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1.
Health Promot Int ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849866

RESUMEN

Brief alcohol advice offered to patients was shown to be a clinically- and cost-effective intervention to prevent and manage alcohol-related health harm. However, this intervention is not yet optimally implemented in practice. A suggested strategy to improve the implementation of brief alcohol advice is through community actions which would enhance the environment in which primary healthcare providers must deliver the intervention. However, there has been scarce research conducted to date regarding which community actions have most influence on the adoption and implementation of brief alcohol advice. The current protocol presents the development of a package of community actions to be implemented in three Latin American municipalities, in Colombia, Mexico and Peru. The community actions were based on the Institute for Health Care Improvement's framework for going to full scale, and include: (i) involvement of a Community Advisory Board, (ii) involvement of a project champion, (iii) adoption mechanisms, (iv) support systems and (v) a communication campaign. By presenting a protocol for developing community actions with input from local stakeholders, this article contributes to advancing the public health field of alcohol prevention by potentially stimulating the sustainable adoption and implementation of brief alcohol advice in routine practice.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639280

RESUMEN

The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol for the design, implementation, and evaluation of an animation- versus text-based computer tailoring game intervention aimed at preventing alcohol consumption and binge drinking (BD) in adolescents. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRCT) is carried out in students aged 14-19 enrolled in 24 high schools from Andalusia (Spain), which are randomized either to experimental (EC-1, EC-2) or waiting-list control conditions (CC). EC-1 receives an online intervention (Alerta Alcohol) with personalized health advice, using textual feedback and several gamification techniques. EC-2 receives an improved version (Alerta Alcohol 2.0) using animated videos and new gamification strategies. Both programs consist of nine sessions (seven taking place at high school and two at home): session 1 or baseline, sessions 2 and 3 that provide tailored advice based on the I-Change Model; sessions 4, 5, 7, and 8 are booster sessions, and sessions 6 and 9 are follow-up questionnaires at six and twelve months. The CC completes the baseline and the evaluation questionnaires. The primary outcome is BD within 30 days before post-test evaluations, and as secondary outcomes we assess other patterns of alcohol use. The findings should help the development of future alcohol drinking prevention interventions in adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Computadores , Etanol , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
3.
Subst Abus ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849396

RESUMEN

Background: Screening for unhealthy alcohol use in routine consultations can aid primary health care (PHC) providers in detecting patients with hazardous or harmful consumption and providing them with appropriate care. As part of larger trial testing strategies to improve implementation of alcohol screening in PHC, this study investigated the motivational (role security, therapeutic commitment, self-efficacy) and organizational context (leadership, work culture, resources, monitoring, community engagement) factors that were associated with the proportion of adult patients screened with AUDIT-C by PHC providers in Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Additionally, the study investigated whether the effect of the factors interacted with implementation strategies and the country. Methods: Pen-and-paper questionnaires were completed by 386 providers at the start of their study participation (79% female, Mage = 39.5, 37.6% doctors, 15.0% nurses, 9.6% psychologists, 37.8% other professional roles). They were allocated to one of four intervention arms: control group; short training only; short training in presence of municipal support; and standard (long) training in presence of municipal support. Providers documented their screening practice during the five-month implementation period. Data were collected between April 2019 and March 2020. Results: Negative binomial regression analysis found an inverse relationship of role security with the proportion of screened patients. Self-efficacy was associated with an increase in the proportion of screened patients only amongst Mexican providers. Support from leadership (formal leader in organization) was the only significant organizational context factor, but only in non-control arms. Conclusion: Higher self-efficacy is a relevant factor in settings where screening practice is already ongoing. Leadership support can enhance effects of implementation strategies.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 247, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740982

