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1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e176, 2022 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196874

RESUMEN

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic, infectious and zoonotic disease of domestic and wild animals caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis. This study investigated farm management factors associated with recurrent bTB herd breakdowns (n = 2935) disclosed in the period 23 May 2016 to 21 May 2018 and is a follow-up to our 2020 paper which looked at long duration bTB herd breakdowns. A case control study design was used to construct an explanatory set of farm-level management factors associated with recurrent bTB herd breakdowns. In Northern Ireland, a Department of Agriculture Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) Veterinarian investigates bTB herd breakdowns using standardised guidelines to allocate a disease source. In this study, source was strongly linked to carryover of infection, suggesting that the diagnostic tests had failed to clear herd infection during the breakdown period. Other results from this study associated with recurrent bTB herd breakdowns were herd size and type (dairy herds 43% of cases), with both these variables intrinsically linked. Other associated risk factors were time of application of slurry, badger access to silage clamps, badger setts in the locality, cattle grazing silage fields immediately post-harvest, number of parcels of land the farmer associated with bTB, number of land parcels used for grazing and region of the country.


Asunto(s)
Mustelidae , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculosis Bovina , Animales , Bovinos , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/microbiología , Granjas , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Mustelidae/microbiología , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Anim Biotelemetry ; 10(1): 10, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37521810

RESUMEN

Background: Recent developments in both hardware and software of animal-borne data loggers now enable large amounts of data to be collected on both animal movement and behaviour. In particular, the combined use of tri-axial accelerometers, tri-axial magnetometers and GPS loggers enables animal tracks to be elucidated using a procedure of 'dead-reckoning'. Although this approach was first suggested 30 years ago by Wilson et al. (1991), surprisingly few measurements have been made in free-ranging terrestrial animals. The current study examines movements, interactions with habitat features, and home-ranges calculated from just GPS data and also from dead-reckoned data in a model terrestrial mammal, the European badger (Meles meles). Methods: Research was undertaken in farmland in Northern Ireland. Two badgers (one male, one female) were live-trapped and fitted with a GPS logger, a tri-axial accelerometer, and a tri-axial magnetometer. Thereafter, the badgers' movement paths over 2 weeks were elucidated using just GPS data and GPS-enabled dead-reckoned data, respectively. Results: Badgers travelled further using data from dead-reckoned calculations than using the data from only GPS data. Whilst once-hourly GPS data could only be represented by straight-line movements between sequential points, the sub-second resolution dead-reckoned tracks were more tortuous. Although there were no differences in Minimum Convex Polygon determinations between GPS- and dead-reckoned data, Kernel Utilisation Distribution determinations of home-range size were larger using the former method. This was because dead-reckoned data more accurately described the particular parts of landscape constituting most-visited core areas, effectively narrowing the calculation of habitat use. Finally, the dead-reckoned data showed badgers spent more time near to field margins and hedges than simple GPS data would suggest. Conclusion: Significant differences emerge when analyses of habitat use and movements are compared between calculations made using just GPS data or GPS-enabled dead-reckoned data. In particular, use of dead-reckoned data showed that animals moved 2.2 times farther, had better-defined use of the habitat (revealing clear core areas), and made more use of certain habitats (field margins, hedges). Use of dead-reckoning to provide detailed accounts of animal movement and highlight the minutiae of interactions with the environment should be considered an important technique in the ecologist's toolkit.

3.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 49-52, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098415

RESUMEN

As part of a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control related Test and Vaccinate or Remove (TVR) badger research study in Northern Ireland, a project was launched evaluating whether badgers cross major roads (in this case the A1 dual carriageway linking Belfast/Newry/Dublin). This road formed the western boundary of the TVR study area and it was chosen to discourage badger movements in and out of the area. This was important in order to ensure that the badger study population was as stable as possible and also to get a better understanding of the risk of any spill over of bTB infection from the study area to the buffer area. Five badgers trapped close to the A1 were fitted with a Global Positioning System (GPS) collar in October 2017, which were set to record the badger location every 20 min between 19.20 and 03.00 h during a maximum of 84 days. Based on 4313 location points recorded, only 2 (0.05%) location points were located on the western side of the A1. Although this was a small sample, it can be concluded that generally badgers avoid crossing dual carriageways which is supported by evidence from other studies. This finding is important for informing on development of future badger intervention areas where major roads could be considered as strong borders. Furthermore, it adds to the body of knowledge in trying to understand drivers and barriers for badger dispersal behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Mustelidae/fisiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Masculino , Movimiento , Irlanda del Norte
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e125, 2021 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958017

