 infants) (GRADE quality of evidence: low). Infants who received hypertonic saline also had statistically significant lower post-inhalation clinical scores than infants who received 0.9% saline in the first three days of treatment (day 1: MD -0.77, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.36, P < 0.001; day 2: MD -1.28, 95% CI -1.91 to -0.65, P < 0.001; day 3: MD -1.43, 95% CI -1.82 to -1.04, P < 0.001) (GRADE quality of evidence: low).Nebulised hypertonic saline reduced the risk of hospitalisation by 14% compared with nebulised 0.9% saline among infants who were outpatients and those treated in the emergency department (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.98; P = 0.02, I² = 7%; 8 trials; 1723 infants) (GRADE quality of evidence: moderate).Twenty-four trials presented safety data: 13 trials (1363 infants, 703 treated with hypertonic saline) did not report any adverse events, and 11 trials (2360 infants, 1265 treated with hypertonic saline) reported at least one adverse event, most of which were mild and resolved spontaneously. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Nebulised hypertonic saline may modestly reduce length of stay among infants hospitalised with acute bronchiolitis and improve clinical severity score. Treatment with nebulised hypertonic saline may also reduce the risk of hospitalisation among outpatients and emergency department patients. However, we assessed the quality of the evidence as low to moderate.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiolitis Viral/terapia , Solución Salina Hipertónica/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Aguda , Obstrucción de las Vías Aéreas , Broncodilatadores/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Lactante , Tiempo de Internación , Nebulizadores y Vaporizadores , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(12): 4073-4082, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267724

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge of methods for screening breast cancer. The study was done on a population of women aged 18 or over in the city of Rio Grande between April and November 2011. Interviewers used questionnaires on all of the women at selected households. Models were developed for every type of screening (self-examination of breasts, mammography, and clinical exams) that were analyzed through the use of Poisson regression. Out of the 1596 women interviewed, 1355 reported self-examination, 456, mammography, and only 191, clinical examination of the breast, performed by a health professional, as important for the prevention of breast cancer. White women with 11 years or more worth of schooling had a greater probability of having mammography exams and clinical examinations as methods for screening. We noted, linked to the aforementioned, that there was a linear tendency whereby there was a greater probability for those with high incomes to undergo one of the above interventions. The study noted that there was a need for more detailed information aimed at the population on prevention methods in order to avoid late diagnosis. We noted that non-white women with little education and on low incomes showed less knowledge of clinical examination methods and mammographies.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Mamografía/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución de Poisson , Prevención Secundaria/métodos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(12): 4073-4082, Dez. 2017. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-890242

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar o conhecimento das mulheres sobre métodos de rastreamento do câncer de mama. Estudo de base populacional com mulheres de 18 anos ou mais em Rio Grande, entre abril e novembro de 2011. Entrevistadoras aplicavam questionário pré-codificado em todas as mulheres do domicílio selecionado. Construiuse um modelo para cada forma de rastreamento (autoexame das mamas, mamografia e exame clínico), analisados por regressão de Poisson. Das 1596 mulheres entrevistadas, 1355 referiram o autoexame, 456, a mamografia e, apenas 191, o exame clínico da mama, realizado por um profissional de saúde, como importantes para a prevenção do câncer de mama. As mulheres brancas, e com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade, tiveram maior probabilidade de referirem a mamografia e o exame clínico como métodos de rastreamento. Para esses dois desfechos, também se observou uma tendência linear, sendo que a probabilidade de referir uma dessas formas de rastreamento se incrementou na medida em que aumentaram os quartis de renda. O estudo aponta para a necessidade de maior esclarecimento da população sobre os métodos de prevenção, evitando, assim, o diagnóstico tardio. Evidenciou-se que as mulheres não brancas e as de baixa escolaridade e renda, demonstraram menos conhecimentos sobre os métodos de exame clínico e mamografia.


Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge of methods for screening breast cancer. The study was done on a population of women aged 18 or over in the city of Rio Grande between April and November 2011. Interviewers used questionnaires on all of the women at selected households. Models were developed for every type of screening (self-examination of breasts, mammography, and clinical exams) that were analyzed through the use of Poisson regression. Out of the 1596 women interviewed, 1355 reported self-examination, 456, mammography, and only 191, clinical examination of the breast, performed by a health professional, as important for the prevention of breast cancer. White women with 11 years or more worth of schooling had a greater probability of having mammography exams and clinical examinations as methods for screening. We noted, linked to the aforementioned, that there was a linear tendency whereby there was a greater probability for those with high incomes to undergo one of the above interventions. The study noted that there was a need for more detailed information aimed at the population on prevention methods in order to avoid late diagnosis. We noted that non-white women with little education and on low incomes showed less knowledge of clinical examination methods and mammographies.

19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33(9): e00094016, 2017 Oct 09.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019521

RESUMEN

The aim was to identify the prevalence of postpartum depression and associated factors in women in a medium-sized city in Southern Brazil during 2013. Trained female interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire to all participants in the city's two maternity hospitals. The study analyzed demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, social support, and disease characteristics. Screening for depression was done within the first 48 hours postpartum, using the Edinburgh Scale with a cutoff of ≥ 10. Multivariate analysis used Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 2,687 women interviewed, 14% (95%CI: 12.9-15.6) were identified with depression. Factors such as previous depression, third-trimester sadness, and family history of depression were associated with increased risk of postpartum depression, as were younger maternal age and multiparity. Social support from the health team for the pregnant woman was an important protective factor, reducing the prevalence of postpartum depression by 23%. The results suggest the need for actions by health services for pregnant women in order to provide enhanced care during this delicate phase.


Asunto(s)
Depresión Posparto/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Apoyo Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 63(7): 628-635, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977089

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pregnancy recurrence among adolescents and young people in a city located in the extreme south of Brazil and to identify associated factors. METHOD: One hundred and twelve (112) women participated, having delivered their children in 2010, while adolescents. The sample was stratified in two stages, being the first a census of the whole population of the city and the second a convenience sample. For statistical analysis, Pearson Chi-square test was used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The recurrence rate was 53.6%, with an average of 28.6 months. At the time of delivery, in 2010, recurrence was significantly associated with level of education (p=0.044) as well as not being in school (p=0.036). In 2014, the factors associated were level of education (p<0.001), transcript of grades (p=0.030) and income (p=0.030). CONCLUSION: Recurrence of teenage pregnancy represents a lack of importance given to formal education, a fact that mitigates the opportunities and hinders insertion in the labor market, creating a cycle of social inequality. Multidisciplinary efforts involving schools, health services and the youth in educational activities are thus vital, aiming at critical thinking to transform reality.


Asunto(s)
Embarazo en Adolescencia , Adolescente , Brasil , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual , Factores Socioeconómicos
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