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are problems that are increasing globally in both children as well as adults, and may be prevented by adopting a healthier lifestyle. Lifestyle coaches counsel overweight and obese children (and their parents) as well as adults in initiating and maintaining healthier lifestyle behaviours. It is currently unclear whether this novel professional in the Dutch health care system functions as a linchpin in networks that evolve around lifestyle-related health problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the formation and development of networks of lifestyle coaches and their positions within these networks. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, key professionals and professionals within relevant organisations in the Coaching on Lifestyle (CooL) care networks were asked to fill in three online questionnaires. Respondents were asked to indicate whether they collaborated with each of the specified professionals in the context of CooL. The overall network structures and the central role of the lifestyle coaches were examined by using network analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the networks in three out of four regions were relatively centralised, but that none of the networks were dense, and that the professionals seemed to collaborate less with others over time. Half of the lifestyle coaches had a high number of collaborations and a central position within their networks, which also increased over time. In half of the regions, the lifestyle coaches had increased their role as consultants, while their role as gatekeeper and liaison decreased over time. In most regions, the sector of lifestyle coaches had a central position in their networks in just one measurement. Other central sectors were the local sports organisation, public health services, youth health care and the municipal government. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we cannot conclude that more central and denser networks were formed during the study period. In addition, the lifestyle coaches were not often positioned as a central sector within these networks. Entrepreneurial, network and brokering competences are required for lifestyle coaches to build up denser networks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTR6208 ; date registered: 13-01-2017; retrospectively registered; Netherlands Trial Register.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Países Bajos
5.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(9): 2663-2671, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469752

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We aimed to test the effects of providing municipal support and training to primary health care providers compared to both training alone and to care as usual on the proportion of adult patients having their alcohol consumption measured. METHODS: We undertook a quasi-experimental study reporting on a 5-month implementation period in 58 primary health care centres from municipal areas within Bogotá (Colombia), Mexico City (Mexico), and Lima (Peru). Within the municipal areas, units were randomized to four arms: (1) care as usual (control); (2) training alone; (3) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a less intensive clinical and training package; and (4) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a more intense clinical and training package. The primary outcome was the cumulative proportion of consulting adult patients out of the population registered within the centre whose alcohol consumption was measured (coverage). RESULTS: The combination of municipal support and training did not result in higher coverage than training alone (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8). Training alone resulted in higher coverage than no training (IRR = 9.8, 95% CI = 4.1 to 24.7). Coverage did not differ by intensity of the clinical and training package (coefficient = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Training of providers is key to increasing coverage of alcohol measurement amongst primary health care patients. Although municipal support provided no added value, it is too early to conclude this finding, since full implementation was shortened due to COVID-19 restrictions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov ID: NCT03524599; Registered 15 May 2018; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03524599.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología
6.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e4, 2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504413

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Providing alcohol screening and brief advice (SBA) in primary health care (PHC) can be an effective measure to reduce alcohol consumption. To aid successful implementation in an upper middle-income country context, this study investigates the perceived appropriateness of the programme and the perceived barriers to its implementation in PHC settings in three Latin American countries: Colombia, Mexico and Peru, as part of larger implementation study (SCALA). METHODS: An online survey based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) implementation framework was disseminated in the three countries to key stakeholders with experience in the topic and/or setting (both health professionals and other roles, for example regional health administrators and national experts). In total, 55 respondents participated (66% response rate). For responses to both appropriateness and barriers questions, frequencies were computed, and country comparisons were made using Chi square and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Alcohol SBA was seen as an appropriate programme to reduce heavy alcohol use in PHC and a range of providers were considered suitable for its delivery, such as general practitioners, nurses, psychologists and social workers. Contextual factors such as patients' normalised perception of their heavy drinking, lack of on-going support for providers, difficulty of accessing referral services and lenient alcohol control laws were the highest rated barriers. Country differences were found for two barriers: Peruvian respondents rated SBA guidelines as less clear than Mexican (Mann-Whitney U = -18.10, P = 0.001), and more strongly indicated lack of available screening instruments than Colombian (Mann-Whitney U = -12.82, P = 0.035) and Mexican respondents (Mann-Whitney U = -13.56, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the need to address contextual factors for successful implementation of SBA in practice. General congruence between the countries suggests that similar approaches can be used to encourage widespread implementation of SBA in all three studied countries, with minor tailoring based on the few country-specific barriers.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Colombia , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240690, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079946

RESUMEN

An important determinant of alcohol and tobacco use is the adolescent's social network, which has not been explored among out of school youth (OSY). OSY are adolescents not currently enrolled in school and have not completed their schooling. This study aims to qualitatively understand how OSY's social networks support or constrain alcohol and tobacco use. Respondent-driven sampling was used to select 41 OSY (aged 13-20 years) for individual in-depth interviews in a South African urban area. The data were analysed using content analysis. Smoking and drinking friends, family close in age to OSY that drank and smoked, and lack of parental support were associated with alcohol and tobacco use among OSY. Household norms, romantic partners and non-smoking or non-drinking friends were suggested to mitigate alcohol and tobacco use. Understanding how the social network of OSY plays a role in alcohol and tobacco use is useful for gaining an insight into the profile of OSY at risk for alcohol and tobacco use. Registration of OSY youth and community-based peer led programmes that include influential OSY family and friends could be beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Fumar , Red Social , Abandono Escolar , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores , Adolescente , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438735

