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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 199, 2024 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355546

RESUMEN

Leadership styles have often been proven to support employees in performing their duties better and with more efficiency while enabling them to have extended organizational tenures. Staff nurses are an essential resource of hospitals to ensure proper administration and quality patient health care. The study aims to determine how transformational and authentic leadership styles affect the staff nurses' turnover intention in private hospitals. In addition, it also finds the moderating effect of perceived organizational support. An explanatory quantitative research design with a cross-sectional investigation and a stratified sampling strategy was used for the study. Data from 296 nurses from the eight chosen private hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain were gathered using a questionnaire with 24 items. Smart-PLS was employed to conduct PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling) to measure direct and indirect effects. The result indicates that transformational, authentic leadership styles and perceived organizational support significantly negatively affect nurses' turnover intention. The study confirms the negative moderating effect of perceived organizational support between transformational leadership and turnover intention and the positive moderating effect of perceived organizational support between authentic leadership and turnover intention. Managers should concentrate on the leadership style to avoid its impact on turnover intention. By considering human resource practices such as communication and training strategies to cope with the negative effect of turnover intention, organizations can enhance employee engagement, improve job satisfaction, and foster a more stable and productive work environment. The present research revealed the adverse impact of turnover intention within hospitals by examining its association with leadership styles. The research made a significant contribution to the existing literature by delving into the impact of leadership styles on turnover intention, focusing on the moderating effect of perceived organizational support. The study's findings shed light on the intricate relationship between leadership practices and employee turnover, providing valuable insights for both scholars and practitioners in the field. The study used a cross-sectional design to collect data and ensured the absence of standard method variance. The research enhanced the social dominance theory (SDT) by examining how perceived organizational support moderates the relationship between leadership styles and turnover intention.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Reorganización del Personal , Humanos , Liderazgo , Estudios Transversales , Intención , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Hospitales Privados , Satisfacción en el Trabajo
2.
Lab Chip ; 24(3): 615-628, 2024 01 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189525

RESUMEN

Excessive release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been reported in various human pathologies, including COVID-19 patients. Elevated NET levels serve as a biomarker, indicating increased coagulopathy and immunothrombosis risks in these patients. Traditional immunoassays employed to quantify NET release focus on bulk measurements of released chromatin in simplified microenvironments. In this study, we fabricated a novel NET-array device to quantify NET release from primary human neutrophils with single-cell resolution in the presence of the motile bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and inflammatory mediators. The device was engineered to have wide chambers and constricted loops to measure NET release in variably confined spaces. Our open NET-array device enabled immunofluorescent labeling of citrullinated histone H3, a NET release marker. We took time-lapse images of primary healthy human neutrophils releasing NETs in clinically relevant infection and inflammation-rich microenvironments. We then developed a computer-vision-based image processing method to automate the quantification of individual NETs. We showed a significant increase in NET release to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 when challenged with inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α [20 ng mL-1] and interleukin-6 [50 ng mL-1], but not leukotriene B4 [20 nM], compared to the infection alone. We also quantified the temporal dynamics of NET release and differences in the relative areas of NETs, showing a high percentage of variable size NET release with combined PAO1 - inflammatory mediator treatment, in the device chambers. Importantly, we demonstrated reduced NET release in the confined loops of our combined infection-inflammation microsystem. Ultimately, our NET-array device stands as a valuable tool, facilitating experiments that enhance our comprehension of the spatiotemporal dynamics of NET release in response to infection within a defined microenvironment. In the future, our system can be used for high throughput and cost-effective screening of novel immunotherapies on human neutrophils in view of the importance of fine-tuning NET release in controlling pathological neutrophil-driven inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Trampas Extracelulares , Humanos , Neutrófilos/microbiología , Histonas , Inflamación , Mediadores de Inflamación
3.
J Clin Neurosci ; 118: 16-22, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37844489