RESUMEN

The role of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) as a wildlife host has complicated the management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle. Badger ranging behaviour has previously been found to be altered by culling of badgers and has been suggested to increase the transmission of bTB either among badgers or between badgers and cattle. In 2014, a five-year bTB intervention research project in a 100 km2 area in Northern Ireland was initiated involving selective removal of dual path platform (DPP) VetTB (immunoassay) test positive badgers and vaccination followed by release of DPP test negative badgers ('Test and Vaccinate or Remove'). Home range sizes, based on position data obtained from global positioning system collared badgers, were compared between the first year of the project, where no DPP test positive badgers were removed, and follow-up years 2-4 when DPP test positive badgers were removed. A total of 105 individual badgers were followed over 21 200 collar tracking nights. Using multivariable analyses, neither annual nor monthly home ranges differed significantly in size between years, suggesting they were not significantly altered by the bTB intervention that was applied in the study area.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos de Retorno al Lugar Habitual , Mustelidae/fisiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Sacrificio de Animales , Animales , Bovinos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Mustelidae/microbiología , Mycobacterium bovis/inmunología , Mycobacterium bovis/aislamiento & purificación , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/transmisión , Vacunación/veterinaria
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e234, 2020 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981557

RESUMEN

This study determined farm management factors associated with long-duration bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns disclosed in the period 23 May 2016 to 21 May 2018; a study area not previously subject to investigation in Northern Ireland. A farm-level epidemiological investigation (n = 2935) was completed when one or more Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Test (SICCT) reactors or when one or more confirmed (positive histological and/or bacteriological result) lesion at routine slaughter were disclosed. A case-control study design was used to construct an explanatory set of management factors associated with long-duration bTB herd breakdowns; with a case (n = 191) defined as an investigation into a breakdown of 365 days or longer. Purchase of infected animal(s) had the strongest association as the most likely source of infection for long-duration bTB herd breakdowns followed by badgers and then cattle-to-cattle contiguous herd spread. However, 73.5% (95% CI 61.1-85.9%) of the herd type contributing to the purchase of infection source were defined as beef fattening herds. This result demonstrates two subpopulations of prolonged bTB breakdowns, the first being beef fattening herds with main source continuous purchase of infected animals and a second group of primary production herds (dairy, beef cows and mixed) with risk from multiple sources.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Granjas , Mustelidae , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 170-178, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197169

RESUMEN

European badgers (Meles meles) are accepted as a wildlife reservoir host for Mycobacterium bovis, which causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the British Isles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Dual Path Platform (DPP) VetTB test (Chembio Diagnostic Systems Inc., Medford, NY, USA) within a Test and Vaccinate or Remove (TVR) wildlife research intervention project. Blood samples were collected from 456 individual badgers, trapped in 2015 and 2016, and tested in the field with DPP VetTB test using whole blood. Additionally, whole blood and serum samples were taken to the laboratory for further DPP VetTB testing and for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) testing. Swabs were taken from the oropharynx and trachea and submitted for bacteriological culture as were swabs from wounds, if present. Field DPP VetTB test positive badgers were euthanised and underwent post-mortem examination and bTB confirmatory testing. The results demonstrated that the test performed as well in the field using whole blood as DPP Vet TB tests in the laboratory using sera or whole blood, and as well as other established tests for M. bovis. Visual assessment of the DPP VetTB test using serum under laboratory conditions showed a high degree of consistency between raters. Using a relative gold standard (parallel interpretation of IFN-γ assay and oropharyngeal/tracheal sample/culture), sensitivity estimates for the DPP VetTB test using sera and whole blood were 0.5 (95%CI 0.34-0.66) and 0.42 (95%CI 0.24-0.66), respectively. Specificity estimates were 0.95 (95%CI 0.93-0.97) for sera and 0.89 (95%CI 0.86-0.92) for whole blood. Parallel interpretation of Band 1 (MPB83) and Band 2 (CFP-10/ESAT-6) of the DPP VetTB test was not superior to interpretation of Band 1 only. The results give confidence in the reliability and reproducibility of the DPP VetTB test for badgers under field conditions and therefore it is considered appropriate for use in a badger bTB control campaign.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/veterinaria , Mustelidae , Mycobacterium bovis/aislamiento & purificación , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Bovinos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/instrumentación , Femenino , Masculino , Irlanda del Norte , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e209, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364540