RESUMEN

Binge drinking in adolescents is a worldwide public healthcare problem. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions about determinants of binge drinking in Spanish adolescents from the perspective of adolescents and parents. A qualitative study using fourteen semi-structured focus groups of adolescents was conducted during the 2014/2015 school year (n = 94), and four with parents (n = 19), based on the I-Change Model for health behaviour acquisition. Students had a low level of knowledge and risk perception and limited self-efficacy. Girls reported more parental control, and when they get drunk, society perceives them worse. Adolescents suggested focus preventive actions to improve self-efficacy and self-esteem. Parents were permissive about alcohol drinking but rejected binge drinking. They offered alcohol to their children, mainly during celebrations. A permissive family environment, lack of control by parents, adolescents' low-risk perception, low self-esteem and self-efficacy, as well as the increase of binge drinking in girls as part of the reduction of the gender gap, emerge as risk factors for binge drinking. Future health programmes aimed at reducing binge drinking should focus on enhancing motivational factors, self-esteem, and self-efficacy in adolescents; supervision and parental control; as well as pre-motivational factors by increasing knowledge and risk awareness, considering gender differences.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alcohólica , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Grupos Focales , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etanol , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , España
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(1): e15438, 2020 01 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012064

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption, including binge drinking (BD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED), is one of the leading risk factors among Spanish adolescents leading to significant social, health, and economic consequences. Reduction of BD and HED in adolescents can be achieved using Web-based, computer-tailored (CT) interventions, providing highly personalized feedback that is adapted to a person's individual characteristics and needs. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of tailored BD reduction programs among Spanish adolescents are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of the Web-based, CT intervention Alerta Alcohol, aimed at the prevention of BD in Spanish adolescents. As a secondary outcome, effects on HED, weekly consumption, and any consumption were also assessed. The adherence and process evaluation were assessed. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial conducted among 15 Spanish schools was developed. Each school was randomized into either an experimental condition (EC) (N=742) or a control condition (CC) (N=505). Finally, 351 participants for the EC and 261 for the CC were included in the analysis (N=612). Baseline assessment took place in January and February 2017. Demographic variables and alcohol use were assessed at baseline. Follow-up assessment of alcohol use took place 4 months later in May and June 2017. Participants were compared according to their randomization group (EC versus CC). After the baseline assessment, participants in the EC started the intervention, which consisted of short stories about BD, in which CT feedback was based on the I-Change Model for behavior change. Participants in the CC group only received the baseline questionnaire. Effects of the intervention were assessed using a three-level mixed logistic regression analysis for BD, HED, and any consumption, and a three-level mixed linear regression analysis for weekly consumption. RESULTS: In total, 1247 adolescents participated in the baseline assessment and 612 participated in the follow-up assessment; the attrition rate was 50.92%. The intervention was effective in reducing HED among adolescents; the odds of HED in the CC was nine times that in the experimental condition (P=.04). No effects were found for BD, weekly consumption, and any consumption. Process evaluations revealed that the adolescents were satisfied with the program (68.8%), would use the program again (52.9%), and would recommend it to someone else (62.8%). Females and non-binge drinkers showed better responses in the process evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our intervention was effective regarding HED but not regarding BD, weekly consumption, and any consumption. It may be that limiting alcohol consumption to prevent HED was easier in the Spanish context than it was to carry out further steps, such as reducing other patterns of alcohol consumption. Hence, additional actions are needed to accomplish these latter goals, including community approaches and policy actions aimed at denormalizing alcohol consumption among Spanish adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03288896; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03288896. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s12889-018-5346-4.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Computadores/normas , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 130, 2019 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: School dropouts are at heightened risk of tobacco use compared to in-school learners. School dropouts are described as those not currently enrolled in school for the academic year, have not completed their schooling, and are between 13 and 20 years old. This paper examines the relationship between reasons for leaving school and past month cigarette smoking, taking into account gender differences. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse survey data (n = 4185). Geographical location was also incorporated into the analysis as effect moderators. RESULTS: Although no significant main effects between reasons for leaving school and tobacco use were found, results showed that those who leave school early smoke more. When examining interaction effects with gender, leaving school due to 'not being able to pay for school fees' was significantly associated with smoking, but only among girls residing in urban areas (OR = 0.327, p = .023). CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to understand why learners leave school and their subsequent tobacco use. This knowledge will help researchers identify and target those students that are at risk for dropping out of school and using tobacco.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Abandono Escolar/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Abandono Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
J Public Health Res ; 7(2): 1369, 2018 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581806