RESUMEN

This survey provides an update on the experience of Myasthenia Gravis (MG) patients in Australia. Items were drawn from the 2011 Australian Survey and a 2019 US survey allowing for comparative discussion of survey findings. Patients were recruited through the Myasthenia Alliance Australia. Following consent, patients completed an online survey using REDCap software. Questions included demographics, clinical features, treatment side-effects and quality of life (QOL) scales. Samples for completion of survey sections ranged from N = 242-280 representing a power level of over 80%. Female and seronegative patients reported a significantly greater symptom load, earlier disease onset, longer time to diagnosis, more MG exacerbations, treatment side-effects, and poorer QOL. For exacerbation management there was a higher rate of oral corticosteroid use (66%), a lower use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg, 47%) and particularly, Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (TPE, 4.5%) within this sample. Although steroid induced side-effects were rarer (9-34%), a comparatively high use of corticosteroids was reported for current and overall treatments including those for MG crises (52-83%). Common treatment side-effects reported by 57-85% of patients, included fatigue, weight gain, a decrease in the ability to fight infections, gastrointestinal symptoms, and muscle weakness. The impact of MG on daily activities and QOL was considerable, but those who had a thymectomy reported better QOL. The survey identified areas for potential practice improvement in MG treatments (corticosteroids, IVIg, TPE), particularly for exacerbation management, and review is recommended. Further research on gender and antibody status differentials regarding clinical features is required.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Miastenia Gravis , Humanos , Femenino , Inmunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida , Australia/epidemiología , Miastenia Gravis/tratamiento farmacológico , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Debilidad Muscular/tratamiento farmacológico
4.
Front Chem ; 10: 869086, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873049

RESUMEN

Total bilirubin values have been used as a potential marker to pre-screen and diagnose various liver-based diseases such as jaundice, bile obstruction, liver cancer, etc. A device known as KromaHealth Kit, composed of paper and an acrylic backbone, is developed to quantify total bilirubin in human serum using image processing and machine learning technology. The biochemical assays are deposited on absorbent paper pads that act as reaction zones when serum is added. A dedicated smartphone app captures images of the colorimetric changes on the pad and converts them into quantitative values of bilirubin. The range of bilirubin concentration that can be quantified using the device ranges from 0.5 mg/dl to 7.0 mg/dl. The precision, limit of detection, interference analysis, linearity, stability, and comparison with a predicate are studied in this paper in accordance with clinical and laboratory standards institute. The results indicate that the KromaHealth Kit can be used as an inexpensive alternative to conventional bilirubin testing in clinical settings. With its level of precision, ease-of-use, long shelf-life, and short turnaround time, it will prove to be invaluable in limited-resource settings.

5.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109392, 2021 07 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289364

RESUMEN

Chitin, a major component of fungal cell walls, has been associated with allergic disorders such as asthma. However, it is unclear how mammals recognize chitin and the principal receptor(s) on epithelial cells that sense chitin remain to be determined. In this study, we show that LYSMD3 is expressed on the surface of human airway epithelial cells and demonstrate that LYSMD3 is able to bind chitin, as well as ß-glucan, on the cell walls of fungi. Knockdown or knockout of LYSMD3 also sharply blunts the production of inflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells in response to chitin and fungal spores. Competitive inhibition of the LYSMD3 ectodomain by soluble LYSMD3 protein, multiple ligands, or antibody against LYSMD3 also blocks chitin signaling. Our study reveals LYSMD3 as a mammalian pattern recognition receptor (PRR) for chitin and establishes its role in epithelial cell inflammatory responses to chitin and fungi.


Asunto(s)
Quitina , Mamíferos , Proteínas de la Membrana , Receptores de Reconocimiento de Patrones , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , beta-Glucanos/metabolismo , Candida albicans/fisiología , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Inmunidad Innata , Inflamación/patología , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Membrana/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptores de Reconocimiento de Patrones/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratoria/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratoria/microbiología , Transducción de Señal
6.
Biomater Sci ; 8(10): 2786-2796, 2020 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091043

RESUMEN

The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in the proliferation and chemoresistance of cancer cells. Growth factors (GFs) are known to interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) via heparin binding sites, and these associations influence cell behavior. In the present study, we demonstrate the ability to define signals presented by the scaffold by pre-mixing growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor, into the heparin-based (HP-B) hydrogel prior to gelation. In the 3D biomimetic microenvironment, breast cancer cells formed spheroids within 24 hours of initial seeding. Despite higher number of proliferating cells in 2D cultures, 3D spheroids exhibited a higher degree of chemoresistance after 72 hours. Further, our RNA sequencing results highlighted the phenotypic changes influenced by solid-phase GF presentation. Wnt/ß-catenin and TGF-ß signaling were upregulated in the cells grown in the hydrogel, while apoptosis, IL2-STAT5 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling were downregulated. With emerging technologies for precision medicine in cancer, this nature of fine-tuning the microenvironment is paramount for cultivation and downstream characterization of primary cancer cells and rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and effective screening of chemotherapeutic agents.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Materiales Biomiméticos/química , Heparina/química , Hidrogeles/química , Paclitaxel/farmacología , Neoplasias de la Mama Triple Negativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/química , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Humanos , Paclitaxel/química , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias de la Mama Triple Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama Triple Negativas/patología , Células Tumorales Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos
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