RESUMEN

The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test and post-mortem examination are the main diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in the British Isles. Latent class modelling is often used to estimate the bTB test characteristics due to the absence of a gold standard. However, the reported sensitivity of especially the SICCT test has shown a lot of variation. We applied both the Hui-Walter latent class model under the Bayesian framework and the Bayesian model specified at the animal level, including various risk factors as predictors, to estimate the SICCT test and post-mortem test characteristics. Data were collected from all cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in Northern Ireland in 2015. Both models showed comparable posterior median estimation for the sensitivity of the SICCT test (88.61% and 90.56%, respectively) using standard interpretation and for post-mortem examination (53.65% and 53.79%, respectively). Both models showed almost identical posterior median estimates for the specificity (99.99% vs. 99.80% for SICCT test at standard interpretation and 99.66% vs. 99.86% for post-mortem examination). The animal-level model showed slightly narrower posterior 95% credible intervals. Notably, this study was carried out in slaughtered cattle which may not be representative for the general cattle population.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Prueba de Tuberculina/métodos , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Bovina/patología , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Irlanda del Norte , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
8.
Vet J ; 238: 15-21, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103911

RESUMEN

In the European Union, the recommended ante-mortem diagnostic methods for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin (SICCT) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test as an ancillary test. The SICCT test has a moderate sensitivity (Se) and high specificity (Sp), while the IFN-γ test has good Se, but a lower Sp than the SICCT test. A retrospective Bayesian latent class analysis was conducted on 71,185 cattle from 806 herds chronically infected with bTB distributed across Northern Ireland (NI) to estimate the Se and Sp of the common ante-mortem tests and meat inspection. Analyses were also performed on data stratified by farming type and herd location to explore possible differences in test performance given the heterogeneity in the population. The mean estimates in chronically infected herds were: (1) 'standard' SICCT: Se 40.5-57.7%, Sp 96.3-99.7%; (2) 'severe' SICCT: Se 49.0%-60.6%, Sp 94.4-99.4%; (3) IFN-γ(bovine-avian) using a NI optical density (OD) cut-off difference of 0.05: IFN-γ(B-A)NI: Se 85.8-93.0%, Sp 75.6-96.2%; (4) IFN-γ(bovine-avian) using a standard 'commercial' OD cut-off difference of 0.1: IFN-γ(B-A)0.1: Se 83.1-92.1%, Sp 83.1-97.3%; and (5) meat inspection: Se 49.0-57.1% Se, Sp 99.1-100%. Se estimates were lower in cattle from dairy farms than from beef farms. There were no notable differences in estimates by location of herds. Certain population characteristics, such as production type, might influence the ability of bTB tests to disclose truly infected cases.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/veterinaria , Prueba de Tuberculina/veterinaria , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/normas , Interferón gamma/análisis , Mycobacterium bovis , Irlanda del Norte , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Prueba de Tuberculina/normas
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 146(12): 1495-1502, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970198