RESUMEN

Background: Health disparities between populations with different socioeconomic status (SES) are increasing. Although a wide variety of support service organizations and arrangements are in place, no general overview of this social network, its reach, and harmonization of services surrounding low-SES populations are available. The present participatory health research study examined the current network structure and the utility of using social network analysis (SNA) as a tool to improve service delivery structures. Design and methods: We applied a mixed-methods study design. An online-questionnaire was used to examine the relationships among organizations assumed to support low-SES individuals in the municipality of Vaals, the Netherlands. In addition, semi-structured interviews and a networking session were used to examine the current network structure and to explore opportunities for improvement. Results: The SNA revealed a weak network structure, and all interviewed professionals mentioned that the current structure should be improved. Participants indicated that a first step would be to install a central information system. Conclusions: SNA can be a useful tool to gain more in-depth insights into the relations within a service delivery network. The professionals were assisted in discovering new organizations that could help them reach low SES populations and in harmonizing and improving their service delivery.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 449, 2018 04 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618331

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Binge-drinking in adolescents is a highly prevalent healthcare problem that associates physical and mental health complications with community implications. This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of the first web-based computer tailored intervention aimed at the prevention of binge drinking in Spanish adolescents. METHODS: The Alerta Alcohol program is based on the I-Change Model. First, feedback from focus and Delphi groups are used for cultural adaptation and to obtain further information on the items to be included on the program. A pilot study is then conducted to assess feasibility and to identify strengths and weaknesses. Second, a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial is conducted to test the effectiveness of Alerta Alcohol in students aged 16 to 18 years. The study is performed in 16 high schools from Andalusia (southern Spain), which are randomized either to the experimental or the control condition (EC and CC). The EC receives the Alerta Alcohol intervention, which consists of four sessions at school (baseline questionnaire, two sessions in three scenarios: at home, celebrations, and public places, and a final evaluation). The adolescents are provided with answers related to their views of each scenario; this information is used to provide highly specific feedback regarding their knowledge, risk perception, self-esteem, attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy. In addition, two booster sessions are given at home to reinforce the previous messages. The CC just completes the baseline and the final evaluation questionnaires and then they are allowed to receive the intervention as well (as a waiting list). Evaluation takes place after four months. The primary endpoint is binge drinking within 30 days prior to the evaluation and alcohol use in the previous week. It is expected that Alerta Alcohol reduce the prevalence of binge drinking by 10%. Follow up analyses are carried out to determine the differences in effectiveness according to the compliance of the program (quality of the implementation). DISCUSSION: The results are expected to be applicable and may incorporate improvements in the practice of the Healthcare and Education Systems. If the program proves to be effective, regional and eventual national implementation should be considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT03288896 . This study was retrospectively registered on 19/09/2017.


Asunto(s)
Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Internet , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/prevención & control , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Desarrollo de Programa , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , España
14.
Int Public Manag J ; 20(3): 467-488, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880902

RESUMEN

The research reported here is an analysis of the evolution of the relationships that comprise a single public health network, focusing especially on the position of the network administrative organization (Provan and Kenis, 2008) in the flow of knowledge among a large number of organizations providing similar services. Our study examines the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC), a multi-sector network that spans the US and Canada and whose members provide telephone-based tobacco cessation services to anyone interested in quitting smoking. Data were collected using web-based surveys at three different points of time. Implications are discussed for network organizing, for both theory and practice, focusing especially on the importance of the network administrative organization in shaping the evolution of the whole network information flow.

