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1.
Cad. Bras. Ter. Ocup ; 27(2): 372-383, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011679

RESUMEN

Resumo Introdução Nas últimas décadas ocorreram mudanças no entendimento da deficiência e avanços no que tange aos direitos humanos das pessoas com deficiência. Apesar disso, estudos mostram que essas pessoas ainda encontram barreiras que restringem sua participação nos diversos contextos sociais, como o transporte aéreo. Objetivo Analisar as condições e procedimentos de acessibilidade em aeroportos brasileiros e compreender as experiências de viagem de pessoas com deficiência visual nas fases de pré-voo, embarque e desembarque. Método Pesquisa com abordagem quantitativa-qualitativa realizada a partir de observação participante em viagens aéreas, entrevista de autoconfrontação com passageiros com deficiência visual e verificação do cumprimento das regras sobre condições e procedimentos de acessibilidade por meio de checklists baseados na norma ABNT NBR-9050/2015 e na Resolução ANAC nº 280/2013. Resultados Participaram do estudo sete passageiros com deficiência visual, incluindo pessoas com cegueira ou com baixa visão, e 30 gerentes de base e supervisores vinculados a quatro companhias aéreas que operam no transporte aéreo doméstico brasileiro. Foram analisados 10 aeroportos, nos quais os passageiros vivenciaram dificuldades que se relacionam, principalmente, a inadequação, descontinuidade e insuficiência das informações e sinalizações, descumprimento e desconhecimento dos procedimentos relativos à acessibilidade, impropriedade da alocação de assentos preferenciais e do atendimento prestado aos passageiros. Conclusão O estudo evidenciou descumprimento das normas e resoluções relativas à acessibilidade além de problemas que afetam a orientação espacial, o deslocamento e a comunicação nas viagens aéreas. Espera-se contribuir para a transformação da acessibilidade nos aeroportos brasileiros, visando favorecer a participação das pessoas com deficiência nas viagens aéreas.


Abstract Introduction In the last decades, there have been changes in the understanding of disability and advances in the human rights of people with disabilities. Nevertheless, studies show that disabled people still encounter barriers which restrict their participation in various social contexts, such as air transportation. Objective To analyze accessibility conditions and procedures in Brazilian airports and to understand the travel experiences of people with visual impairment in the pre-flight, embarkation and disembarkation phases. Method Quantitative-qualitative research based on participant observation in air travel, auto-confrontation interview with visually impaired passengers, and verification of rules compliance of accessibility conditions and procedures through checklists based on ABNT NBR-9050/2015 and ANAC Resolution nº 280/2013. Results The participants were seven passengers with visual impairment, either blind or with low vision plus 30 managers and supervisors linked to four different airlines that operate in the Brazilian air transportation. Ten airports were analyzed, in which passengers experienced difficulties related, mainly, to the inadequacy, discontinuity and insufficiency of information and signage; noncompliance with and lack of knowledge of accessibility procedures; inappropriate allocation of preferential seats and attendance to passengers. Conclusion Besides evidencing the noncompliance with the norms and resolutions related to accessibility, the study also evidenced problems that affect the spatial orientation, the displacement and the communication in travels. Having all this compiled data, contributions to transformation of accessibility in Brazilian airports is expected, with a view to favoring the participation of people with disabilities in air travel.

2.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 41: e9, 2016. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-959276

RESUMEN

Resumo Introdução: com o aumento do número de voos e passageiros, as tarefas atribuídas aos comissários de bordo tornam-se mais complexas, podendo gerar sobrecarga e prejuízo à saúde e ao desempenho desses trabalhadores. Objetivos: identificar e sistematizar os artigos publicados em periódicos científicos, sobre o impacto de fatores físicos, ambientais e organizacionais do trabalho dos comissários de bordo na saúde desses trabalhadores. Método: revisão sistemática da literatura, em português e inglês, utilizando as palavras-chave "aeronave", "cabine", "transporte aéreo", "comissário de bordo" e "trabalho", nas bases de dados ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest e SciELO, considerando o período de 1983 a 2013. Resultados: 65 artigos atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Verificou-se um predomínio de trabalhos com foco em fatores físicos e/ou relacionados à saúde/doença e em fatores relacionados à satisfação no trabalho e poucos estudos abordando a organização do trabalho. Conclusão: os estudos encontrados analisaram os fatores presentes nas situações de trabalho de comissários de bordo de forma isolada. Não foram encontrados estudos que adotassem uma metodologia de análise das situações de trabalho que possibilitasse estabelecer inter-relações entre os fatores determinantes da carga de trabalho desses trabalhadores e os impactos para sua saúde.


Abstract Introduction: with the increase in the number of flights and passengers, the tasks carried out by flight attendants become more complex, and may cause overload and damage to their health and performance. Objective: to identify articles and systematize information published in scientific journals related to flight attendants' health impact of the physical, environmental and organizational factors of their work. Method: systematic review of the scientific literature, in Portuguese and English, using the keywords "aircraft", "cabin", "air transportation", "flight attendant" and "work" in ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest and SciELO databases, published between 1983-2013. Results: 65 articles met the inclusion criteria. There was a predominance of studies focusing on physical factors and/or factors related to health/disease and related to job satisfaction, with few studies addressing work organization. Conclusion: the studies investigated the relationship between the work environment and the health of flight attendants using limited approaches. No studies were found adopting an analysis methodology that had allowed stablishing relationships between determining factors of workload and their impacts on the flight attendants health.