RESUMEN

Currently policies enabling cattle herds to regain Official Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status after a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) herd incident vary between individual parts of the British Isles from requiring only one negative single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT) herd test when bTB infection is not confirmed to needing two consecutively negative SCITT herd tests after disclosure of two or more reactors, irrespective of bTB confirmation. This study used Kaplan-Meier curves and univariable and multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard models to evaluate the effect of the number of SCITT reactors and bTB confirmation on the risk of future bTB herd incident utilising data extracted from the national animal health database in Northern Ireland. Based on multivariable analyses the risk of a future bTB herd incident was positively associated with the number of SCITT reactors identified during the incident period (hazard ratio = 1.861 in incidents >5 SCITT reactors compared to incidents with only one SCITT reactor; P < 0.001), but not with bTB confirmation. These findings suggest that the probability of residual bTB infection in a herd increases with an increasing number of SCITT reactors disclosed during a bTB herd incident. It was concluded that bTB herd incidents with multiple SCITT reactors should be subjected to stricter control measures irrespective of bTB infection confirmation status.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Prueba de Tuberculina/veterinaria , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Animales , Bovinos , Mycobacterium bovis , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Vigilancia de Guardia/veterinaria , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(16): 3505-3515, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103398

RESUMEN

Determination of the proportion of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns attributed to a herd purchasing infected animals has not been previously quantified using data from the Animal and Public Health Information System (APHIS) database in Northern Ireland. We used a case-control study design to account for the infection process occurring in the disclosing bTB breakdown herds. Cases (N = 6926) were cattle moving to a future confirmed bTB breakdown where they would disclose as a confirmed bTB reactor or a Lesion at Routine Slaughter (LRS). Controls (N = 303 499) were cattle moving to a future confirmed bTB breakdown where they did not become a bTB reactor or LRS. Our study showed that the cattle leaving herds which disclosed bTB within 450 days had an increased odds of becoming a confirmed bTB reactor or LRS compared with the cattle which left herds that remained free for 450 days (odds ratio (OR) = 2·09: 95% CI 1·96-2·22). Of the 12 060 confirmed bTB breakdowns included in our study (2007-2015 inclusive), 31% (95% CI 29·8-31·5) contained a confirmed bTB reactor(s) or LRS(s) at the disclosing test which entered the herd within the previous 450 days. After controlling for the infection process occurring in the disclosing bTB breakdown herd, our study showed that 6·4% (95% CI 5·9-6·8) of bTB breakdowns in Northern Ireland were directly attributable to the movement of infected animals.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/transmisión , Agricultura , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Incidencia , Movimiento , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(5): 995-1005, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027717

RESUMEN

Post-mortem examination continues to play an important surveillance role in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme in Northern Ireland. It is estimated that 18-28% of new bTB herd breakdowns are disclosed by the detection of bTB lesions in animals routinely slaughtered. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of different slaughterhouses in Northern Ireland in detecting bTB-lesioned animals at routine slaughter (LRS) and to apply the findings to maximize the sensitivity of bTB slaughterhouse surveillance. Univariate statistical analysis on cattle slaughtered in Northern Ireland during 2011-2013 revealed that the risk of LRS disclosure varied between slaughterhouses, ranging from 0·08% to 0·54%. Furthermore, the risk of confirmation of these LRS as bTB varied between slaughterhouses, ranging from 57·9% to 72·4%. Logistic regression modelling of selected risk factors found that the risk of LRS disclosure increased with age, and was higher in purchased animals, during winter months, in animals coming from high bTB incidence areas and in animals slaughtered from herds with a bTB restriction in the last 2-3 years. Adjusting for these selected factors, the risk of LRS disclosure and bTB confirmation changed very little from the univariable analysis, suggesting that differences in disclosure risks between slaughterhouses were likely to be due to factors related to the slaughterhouses, rather than to the risk status of the animals presented. Examination of procedures within these slaughterhouses is recommended to identify ways that could increase the sensitivity of their bTB surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Mataderos , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Masculino , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 131: 1-7, 2016 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27544245