15.
J Med Internet Res ; 18(4): e93, 2016 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103154

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). METHODS: Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. RESULTS: From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the intervention was more costly and more effective in comparison with CAU. ICERs differed for both perspectives, namely €40 and €79 from the health care perspective to €62 and €144 for the societal perspective per incremental reduction of one glass of alcohol per week and one binge drinking occasion per 30 days, respectively. Subgroup analyses showed, from both perspectives and for both outcome measures, that the intervention was cost-effective for older adolescents (aged 17-19 years) and those at a lower educational level and, from a health care perspective, the male and nonreligious adolescent subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Computer-tailored feedback could be a cost-effective way to target alcohol use and binge drinking among adolescents. Including ICBs in the economic evaluation had an impact on the cost-effectiveness results of the analysis. It could be worthwhile to aim the intervention specifically at specific subgroups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Register: NTR4048; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4048 (Archived by Webcite at http://www.webcitation.org/6c7omN8wG).


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Instrucción por Computador/economía , Promoción de la Salud/economía , Internet/economía , Adolescente , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Retroalimentación , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Países Bajos , Programas Informáticos/economía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 18(2): e29, 2016 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26842694

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking among Dutch adolescents is among the highest in Europe. Few interventions so far have focused on adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Because binge drinking increases significantly during those years, it is important to develop binge drinking prevention programs for this group. Web-based computer-tailored interventions can be an effective tool for reducing this behavior in adolescents. Embedding the computer-tailored intervention in a serious game may make it more attractive to adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether a Web-based computer-tailored intervention is effective in reducing binge drinking in Dutch adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Secondary outcomes were reduction in excessive drinking and overall consumption during the previous week. Personal characteristics associated with program adherence were also investigated. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 34 Dutch schools. Each school was randomized into either an experimental (n=1622) or a control (n=1027) condition. Baseline assessment took place in January and February 2014. At baseline, demographic variables and alcohol use were assessed. Follow-up assessment of alcohol use took place 4 months later (May and June 2014). After the baseline assessment, participants in the experimental condition started with the intervention consisting of a game about alcohol in which computer-tailored feedback regarding motivational characteristics was embedded. Participants in the control condition only received the baseline questionnaire. Both groups received the 4-month follow-up questionnaire. Effects of the intervention were assessed using logistic regression mixed models analyses for binge and excessive drinking and linear regression mixed models analyses for weekly consumption. Factors associated with intervention adherence in the experimental condition were explored by means of a linear regression model. RESULTS: In total, 2649 adolescents participated in the baseline assessment. At follow-up, 824 (31.11%) adolescents returned. The intervention was effective in reducing binge drinking among adolescents aged 15 years (P=.03) and those aged 16 years when they participated in at least 2 intervention sessions (P=.04). Interaction effects between excessive drinking and educational level (P=.08) and between weekly consumption and age (P=.09) were found; however, in-depth analyses revealed no significant subgroup effects for both interaction effects. Additional analyses revealed that prolonged use of the intervention was associated with stronger effects for binge drinking. Yet, overall adherence to the intervention was low. Analyses revealed that being Protestant, female, younger, a nonbinge drinker, and having a higher educational background were associated with adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention was effective for adolescents aged 15 and 16 years concerning binge drinking. Prevention messages may be more effective for those at the start of their drinking career, whereas other methods may be needed for those with a longer history of alcohol consumption. Despite using game elements, intervention completion was low. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register: NTR4048; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4048 (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6eSJD3FiY).


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Juegos de Video/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suecia , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 747, 2015 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26243154

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most Dutch adolescents aged 16 to 18 engage in binge drinking. Previous studies have investigated how parenting dimensions and alcohol-specific parenting practices are related to adolescent alcohol consumption. Mixed results have been obtained on both dimensions and practices, highlighting the complexity of untangling alcohol-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) whether parents' reports of parenting dimensions and alcohol-specific parenting practices, adolescents' perceptions of these dimensions and practices, or a combination are most informative to identify binge drinkers, and (2) which of these parenting dimensions and alcohol-specific parenting practices are most informative to identify binge drinkers. METHODS: Survey data of 499 adolescent-parent dyads were collected. The computational technique of data mining was used to allow for a data driven exploration of nonlinear relationships. Specifically, a binary classification task, using an alternating decision tree, was conducted and measures regarding the performance of the classifiers are reported after a 10-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: Depending on the parenting dimension or practice, parents' reports correctly identified the drinking behaviour of 55.8% (using psychological control) up to 70.2% (using rules) of adolescents. Adolescents' perceptions were best at identifying binge drinkers whereas parents' perceptions were best at identifying non-binge drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Of the parenting dimensions and practices, rules are particularly informative in understanding drinking behaviour. Adolescents' perceptions and parents' reports are complementary as they can help identifying binge drinkers and non-binge drinkers respectively, indicating that surveying specific aspects of adolescent-parent dynamics can improve our understanding of complex addictive behaviours.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Intoxicación Alcohólica/epidemiología , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Padres/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Socialización
18.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 648, 2015 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163878