3.
Work ; 41 Suppl 1: 3238-45, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22317211

RESUMEN

Into dangerous and complex systems with high degree of interactivity between its components, the variability is present at all time, demanding a high degree of control of its operation. Maintaining or recovering the normality, when the system is under some stress (instability) is a function of Resilience. To cope with prevention, forecast, recovery and with memory of experiences from learned lessons requires some features from the companies. This paper purposes a structure that enables the Total Resilience of a system production that defines the assignments for Workers, Designers and Management Team, according to its features and possibilities. During one year and a half developing studies on ergonomics area of a Brazilian Oil Refinery, several situations were observed and studied using Work Ergonomic Analysis. These situations show actions and strategies that workers use to maintain the system stability. Furthermore, they revealed the importance that these actions are stored in a database of learned lessons from the Company. The research resulted in a broad scheme. It places each of these groups in the process of Total Resilience. It also shows the human like a center of actions that ensure the continuity of the system, main element at Resilience (Anthropocentric View).


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Industria Procesadora y de Extracción/organización & administración , Rol Profesional , Brasil , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo , Ergonomía , Industria Procesadora y de Extracción/instrumentación , Humanos , Sistemas Hombre-Máquina , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas
4.
Work ; 41 Suppl 1: 3419-26, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22317241

RESUMEN

This research aimed to study the activity of the HLB's scouts, workers whose function is to identify symptomatic plants, in order to understand the physical constraints, cognitive and organizational involved in accomplishing the task, characterizing the operative approach used to identify diseased plants, and to elucidate what aspects hinder the identification of symptoms. The method adopted for the research was the Ergonomic Analysis of Work--EAW [6]. The results, after validation with the operators and management, allowed understanding the complex relationships between the physical, cognitive and organizational aspects present on activity. Major difficulties were observed mainly in relation to the disposal of the scouts on the platforms and in relation to working hours, at the beginning and end of the journey. Important findings have highlighted strategies, unknown by the organization, used by scouts to locate candidates' trees to the fine analysis of investigation of symptoms. In conclusion, the analysis enable to understand the constraints and find technical and organizational solutions to the survey work on citrus groves as well as it showed signs and symptoms not investigated yet or rarely considered by researchers involved on searches aimed at increasing the ability to diagnose the disease in the field.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Citrus sinensis/microbiología , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil , Eficiencia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Luz Solar , Adulto Joven
5.
Work ; 41 Suppl 1: 763-9, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22316812

RESUMEN

This paper aims to discuss the role of ergonomics in design process using the dialogue developed by designers, implementers and users in an oil refinery. It was possible to identify the need of minimizing the postural constraints, risk of accidents, mechanical shocks and to enlarge safety perception in the access and permanency of the users at the workspace. It has been determined and validated by workers and managers to implement different deadlines depending on programming, viability and execution time for the improvements proposed. In a long-term: it was proposed the substitution of the ladders with time planning according to the maintenance program of the tanks; in a short-time: it was suggested the expansion of the existing platforms, implementation of a walkway connection provided with guardrails between the upper access of the side ladder and the repositioning of radar set and aerial aiming at the usage by workers at the workstation of the new platform. It was also elaborated eight typologies of intervention, according to the request, type of tank, material stored, and its setting place. The design process arises from ergonomics workplace analysis that presents concepts for solutions which was a mediator tool to be settled between users and implementers.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo/prevención & control , Ergonomía , Industria Procesadora y de Extracción , Seguridad , Comunicación , Arquitectura y Construcción de Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Mantenimiento , Salud Laboral , Petróleo , Postura , Radar , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
6.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 33(117)jan.-jun. 2008.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-553891

RESUMEN

Construir ações relacionadas à saúde e segurança nas Pequenas e Médias Empresas (PME) não é tarefa fácil, uma vez que essas empresas precisam lidar com o provimento deficitário de informações, poucos recursos disponíveis e metodologias de ação desenvolvidas de acordo com as características das empresas de grande porte. Partindo de estudos de caso e de metodologia qualitativa, o presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar, em três PME do setor industrial, a maneira como ações de saúde e segurança são conduzidas inclusive ações ergonômicas, bem como as justificativas para sua forma de condução,utilizando, para tanto, entrevistas e questionários. A investigação comprovou que aspectos, tais como poucos recursos financeiros, pouco acesso à informação, cultura e o modelo gerencial assumido, exercem grande influência sobre a forma como as ações em Saúde e Segurança do Trabalho (SST) serão conduzidas, sendo que a Ergonomia, quando houver, será caracterizada pela condução perceptiva e informal das mudanças no local de trabalho. Concluiu-se que algumas normas e leis, assim como ferramentas ergonômicas, deveriam ser desenvolvidas e adaptadas às PME. Moldar as ações segundo as necessidades e limitações de cada empresa poderia facilitar sua utilização e assim promover uma melhora das condições de saúde e segurança nas PME.


Building actions related to health and safety in small and medium sizeenterprises (SME) is not an easy task, since these companies need to face lack of information, short availability of resources and methodologies developed for the characteristics of a big company. Based on case study techniques and a qualitative approach, the present study aims at investigating, through interviews and questionnaires, not only the way health and safety interventions including ergonomics - are carried on in three industrial sector SMEs, but also the reasons for their being conducted that way. This investigation led us to conclude that short resource availability, difficulty in accessing information, the company phylosophy and managerial model, greatly influence the way Health and Safety (OSH) actions are conducted in small companies; and changes on work place, if Ergonomics is considered, will be guided by perception and based on informality. The authors conclude that laws, regulations and ergonomic tools to fit SMEs should be created. Adapting these actions accordingly to the needs and limitations of each company would probably make them easier to be followed and, as a consequence, would improve health and safety at SMEs.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo/prevención & control , /métodos , Ergonomía , Industrias/organización & administración , Salud Laboral , Condiciones de Trabajo
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