RESUMEN

This study investigated 8058 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) confirmed breakdowns occurring in Northern Ireland during the period 2005-2010 inclusive. The methodology used two case-control studies; one determined the risk factors associated with long duration bTB breakdowns and the other with recurrent bTB breakdowns. The analyses were implemented using a generalized linear mixed model analysis with variables relating to repeated measures on herds, locality and year of breakdown included as random effects. The case definition for long duration breakdowns (n=679) was any confirmed bTB disclosure with duration greater than one year. The case definition for recurrent breakdowns (n=657) was any confirmed bTB disclosure with duration less than one year, followed by two or more bTB breakdowns within 2 years from the end of the initial bTB breakdown. In the multivariable model based on duration of bTB breakdowns, significant factors were local area bTB prevalence, number of associated cattle herds, total years restricted in the previous five years, total number of bTB reactors during the breakdown and the presence of a bTB lesion at routine slaughter (LRS). The number of bTB reactors at the disclosing test was also significant; with increased numbers associated to reduced odds of a long duration breakdown. In the second analysis based on recurrence of bTB breakdowns, high local area prevalence, movement intensity into the herd, total years restricted in the previous five years, herd size, total number of TB reactors during the restricted breakdown and presence of a LRS were all statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 144(9): 1845-56, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27245291

RESUMEN

In 2003/2004 a field trial was conducted in Northern Ireland to assess the diagnostic accuracy of six serological tests for bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus. Whereas between-test comparisons have been used to calculate test performances so far, the present study used a latent class approach to estimate diagnostic test accuracy parameters in the absence of a gold standard for these six tests simultaneously and to estimate the true prevalence, while accounting for clustering in the study population and risk factors for true prevalence. Results obtained in this study with regard to prevalence, sensitivity and specificity were largely in accordance with previous findings. Screening tests (SAT and EDTA) appeared to be the most sensitive; however, at low prevalences the EDTA and CFT showed the highest positive predictive values of all investigated tests. The specificities and negative predictive values of all diagnostic tests were found to be very high. Differences of prevalence between three groups of the study population with different risk of exposure could be attributed to the mode of sampling indicating that a more risk-based sampling will result in a higher prevalence than a cross-sectional sampling mode. Age, dairy status and history of abortion were shown to influence the prediction of the latent true infection status.


Asunto(s)
Brucella abortus/aislamiento & purificación , Brucelosis Bovina/epidemiología , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Animales , Bovinos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Masculino , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
14.
Cell Death Differ ; 22(3): 433-44, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25257175

RESUMEN

Over recent years, accumulated evidence suggests that autophagy induction is protective in animal models of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Intense research in the field has elucidated different pathways through which autophagy can be upregulated and it is important to establish how modulation of these pathways impacts upon disease progression in vivo and therefore which, if any, may have further therapeutic relevance. In addition, it is important to understand how alterations in these target pathways may affect normal physiology when constitutively modulated over a long time period, as would be required for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we evaluate the potential protective effect of downregulation of calpains. We demonstrate, in Drosophila, that calpain knockdown protects against the aggregation and toxicity of proteins, like mutant huntingtin, in an autophagy-dependent fashion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, overexpression of the calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, increases autophagosome levels and is protective in a mouse model of Huntington's disease, improving motor signs and delaying the onset of tremors. Importantly, long-term inhibition of calpains did not result in any overt deleterious phenotypes in mice. Thus, calpain inhibition, or activation of autophagy pathways downstream of calpains, may be suitable therapeutic targets for diseases like Huntington's disease.


Asunto(s)
Autofagia/efectos de los fármacos , Calpaína/antagonistas & inhibidores , Enfermedad de Huntington/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Huntington/patología , Péptidos/metabolismo , Animales , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/biosíntesis , Calpaína/genética , Calpaína/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Femenino , Técnicas de Silenciamiento del Gen , Enfermedad de Huntington/enzimología , Enfermedad de Huntington/terapia , Endogamia , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Transducción de Señal
15.
Vet Rec ; 172(12): 312, 2013 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23292950

RESUMEN

Selected demographic features and trends in bovine tuberculosis (BTB) from 1995 to 2010 are described for the countries of the UK and the Republic of Ireland, using standardised definitions and measures. All countries experienced a reduction in the number of cattle and herds and in the proportion of dairy herds, while average herd size increased. In general, the trends indicate a stable situation of very low BTB prevalence in Scotland and, over most of the period, a rising prevalence in England and Wales. The prevalence in the Republic of Ireland declined while Northern Ireland experienced both a rise and fall. Differences in demography, BTB programme structure and test results were noted, particularly between the island of Ireland and Great Britain. Further investigation of these differences may provide valuable insights into risk factors for BTB and optimisation of existing BTB programmes.