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study identifies differences in socio-cognitive factors as they relate to the intention to smoke among boys and girls living in high socioeconomic status (HSES) and low socioeconomic status (LSES) neighborhoods. METHODS: A total of 1,643 children (aged 10-12 years) completed a web-based questionnaire assessing their intention, attitude, social influences, and self-efficacy toward smoking at baseline and at one year follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between intention and predictor variables (i.e. attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy). Three-way interaction terms were added to the first analysis to examine potential interactions of gender, socioeconomic status and predictor variables. A 3-way interaction effect was present, and therefore subgroup analyses for HSES and LSES boys and girls were warranted. RESULTS: The results indicated that positive attitudes toward smoking were related to the intention to smoke among HSES boys, whereas HSES girls had higher intentions to smoke if they perceived fewer disadvantages of smoking (OR: 0.42; 95 % CI: 0.22-0.82). The intention to smoke among LSES boys was predicted by perceived social norms (OR: 0.49; 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93); in LSES girls, the smoking behavior of people in their environment was most strongly related to their smoking intention (OR: 5.55; 95 % CI: 2.81-10.93). CONCLUSIONS: To prevent youth smoking, HSES boys and girls may benefit from interventions that address attitudes. Boys from an LSES neighborhood may profit from smoking prevention interventions that target social norms, while LSES girls may benefit from strategies aimed at resisting the influence of smokers in their environment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The 'Fun without Smokes' study is approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Atrium-Orbis-Zuyd Hospital (NL32093.096.11/MEC 11-T-25) and registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR3116 ).


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Intención , Fumar/psicología , Clase Social , Medio Social , Niño , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Distribución por Sexo , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Normas Sociales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Am J Public Health ; 105(9): 1814-22, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26180993

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We examined the coevolution of information sharing and implementation of evidence-based practices among US and Canadian tobacco cessation quitlines within the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). METHODS: Web-based surveys were used to collect data from key respondents representing each of 74 participating funders of NAQC quitlines during the summer and fall of 2009, 2010, and 2011. We used stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in information sharing and practice implementation in the NAQC network. RESULTS: Funders were more likely to share information within their own country and with funders that contracted with the same service provider. Funders contracting with larger service providers shared less information but implemented significantly more practices. Funders connected to larger numbers of tobacco control researchers more often received information from other funders. Intensity of ties to the NAQC network administrative organization did not influence funders' decisions to share information or implement practices. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show the importance of monitoring the NAQC network over time. We recommend increased cross-border information sharing and sharing of information between funders contracting with different and smaller service providers.


Asunto(s)
Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Líneas Directas , Difusión de la Información , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Canadá , Recolección de Datos , Humanos , Relaciones Interinstitucionales , Estudios Longitudinales , Estados Unidos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 340, 2015 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25881254

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Web-based computer-tailored (CT) interventions have a high potential to reach a large number of people and effectively change health risk behaviors and their determinants. However, effect studies show small and variable effect sizes, and these interventions also suffer from high drop-out. In this study we explored how Web-based CT interventions can be used effectively to reduce binge drinking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. METHOD: A three-round Delphi study was conducted. We invited experts to identify strategies to be used in Web-based CT interventions that can effectively decrease binge drinking in adolescents and to rate these strategies by importance. We asked to discriminate between interventions targeted for adolescents and those targeted for parents. Furthermore, we asked experts to suggest strategies for reducing drop-out and to indicate their importance. RESULTS: Important strategies mentioned by the experts were: encouraging parents to set appropriate rules, encouraging consistent communication, and training refusal skills among adolescents. Concerning the reduction of drop-out from Web-based CT interventions experts came up with suggestions involving the content of the intervention (e.g., relevant material, use of language, tailored messages) but also involving the use of reminders and incentives. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this explorative study provide useful strategies to increase effectiveness and decrease drop-out in future interventions.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Técnica Delfos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Terapia Asistida por Computador/métodos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Masculino , Países Bajos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Autocuidado/métodos
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