Asunto(s)
Vigilancia de Guardia/veterinaria , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Irlanda/epidemiología , Masculino , Densidad de Población , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
16.
Vet J ; 191(3): 364-70, 2012 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21550272

RESUMEN

Serum agglutination (SAT), complement fixation (CFT), indirect ELISA (iELISA), competitive ELISA (cELISA), Rose Bengal (RBT) and EDTA-modified agglutination (EDTA) tests were used in parallel on serological samples from 19,935 cattle in 301 herds. The study herds were selected according to putative exposure to Brucellaabortus with cases defined by bacteriological culture or test agreement. No single test identified all infected cattle and, at diagnostic thresholds, relative sensitivity was highest in the iELISA (67.9%) or RBT (78.1%), using bacteriological culture or test agreement, respectively, to define cases. As screening tests, the relative sensitivity of the SAT was highest (75.9% by culture or 84.9% by test agreement), with an optimal threshold of 31 IU. The relative specificity of the diagnostic tests ranged from 99.6% (SAT 31IU) to 100% (iELISA, RBT and CFT). The trial confirmed the value of the SAT as a screening test and the value of parallel testing.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas de Aglutinación/veterinaria , Brucelosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Pruebas de Fijación del Complemento/veterinaria , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Pruebas Serológicas/veterinaria , Animales , Brucelosis Bovina/epidemiología , Bovinos , Ácido Edético , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Rosa Bengala , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 151(1-2): 112-9, 2011 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21440386

RESUMEN

During 2005, a field survey of badger activity was carried out to evaluate differences between two areas with different levels of bovine tuberculosis (annual herd incidences of 16% and 4%) and to assess the awareness of herd keepers in relation to badgers. A random selection of herd keepers was interviewed and their farm land surveyed for the presence of badgers. The survey end point for each farm was the discovery of an active badger sett. Participation was very high in both areas (>80%). Evidence of badger activity was recorded on a higher proportion of farms in the area with a high tuberculosis herd incidence. However, when the difference in quality of agricultural land within each area was taken into account, a statistically significant association was not demonstrated. This suggests that the quality of agricultural land is a major determinant in the location of active badger setts. Nevertheless, the study did demonstrate the potential for increased exposure of cattle to badgers in the high incidence area. Herd keepers accurately identified the presence of badger setts on their land (positive predictive value=97%) but herd keepers reporting the absence of badger setts/activities on their land were found to be less accurate. Overall, the conclusions from this study tend to reflect the findings observed in other studies.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Mustelidae/fisiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Agricultura , Animales , Bovinos , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Humanos , Incidencia , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Hum Reprod Update ; 17(3): 383-96, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20959350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) are the classical mediators of allergy, however, their importance in the development of innate and adaptive immune responses is increasingly being recognized. Herein, the present MC literature is summarized, with particular focus on studies of MCs in the endometrium and myometrium, and their involvement in fertility, implantation, pregnancy and labour. METHODS: Recent developments in MC biology were identified by systematic searches of PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar from 2000 to November 2009. To specifically examine the role of MCs in fertility and pregnancy, we then performed a systematic review of English literature cited in the PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases, but extended the search period, from 1980 to January 2010 RESULTS: MCs can respond to immunoglobulin E-independent innate immune stimuli and are present within the endometrium, with activation and release of mediators occurring prior to menstruation and in association with endometriosis. With respect to pregnancy, MCs are redundant during blastocyst implantation and although their mediators can induce myometrial contractility, there is no epidemiological link of preterm birth with allergy, suggesting a non-essential role or robust regulation. In males, MCs are present in the testes and are increased in oligo- and azoospermia, with MC mediators directly suppressing sperm motility in a potentially reversible manner. CONCLUSIONS: MCs are prevalent in the female and male reproductive tract. However, whether MCs are absolutely required for a successful pregnancy or are fundamental to reproductive pathology, and thereby a therapeutic target, remains to be determined.


Asunto(s)
Trabajo de Parto/fisiología , Mastocitos/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Movimiento Celular , Implantación del Embrión/fisiología , Endometrio/citología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad/complicaciones , Infertilidad Masculina/patología , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Miometrio/citología , Placenta/citología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/inmunología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/patología
19.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 160(3): 369-79, 2010 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20059482

RESUMEN

The present study examines the temporal dynamics of macrophage activation marker expression in response to variations in stimulation. We demonstrate that markers can be categorized as 'early' (expressed most abundantly at 6 h post-stimulation) or 'late' (expressed at 24 h post-stimulation). Thus nos2 and p40 (IL-12/IL-23) are early markers of innate and classical activation, while dectin-1 and mrc-1 are early markers and fizz1 (found in inflammatory zone-1) and ym1 are late markers of alternative activation. Furthermore, argI is a late marker of both innate and alternative activation. The ability of interferon (IFN)-gamma to alter these activation markers was studied at both the protein level and gene level. As reported previously, IFN-gamma was able to drive macrophages towards the classical phenotype by enhancing nos2 gene expression and enzyme activity and p40 (IL-12/IL-23) gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. IFN-gamma antagonized alternative macrophage activation, as evident by reduced expression of dectin-1, mrc-1, fizz1 and ym1 mRNA transcripts. In addition, IFN-gamma antagonized arginase activity irrespective of whether macrophages were activated innately or alternatively. Our data explain some apparent contradictions in the literature, demonstrate temporal plasticity in macrophage activation states and define for the first time 'early' and 'late' markers associated with anti-microbial/inflammatory and wound healing responses, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica/inmunología , Mediadores de Inflamación/inmunología , Activación de Macrófagos/inmunología , Macrófagos/inmunología , Cicatrización de Heridas/inmunología , Animales , Antivirales/farmacología , Arginasa/biosíntesis , Arginasa/inmunología , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Inmunidad Innata/efectos de los fármacos , Inmunidad Innata/inmunología , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular/biosíntesis , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular/inmunología , Interferón gamma/farmacología , Subunidad p40 de la Interleucina-12/biosíntesis , Subunidad p40 de la Interleucina-12/inmunología , Lectinas/biosíntesis , Lectinas/inmunología , Lectinas Tipo C , Activación de Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de la Membrana/biosíntesis , Proteínas de la Membrana/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/biosíntesis , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/inmunología , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/biosíntesis , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/inmunología , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos , beta-N-Acetilhexosaminidasas/biosíntesis , beta-N-Acetilhexosaminidasas/inmunología
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 138(1): 21-7, 2010 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19480726

RESUMEN

Human cases of Q fever appear to be common in Northern Ireland compared to the rest of the British Isles. The purpose of this study was to describe the seroepidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle in Northern Ireland in terms of seroprevalence and determinants of infection. A total of 5182 animals (from a stratified systematic random sample of 273 herds) were tested with a commercial C. burnetii phase 2 IgG ELISA. A total of 6.2% of animals and 48.4% of herds tested positively. Results from a multilevel logistic regression model indicated that the odds of cattle being infected with Q fever increased with age, Friesian breed, being from large herds and from dairy herds. Large dairy herd animal prevalence was 12.5% compared to 2.1% for small beef herds. Preliminary seroprevalence in sheep (12.3%), goats (9.3%), pigs (0%) rats (9.7%) and mice (3.2%) using indirect immunofluorescence is reported.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Fiebre Q/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Cabras , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Ratones , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Fiebre Q/epidemiología , Ratas , Enfermedades de los Roedores/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Zoonosis
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